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, * ^• 



'XIOK e . Vb"2> 











Printed by Nichols, Son, and Bentlby, 
Red Lion Passage^ Fleet Stireet, Loudon. 
























^ « 

(JaAB, or CAB-BEN-ZOHAIR, a distinguished Ara- 
biun poety was one of the rabbis among those Arabians who 
had embraced Judaism. Mahomet, irritated by a satirical 
poem which Caab h^d written against him and his ne\^ 
seet, made war on the Jewish Arabian tribes, ia hopes of 
seijBing him and putting him, ^o d^ath. Caab, however^ 
contrived to escape his fury^^^trf^M^0«5tnet had made him- 
self master of Arabia, wheil^-iiffe^iljad tKe^ art to be recon- 
ciled to him, turned Maho&i^a^, atHd altered his poem by 
inserting the name of Abub^^^tiHh^ of Mahomet 

occurred; and as these conde^^^^did not seem to effect 
a complete reconciliation, he wrote a poem in favour of 
one of his mistresses, which was so successful that Maho- 
met received him into fri ^ndship, and bestowed on bini hi^ 
own mantle, which the caliph Moavias purchased when he 
came to the throne, and it became the dress of his siic-^ 
cessors on state oeci^sions. Caab is also said to have had 
a considerable hand in drawing up tb^^ Alqoran. According 
to Herbelot he died in the fimt ye»c of the hegira, or A. C. 
622. An edition of bis poem in praise of Mahomet was 
published under the title *' Caa)^ Ben-Zobair carmen 
panegyricum in laodem Mohammediii, &c/' Leyden, 1748^ 
4tOj with an eloge by Albert Scultens. * 

CAB AN IS (Peter John Georgc), a French physician 
of considerable efmoence^ the son of Mons« Ca1>ams, an 
able tgriculturist^ was born about 1756 ; and in his youth 

» D'Hcfbeiot-^areri.— Pryeaux'f Life of Mahomet, p. 103. «UU 4th, 
>70S, Sfv. 

Vol. Vin. B 



shewed much taste for scientific as well as polite literature, 
which he pursued with success ; although having caught the 
revolutionary phrensy, his studies became interrupted by 
his political engagements. He is said, however, to have 
had no hand in^ any of the excesses which aro3Q out of the 
fury of contending parties. He was connected with Mi- 
rabeau, and attended him in his professional capacity on 
his death-bed. He was also one of the Council of Five Hun- 
dred ; and it was in consequence of a motion maJ^ by him, 
that the Directory was dissolved. His principles, however, 
do not appear to have been much more steady and consis- 
tent than those of his brethren. He published, 1. ** Obser- 
vations sur les Hopitaux,'^ Paris, 1790, 8vo. 2. '* Journal 
de la maladie et de la mbrt de Mirabeau," ibid. 1791, 8vo. 
3. ** Travail sur I'education publique," a posthumous work of 
Mirabeau, edited by Cabanis, 1791, 8vo. 4. '^ Melanges de 
LitteratureAIlemande," 1796, 8vo. 5. "Dudegrcde certitude 
delamedecine,"1797, 8vo, republished in 1802, with tlwaddi* 
tion of the first two articles in this list. 6. ^^Quelques considera- 
tions sur rorganizationsociale en generale,^*&c. 179^^ 12mo. 
7. " Des rapports du physique et du morale de Pbomme,'* 
1803, 2 vols. 8vo, reprinted with additions in 1804. On 
the merit of this work the French critics are divided ; we 
may, however, form some idea of it from the circilimstance 
of its htiivi|3g been praised by the philosophers, and cen^^ 
sured by the divines. 8. '< Coup d'ocil sur les revolutions 
etlareforn^e de la medicine," 1803. 9, ** Observation* 
sur les affections Catarrhales," ice. 1 807. He wrote also 
some curious articles in the ^^ Magazin Encyclopedique ;'^ 
aud in the Moniteur for 1799 are many of his i^eeches in 
the legislative body. He was connected, we are told, with 
a great part of the writers and philosophers who contributed 
to enlighten the eighteenth century. During his last year» 
he inhabited a country-house at Auteuil, bequeathed him 
by his friend madame Helvetius. He died at Meulan, May 
5, 1808 ; and was at the time of his desBth a member of the 
institute, c^ the philomatic society, and of the medical 
society. * 

CABASILAS (NiLUs), archbishop of Thessalonica in 

jnhe fourteenth century, under the empire of the Andronl- 

'^B% wrote two treatises against the Latins ; the first tp prove 

that the division between the Greek and Latin churchips 

is owing in a great measure to the conduct of th^ Pope^ wbq 

* DieU Hist. 


wishes t6 tct iode|iendQntly af an oecuaienicid cooqcUi cod* 
tirary to the usage ot the diurch : the second is a more 
direct attack on the infaltibility of the Pope, and reducea 
his primacy to merely « priioacy of honour ; and be urges 
many arguments against tbe assumed power of the pope 
which are perfectly coesiatent with the opinions on which 
tbe. sefiDrmers afterwards proceeded. These treatises* Da 
Pin saijs^ are written with method, perspicuity, and learn* 
ing. They .were at first printed at London in Greek, with* 
out datey according to Du Pin, but we have not been able 
to discover this edition. They were, however, published in 
English at London, in 1 5$0 ; or at least the latter of them, 
under the title '* A Treatise containing a declaration of tbe 
Pope's usurped primacie ; written in Greek above seven 
hundred yeares since by Nilus archbidiop of Thessalonica. 
Translated by Thomas Gressop, student in Oxford," 8vo. 
There are also editions in Greek and Latin at Basil, U44« 
Francfort, 1535, and with Salmasius's notes, 1608. Our 
author also wrote a large work on the procession of the 
Holy Ghost, in the Latins*^ 

CABASILAS (Nicholas), nephew of the preceding, 
and successor in the archbishopric of Thessalonica, Sou* 
rifibed under the reign of Cantacuzenus, and had all his 
uncle^s prejudices against tbe Latins. He also wrote *^ On 
the procession of the Holy Ghost ; and an exposition of tbe 
Liturgy,'^ in which he delivers the doctrine of tbe Greek 
church concerning the mass ; and which was printed ia 
Latin at Venice, in 1545^ and at Antwerp in 1560; and 
in Greek and Latin in the '^ Bibliotheca Patrum,^' Paris, 
1624. In the same *' Bibliotheca," is also included his 
^'Life of Jesus Christ,'' translated into Latin, and sepa-* 
rately printed at lugolstadt, in 1604. A translation of his 
work '^against Usury," is also contained in the ^^ Biblio* 
theca.'* In the sciences of mathematics and astronomy, 
he is said to have surpassed all his contemporaries.' 

CABASSQLE (Philip d^) was a native of Cavailloni 
in Provence, where he became a canon of the cathedtad^ 
archdeacon and bishop in 1334. He was also honoured 
with the rank of cbaocelior to Sancha^ queen of Sicily, by 
her husband Robert, in 1341, and jointly with thatprinpess 
was regent during tbe minority of Joan her gcand*daughten 

• ' - * ' • . • 

1 Du Pin. — Leo AUatius in Diatribe cle Nili* #t eoruai scriptis. — Care, voJ. U. 
•-Saxii Ononiast. 3 it^ij. 

* < 

B 2 

^ C A B A S S O L E.^ 

In \Z66ihe was appointed psttriarch of Jerusalem, atid 
had the eharge of the bishopric of Marseilles ; and at last 
pope Urban V. raised him to the rank of cardinal^ and 
vicar-general spiritual and temporal in the diocese of 
Avignon, and wjiile the popes resided &t Avfgnon, Gre<^ 
gory XI. made him superintendant of the papal territory in 
Italy. He died at Perugia in 1372. He wrote a treatiscf 
^'De Nngis Curiaiium/' some sermons^ and two books on 
the life and miracles of St. Mary Magdalen. Petrarch was 
his particular friend, and dedicated to him his treatise on 
a solitary life ; and many of his letters are addressed to himi 
He is likewise mentioned with high praise by other learned 
contemporaries. * 

CABASSUT (John), of Aix, was a celebrated priest bf 
the oratory, who taught the canon law at Avignon, and 
died September 25, 1685, at Aix, aged eighty one. His 
chief works are : ^^ Juris Canonici theoria^ et praxis,^' a new 
edition of which was published by M. Gibert, 1 738, foL with 
notes ; an ** Account of the Ecclesiastical History of tbte 
Councils and Canons," in Latin, the best edition of which 
is 1680, fol. In the edition of 1670, 8vo, are some Dis« 
sertations not to be found in that of 1680, Few ecclesi-^ 
astics have been more praised for excellence of private 
character than Cabassut* 

. CABEL, or KABEL (Adrian Vander), a painter of 
landscape, sea-ports, and cattle, was bom at Ryswick^ in 
1631, and became a disciple of John Van Goyen, undei? 
whose instruction and example he made a rapid progress 
in his profession, and by whom his name was changed from 
Vander Touw to Vander Cabel. He copied nature and 
designed every object before be inserted any in his com- 
positions. His taste in designing animals and figures was 
formed after that of Castiglione ; and in landscape his 
model was the style of Salvator Rosa. His manner i^'great,^ 
and much after the gout of the Italian school. The touch- 
Jogs of fais trees are excellent ; his figures and animals are 
very correct, and marked with spirit. Although his dif^ 
lerent pictures have unequal merit, they are all distinv 
guisbed by the freedom of his hand, ar>d the fine touch of 
his pencil. In his colouring he was solicitous to imitate' 
the Caracci and Mola; but the beauty of his design and^ 
composition is often injured by too dark and deep tone of 

^ Moreri. * MorerM^Dupiu.' 

V A B £ Li* "B 

celouring. His etchings, of which some feWremain, are 
performed in a slight, free style. He died in 1G95.^ 

CABOT (Sebastian)i a navigator of great eminence 
and abilities, was born at Bristol about the year 1477. He 
was son of John Cabot, a Venetian pilot, who resided 
much in England, and particularly in the city of Bristol ; 
^and who was greatly celebrated for bis skill in navigation. 
Young Cabot was early instructed by his father in arith- 
.metic, geometry, geography, and those branches of know- 
ledge which were best calculated to form an able and skilful 
seaman ; and by the time he was seventeen years of age, 
he had already made several trips to sea, in order to add 
to the theoretical knowledge which he had acquired, a 
competent skill in the practical part of navigation. The 
first voyage of any importance in which he was engaged, 
appears to have been that made by his father, for the dis^ 
covery of unknown lands ; and also, as it is said, of a north- 
west passage to the East Indies. John Cabot was encou^ 
raged to this attempt by the discoveries of Columbus. It 
was in 1493 that Columbus returned from his first expe* 
,.dition; and in 1495, John Cabot obtained from king 
Henry VII. letters patent, empowering him and his three 
sons, Lewis, Sebastian, and Sainctius, to discover unknown 
lands, and to conquer and settle them, for which they were 
to be admitted to many privileges ; the king reserving to 
himself one-Bfth part of the neat profits; and with this 
single restraint, that the ships they fitted out should be 
obliged to return to the port of Bristol. It was not till the 
.year after these letters patent were granted, that any pre* 
parations were made for fitting out vessels for the intended 
voyage ; and then John Cabot had a permission from his 
majesty, to take six English ships in any haveu of the 
jealm, of the burdeti of two hundred tons and under, with 
as many mariners as should be willing to go with him. 
Accordingly, one ship was equipped at Bristol, at the 
king^s expence ; and to this the merchants of tlmtcuy, and 
of London, added three or four small vessels, freighted 
with proper commodities. 

John Cabot, attended by his son Sebastiat), s^t sail with 
this fleet in the spring of the year 1497. They sailed 
happily on their north west course, till thf? 24th of June, 
^n the same year, about five in the morning, when they 

1 D*ArgeDvi11e.-^PiIkiD5tOD and Strutt's Dictionaries. 


jdiscovered the island of BaccaUos, now much better kaown 
by ttii name of Newfoundland. The tery day on which 
they made this important disco've^ry, is known by a large 
map, drawn by Sebastian Cabot, and cut by Clement 
'Adams, which hung in the privy gallery at Whitehall; 
whereon was this inscription, under the author's picture : 
** Effigies Seb. Caboti, Angli, Filii Jo. Caboti, Venetian!, 
Militis Aurati, &c/* and on this map was likewise the fol- 
lowing account of the discovery, the original of which wa« 
in Latin: ** In the year of our Lord 1497, John Cabot, 
a Venetian, and his son Sebastian, with an English fleet, 
set out from Bristol, and discovered that island which no 
man before bad attempted. This discovery was made on 
the four and twentieth of June, about five o'clock in the 
morning. This land he called Prima Vista (or First Seen), 
because it was that part of which they bad the first sight 
from the sea. The island, which lies out before the land, 
he called the island of St. John, probably because it wa^ 
discovered on the festival of St. John the Baptist. The 
inhabitants of this island wore beasts* skins, and esteemed 
them as the finest garments.'' To this Purchas adds, ^^ In 
their wars they used bows, arrows, pikes, jiarts, wooden 
elub^, and slings. They found the ^oil barren in some 
places, and yielding little fruit ; but it was full of whitt 
bfiears and stags, far larger than those of Europe. It yielded 
plenty of fish, and those of the larger kind, as seals aqd 
salmon. They found soles there above a yard in length, 
and great abundance of that kind of .fish which the savages 
called baccaiaos. They also observed there partfidges, a^ 
likewise hawks and eagles ; but what was remarkable in 
them, they were all as black as ravens." 

The accounts of this voyage made by John Cabot, ac- 
eompanied by his son Sebastian, are, in some respects, 
involvedin much obscurity ; and Sebastian is supposed to 
have made some voyages of discovery without his father, 
in the reign of Henry VII. of which no narrations have been 
preserved. However, it appears that John Cabot, after 
the discovery of Newfoundland, sailed down to Cape Flo- 
rida, and then returned with three Indians, and a good 
cargo, to England, where he was well received. The 
discovery that he and his son had made, was, indeed, as 
Dr. Campbell observes, very important; ** since, in truth, 
it was the first time the continent of America had been 
seek! ; Columbus being unacquainted therewith till his 


last voyage, wbicfa was the year fdiawing, when he coasted 
along a part of the isthmus of Darien.'* 

Alter the toyage in which Newfoundland was discovered^ 
there is a considerable chasm in the life of Sebastian 
Cabot; for we have no distinct accounts of what he per- 
formed for the 3pace of twenty years together, though he 
probably performed several voyages during that period. 
Nor have we any account at what time, or in what place, 
his father John Uabot died ; though it is supposed to have 
been* in England. The next transaction concerning Se- 
bastian Cabot, of which we meet with any mention, was in 
the eighth year of the reign of King Henry VIII. and our 
accounts relative to this are not very clear. But it seems 
he had entered into a close connexion with sir Thomas 
Pert, tlien vice-admiral of England, and who procured 
him a good ship of the king's, in order to make discoveries. 
It is supposed, however, that he had now changed his 
xoute, and intended to have passed by the South to the 
East ' Indies ; for he sailed first to Brazil, and missing 
there of his purpose, shaped his course for the islands of 
Hispaniola and Porto Rico, where he carried on some 
traffic, and then returned, failing absolutely in the de- 
sign upon which he went ; not through any want either of 
courage or of conduct in himself, but from the timidity of 
his coadjutor, sir Thomas Pert. 

It was this disappointment which is supposed to have 
induced Sebastian Cabot to leave England, and go over 
into Spain. There be was treated with great respect, and 
appointed pilots-major, or chfef pilot of Spain ; and by his 
office entrusted with the reviewing of all projects for dis- 
covery ; which at that period were numerous and import- 
ant. His great capacity and reputation as a navigator, in- 
duced many opulent merchants to treat with him, in 1524, 
about a voyage to be undertaken at tlieir expence by the 
new-found passage of Magellan to the Moluccos ; and Ca- 
bot accordingly agreed to engage in the voyage. He set 
sail from Cadiz, with four ships, about the beginning of 
April 1525, first to the Canaries, then to the Cape Verd 
islands, and from thence to Cape St. Augustine, and the 
island of Patos, or Ge^se ; and near Bahia de Todos los 
Santos, or the bay of All Saints, he met a French ship. 
When he came to the island just mentioned, he was in 
great want of provisions ; but the Jndians treated him with 
much kindness, and supplied him with provisions for all hi« 


.ships. ^ This he returned by an act of base ingratitude, 
carrying off with him by force four sons of the principat 
persons of the island. He then proceeded to the river of 
^late, having left ashore, on a desert island, Martin Men- 
dibz, his vice-admiral, captain Francis de Rojas, and Mi- 
chael de Rojas, because they censured his conduct. He 
was now prevented from prosecuting bis original design of 
.going to tbe Spice Islands, both by a scarcity of provisions, 
and a mutiny among his men. He sailed, however^ up the 
river of Plate ; and about thirty leagues above the iHouth 
he found an island, which he called St. Gabriel, about a 
le^igue in compass, and half a, league from tbe continent 
towards Brazil. There he anchored ; and, rowing with the 
boats three leagues higher, discovered. a river he called 
San Salvador, or St. Saviour, very deep, and a safe har- 
bour for the ships on the same side; whither he brought 
up his vessels, and unloaded them, hecau£»e there was not 
much water at the mouth of tbe river. Having built a fort, 
and left some men in it, he determined to proceed up that 
river with boats, and a flat-bottomed caravel, in order to 
ipake discoveries ; for he thought his voyage might thereby 
be rendered beneficial, though he did not pass through the 
Straits to the Spice Islands. When he bad advanced thirty 
leagues, he came to a river called Zarcarana i the inha- 
bitants in the neighbourhood of which he found to be intel- 
ligent, and not unfriendly ; a«id here he erected another 
fort, calling it jSanti Spiritus, i. e. of the Holy Ghost, and 
his followers by another name, viz. Cabot's Fort, He then 
discovered the shores of the river Parana, where he found 
several islands and rivers, aiid at length came to tbe river 
Paraguay, in the neighbourhood of which he found people 
tilling the ground ; a circumstance which had not occurred 
,tp him before in that part of tl>e world. But here the na- 
tives opposed him with so much vigour, that he advanced 
no farther, though he had killed many of the Indians; but 
they slew twenty-five of his Spaniards, and took three of 
tliem, who went out to gather palmetos. 

While Sebastian Cabot was thus employed, James Gar- 
cia, with the same*view of making discoveries, had entered 
the river of Plate, without knowing that the other was 
there before him. He. had been sent from. Gaiicia with 
t,wo vessels, and came to an anchor in the same place where 
Cabot's ship lay, about jhe beginning of 1527. Directing 
his course towards the river Parana, he arrived at the fort 


built by Cabot ; and about one hundred a^nd tei) iMgues 
frooi tbis fort he found Cabot himself, in the pqrt of St. 
Anne. After a short stay there, they returned together to 
the fort of the Holy Ghost, from whence they sent mes- 
sengers into Spain. Those who were dispatched by Cabot 
were Francis Caideron and George Barlow, who gave a 
very favourable account of the fine countries bordering on 
the river La Plata, shewing bow large a tract of land he 
had not only discovered, out subdued ; and producing gold, 
silver, ahd other valuable commodities, as evidences in 
favour of their commander's conduct. They then de- 
manded on his behalf, that a supply should be sent of prq- 
visiuDs, ammunition, goods proper to carry on a trade, 
and a competent recruit of seamen and soldiers. But the 
merchants, by whom Cabot's squadron was fitted out, would 
not agree to these requisitions, rather choosing to resign 
their rights to the crown of Castile. The king then took 
the whole upon himself ; but was so dilatory in bis pre- 
parations, that Cabot, who had been five years employed 
in this expedition, being quite tired out, determined to 
r:eturn home ; which he accordingly did, embarking the 
remainder of bis men and all his effects onboard the largest 
of his ships, and leaving the rest behind him. He ar- 
rived at the Spanish court, where he gave an account of 
his expedition, in the spring of 1531. But he was not 
well received : for be had created himself enemies bv the 
rigour with which he had treated his Spanish mutineers ; 
and he had also disappointed the expectations of bis owners 
by not prosecuting his voyage to the Moluccos. Notwith- 
standing these unfavourable circumstances, be found means 
to keep his place, and continued in the service of Spain 
many years after, till at length he resolved to return agaia 
to England. What were his particular inducements to this 
we meet with no certain account, but it was probably about 
the latter end of the reign of king Henry VUI. that Cabot 
returned to England, where he resided at Bristol. In the 
beginning of the following reign he was introduced to the 
duke of Somerset, then lord protector, who received him 
into great favour, and by whom he was made known to 
king Edward VI. That young prince, who was very solici- 
tous to acquire knowledge, aad who had much more skill in 
maritime affairs than could have been expected from his 
years, took great pleasure in the conversatioa of Cabot, to 
whom a pension was granted, by letters patent, dated 

J« e A B R A L. 

• i ' 

j^hipf with which he left Portugal; and having then ?«'<>- 
ceeded to Calecut, he entered iqto a treaty witl) the 25a- 
morin or emperor, who allowed him to build a factory fqr 
, the Portuguese, and although \h^ zamorin behaved treache- 
rously afterwards, Cabral, by chastising his insolenc<3, 
finally atchfeved bi$ pu^pqse. H^ entered into a similajr 
treaty with the prince of Cananor, and in 1501 returned tp 
^Portugal vj^ith his fleet rjchly laden. Of bi^ future lifje we 
]iave np account, buthp lyrote a detail of his voyage, which 
'Ramusio translated ^njto I^lian, ancl published with some 
others at Venice. * 

GACCIA (William), an artist, known by the name of 

jMoncalvo, from his long abode in that place^ was born in 

.)5iS8 at Montebone, in ]^Iontferrat, and marks perhs^ps^ ^be 

]brightest data of Pieipontese art, thpugh lyith l^s^ qelebrity 

than merit, for no traces appear of his education : had he 

been a scholar of the Caracci, his first essays in frescQ 

would have, been made at Bologna, not at the stationary 

^chapels of Monte Crea ; his style of design would reseipble 

that of Annibale more than xhb ideal line of Ra(faelIo, qr 

.Andrea del Sarto, or Parmigiano ; and his landscape have 

Jess of Paul Brill. His numerous small Madonna^ breatbe 

the spirit of the Roman and Florentine school, and pne iu 

the royal palace of Torino seems to have issued from the 

hands of Andrea, if we except the colour, which, though 

graceful and delicate, has more of the weakness that 

marked the tints of Sabbatini and the predecessors of the 

Caracci. The powers of Moncalvo were not, however, conr 

fined to. soft subjects : the contrary appears in the church 

of the Conventuals at that place in numerous instances, and 

.still more in a chapel of S. Domenico at Chieri, where the 

Hesuscitation of Lazarus, and the Multiplication of the 

Loaves, two collateral altar-pieces, vie with each other in 

pathetic, imagery, legitimate composition, energy of ex?* 

pression and attitude, and correctness of design. He wa? 

assisted by several scholars of no very eminent note, but 

N. Sacchi of Casale, in energy of varied expression ana 

decision of pencil, perhaps excelled the master. His two 

daughters Francesca and Orsola Caccia became, under hii 

tuition, apt associates of his labours in fresco, a practici^ 

else unknown to female hands; they drew from the fathe]^ 

the structure of bodies, but not their animation : and such 


• Moreri. 

C A C C I At a 

ni^the similarity of their execution, that to avoid c^nfu* 
sioh, Francesca, the younger, maric^d her performances' 
with a small bird, whilst Orsoia distinguished her own bj $1^ 
flower; she fouTided the Conservatory of the Ursulines at^ 
Moncalvo, where, and at Casale, she left altar-pieces and* 
numerous cabinet-pictures, touched in the manner of Paul 
Brill, and strewn with flowers; A holy family in that taste 
k anfong the rich collection of the palace Natta. Caccia 
died about 1 625. ^ 

CADAMOSTO, or CADAMUSTI (Lewis), a famous 
Venetian navigator, was born about the year 1:422, and by 
his talents attracted the notice of the infent don Henry of 
Portugah This prince, animated with the spirit of making: 
discoveries^ like his father king Jphn^ resolved to gain the 
attachment of Cadamosto. He accordingly applied to him^ 
thirough the consul of the Venetian republic in Portugal^ 
niCmed Patrick Conti, for information concerning the advan- 
tageous commerce of the island of Madeira, conquered in 
1430. Cadamosto, encouraged by the hopes of profit, 
came to terms with don Henry, fitted out for him a cara- 
velte, of which Vincent Diaz, a native of Lagos, was the 
patron. ^ It sailed the 22d of March, 1455 ; and, after hav-* 
hig anchored at Madeira, they proceeded to reconnoitne 
the Canaries, the cape Blanco^ Senegal, cape Verd^ and 
the mouth x)f the river Gambia, in a second voyage which 
be made the following. year^ with a Genoese named An-^^ 
thony^ they prosecuted their discoveries as far as the river 
of St. Dominic, to which they gave that name, and from 
whence th^ returned to Portugal. He resided a long time 
at Lagos, gaining the affection of the merchants, and navi- 
gators of the place by acts of kindness and civility. On his 
return io his native country in 1464, he published the ac^ 
eount of his voyaees, which was published at Vicenza, 
under the title of "^ La Prima Navigatione per TOceano a 
l^ terre de Negri delia bassa Etiopia," 1507, 4to,' but the 
subsequent edition printed at Milan, 1519, 4to, is thought 
the best. ' 

:. CADELL (Thomas), an eminent bookseller, and a 
striking instance of the effects of a strong understanding: 
united with industry and integrity, was born in Wine-stroet^ 
Bristol, 6n tlie 27th of October, 1742, O. S. After.being 
educated ill his native city, he was apprenticed, in .1758^ 

« - •  

*   • • 

« PiUcin^tOfi'sDict » Dicu Hist.— Tiraboschi. 

14 C A D E t t. 

to Mr. Andrew Miliar, at that time at the he^ of bis f^te^ 
sion in London, afid the steady patron of Thomson, Field-* 
ing, and many other celebrated writers. In Mr. Cadell 
be soon discovered a tftste for business, a love of industry^ 
and an understanding uncommonly acute> which embraced 
all the concerns of a trade that necessarily requires more 
than mere mechanical talents ; and Mr. Millar being now 
advanced in life readily admitted Mr. Cadell into partner-^ 
ship in 1765, and in 1767, a year before his death, relin-t 
quired the whole to him. Mr. Cadell thns became, at a 
very early period, at the head of his profession, and by 
associating with himself the late William Straban, esq* 
secured the advice and assistance of a printer of corre« 
spending liberality and taste. Introduced at the same time 
by Mr. Millar to writers of the first .rank in literature, t» 
Johnson, Hume, Robertson, Warburton, Hurd, &c. he 
pursued the same commendable track, and acting upon 
the liberal principles of his predecessor in respect to au« 
thors, enlarged upon it to an extent, which, at the same 
time that it did honour to his spirit, was well suited to the 
more enlightened period in which he carried on business^ 
In conjunction with Mr. Strahan, already noticed^ and 
afterwards with his son Andrew Strahan, esq. the present 
member for Aldborough, munificent remune^tions were 
held out to writers of the most eminent talents, and^ as 
Dr. Johnson was accustomed to say, *^ the price of litera*^ 
ture was raised.^' The names of some of the writers whose 
works were brought forward under Mr. Cadell's auspices 
have already been mentioned ; nor was be less fortunate 
in the judicious connexions formed, upon the most liberal 
principles, with Blackstone, Bum, Henry, Gibbon, and 
Hiany others whose works are to be found in every library^ 
Although in success such as Mr. Cadell experienced, and 
which must depend ultimately on the pleasure of the piib** 
lie, chance may be supposed to have some influence, yet it 
is but justice to add that Mr. Cadell had acquired, by what-M 
ever means, an uncommon discernment in the value of 
books, which led him with apparent facility, and almost 
always with success, to predict the future fate of what was 
submitted to him ; and when any plan of republication was 
discussed in conjunction with his brethren, we have the 
testimony of some yet living, and of mai^ now off the 
stage, that no man could see more clearly than Mr. Cadell 
into the disposition and bias of the reading world, or dis« 

C A D E L L. IS 

play more judgaieiit in every arrBngement of editions, &c 
calculated to gratify public taste. Hence) in bis indivi^ 
dual capacity, it was universally remarked that be gave the 
largest prices for the most successfal works, and that at a 
time when their success could be only in his own contem<^ 
platioQ ; and when that success seemed to be delayed be-* 
youd all reasonable hope, even in such cases the final 
issue justified bis origins! opinion, and proved that he had 
formed it u|>on substantial grounds. 

In 1794 Mr. Cadell retired from business, in the full 
possession of his health and faculties, and with an ample 
fortune corresponding to the magnitude of the (Concerns 
he had so long carried on, and which were probably the 
greatest iu Europe ; and wi^ succeeded by bis only aon^ 
Thomas, and Mr. William Davies, who entered at that time 
into partnership. Accustomed, however, from his . early 
days to business, Mr. Cadell senior, with a laudable am-^ 
bitlon, sought, and most honourably obtained, a seat in the 
magistracy of the city of London, being unanimously 
elected, March 30, 171^8, to the office of alderman of WslU 
brook ward ; and the following year was elected master of 
the worshipful company of Stationers, whose hall he deco'* 
rated with a magnificent window in stained and painted 
glass. At Midsummer 1800, a period when party*spirit 
ran high, he was elected by a very honourable majori^ on w 
poll, wiih bis friend Mr* Perring (now sir John Perring, bart.)[ 
to the shrievalty of London and Middlesex : an office which 
he discharged with the entire approbation of his consti- 
tuents< His conscientious attendance on its duties, for he 
was never absent a single Sunday frcmi the chapel of one o6 
tlie prisons, we are sorry to add, seems to have laid the 
foundation of that asthmatic complaint^ which so fatadly. 
terminated at a period when the citizens of London, wha 
justly esteemed him as M independent, humane, and inteU 
ligent magistrate, anticipated the speedy approach of his 
attainment to the highest civic honours. A sudden attack 
of the asthma proved fatal in the night of Sunday, Dec. 27, 
iS02, to the lasting regret of a numerous circle of friends/ 
and to th^ loss of many public institutions of wliicb he had 
been an active governor, and to which he had been a liberal 
contributor. He was interred in the family vault, in tlie 
churcb-yard of Elthamy Kent ^ 

16 CAD O Gf A N 

r CADDGAN (William), a physician of considet'able note 
in London, was educated at Oriel collegCj Oxford, where 
he. took his degree of master of arts in 1755 ; end the sadie 
year was made bachelor and doctor ift medicine. He bad 
previously, viz. in 1750, published a small treatise on the 
mirsing and management of children, which was much es* 
teemed, and contributed toward abolishing some improper 
treatment, both in. feeding and dressing infants; His rules 
on this subject were first adopted by the managers of the 
Foundling hospital, and by degrees became general. His 
next publication was ^^ Dissertations on the Gout, and all 
Chronical diseases,'^ 1764, 8Vo; written in a- popular mah'^ 
ner, and so generally read, that several large impressions 
ivere sold of it. The three principal causes or Mi>urce8 of 
the gout, he says, are indolence, vexation, and intempe- 
rance. The book' was animadverted upon in eleven difter*ent 
pamphlets, some with the authors* names, and some with-* 
out, but he did not condescend to answer any of them. 
It is, on the whole, well written, and the regulations giveftf 
for the conduct of gouty patients, ' with the view of miti-^ 
gating the fit, and preventing frequent relapses^ or retumsr' 
of the complaint, are judicious, and well deserving atten-; 
tion. He was fellow of the college of physicians, and^ 
which is by no means usual, spoke tw% Harveian orations^' 
the one in the year 1764, the other in 1793. They were? 
both published. He died in his eighty-sixth year, at his 
kouse in George-street, Hanover-square, Feb. 26, 1797.* 
CADOGAN (William), first earl of Cadogan, the son 
of Henry Cadogan^ a counsellor at law, by Bridget, dangh-* 
ter to sir Hardress Waller, knt. was educated to a uiilitary 
life, and in 1701 was made quarter-master- general of tb^^ 
army. In 1703 he was constituted colonel of the Second 
tegiment of horse, and on August 25, 1701', brigadier- 
general, having that year behaved with great gallantry at 
the attack of Schellenberg, and the battle of Hocbstet.'*^ 
In June 1705 he was elected member of parliament for 
Woodstock; an d- on July 18th of the same year, at the 
forcing of the French lines near Tirlemont, he behaved 
with remarkable bravery at the head of his regiment, which 
first attacking the enemy had such success, that they de<* 
feated four squadrons of Bavarian guards, drove them' 

through two battalions of their foot, and took four standards. 


> Rees's Cjrclop«dia«"«>LysoDs*8 Environti SopplemenUFyWume. 

C A D O G A N^ 17 

He wa^ also in the battle of RamilieSy fought on Mqr 12, 
1706 ; after which the duke of Marlborough sent from hisr 
cainp at Meerlebeck, on June 3, brigadier Cadogan, with 
six squadrons of horse, and his letter to the governor of 
Antwerp, to invite hioi and the garrison to the obedience 
of king Charles III. and having reported to his grace that 
ten battalions were in the city and castle of Antwerp, who 
seemed inclined to surrender on honourable terms, the 
duke sent him authority to treat with them. And after 
some conferences, they complied, and the garrison, con-> 
sisting of six French and six Spanish regiments, were al« 
lowed to march out in three days, add be conducted to 
Quesnoy. But of the Walloon regiment, consisting of 60O 
men each, only 372 men marched out ; the rest entering 
into the service of king Charles, except some few who 
were not in condition to serve, and returned to their re- 
spective dwellings. Afterwards, towards the close of the 
campaign that year, he was taken prisoner when on a fo^ 
raging party, and was carried into Tournay, but he re- 
mained there only three days, the duke of Vendosme send- 
ing bim, on August 19, to the duke of Marlborough's camp, 
upon his parole ^ and five days after he was exchanged for 
the baron Palavicini, a major*general in the French ser-^ 
vice, taken at the battle of Ramilies. On Jan. l, 1706-7^ 
he was promoted to the rank of major-general of her ma- 
jesty's forces. On Mr. Stepney's decease in 1707, he 
succeeded him as minister plenipotentiary in the govern- 
ment of the Spanish Netherlands. And he soon after, in 
conference, brought to a conclusion the negotiation for the 
speedy exchange of prisoners<; and, having shared in the 
most difficult etrterprizes throughout the war, was consti- 
tuted a lieutenant-general on January 10, 1708-9. 

On. September 10, 1709, the day before the battle 6( 
Tanniers, near Mons, when the two armies were in sight 
of each other, and an officer from the French having made 
a signal for a truce, several of both sides met in a friendly 
manner, and the French, inquiring for an officer of dis^t 
tinction, desired him to acquaint the duke of Marlborougby 
that the marshal de Villars bad some affairs of importance 
to propose to his grace, and that he would be pleased to 
send a trusty person, to whom he might communicate the 
same. On *thts his grace sent general Cadogan to knowi 
what marshal Villars had to offer, whereby being nearec 
the French army, than otherwise he could have been, hm 


IS C A D 6 G A N; 

improved the opportunity so effectnally, that, by viewing 
their intrenchments in the corner of the wood at TaniHers, 
he directed the colonel of the artillery, whom he tocA with 
bim^ to observe where he dropped his glove, and there, in 
the night, to plant his cannon ; which, by enfiiading their 
lines the next morning, greatly contributed to the forcing 
them, and was the principal means of obtaining that vic*- 
tory. Also on the siege of Mons, which ensued, being (as 
he ever had been) indefatigable in serving the common 
cause, and going voluntarily into the trenches to animate 
the troops that were in the attack of a ravelin, he received 
a dangerous wound in his neck ; his aid-de-camp being also 
wounded by his side, of which he soon expired. In March 
1711, he was at the Hague, at the desire of the council of 
state of the States General, to assist in consulting the ope-* 
rations of the ensuing campaign. 

When the duke of Marlborough was disgraced, and went 
abroad, be resigned all his employments, choosing, as he 
had a share in his grace's prosperity, to be a partaker in 
bis adversity ; but first served the campaign, in 1712, under 
the duke of Ormond. At the accession of George I. vPn 
August 1,1714, he was made master of the robes, and 
colonel of the second regiment of foot-guards ; also envoy 
extraordinary and plenipotentiary to the States General, 
In 17 1 5, he was appointed governor of the Isle of Wight ; 
and having extinguished the remains of the rebellion in 
Scotland, he was elected a knight of the thistle in Jane 
i7l6, and on the 30th of the same month was created a 
peer by the title of Lord Cadogan, baron of Reading. His 
lordship soon after was again sent ambassador extraordi* 
nary and plenipotentiaiy to the States of Holland ; and 
arriving at Brussels, on Sept. 15, 1716, signed, «t the 
Hague, the treaty of defensive alliance between Great 
Britain, France, and the States General. He set out for 
Utrecht, on Jan. 2f , 1716, to wait on the king, expected 
there that afternoon ; who was pleased to command hi» 
attending him to Great Britain. And Mr. Leatbes, hia 
Biaje6ty''s secretary at Bruseis, was appointed to reside at 
the Hague, during his lordship's absence. 

On his return, he was sworn of the privy council, on 
Mtirch 30, 1T17 ; and in the month of July ending, was 
consHituted general of ail bis majesty^sfoot fordesttmploye4y 
or to be employed, in his service. The following year h& 
was again appointed embassador ^(.traordinary at the^' 

C A D O G A N. ' !• 

Hftgue^ where be arrived on Sept. 17, 1 7 IT; and, having 
brought his negotiations to a eonclusion, embarked at the 
Brill for England, on Nov. 7, and put to sea the same eye- 
fliog. On May 8, 1718, he was advanced to the dignity of 
Baron of Oakley, viscount Caversham, and earl of Cado«- 
gan, with remainder of the barony of Oakley to Cbaries his 
iM'other. He set out for the Hague immediately after, 
where he arrived May 15, 1718, and on the 1 8th was visited 
by the public ministers, and by the president of the States 
General in the name of that body. Ten days after he was 
at Antwerp, where he conferred with the marquis de Prie, 
governor for the emperor in the Netherlands, in order to 
put an end to the difficulties that bad long obstructed th^ 
execution of the barrier treaty ; and bringing him to com- 
ply with what was demanded, he returned to the Hague on 
June 2 following, and communicated to the States his 
transactions at Antwerp, who appeared sensible of his 
friendly ofiices, and of the great obligations they were 
under to his Britannic majesty. And having fixed for his 
public entry the king his master's birth-day, it was c6n«* 
ducted with great splendour and magnificence. He theft 
laboured with great diligence to adjust the difficulties^ 
which deferred the finishing of the convention for the en- 
tire execution of the treaty of barrier, and had frequent^ 
conferences with the Imperial ministers and the Slates 
General for that purpose. 

On Feb. 2, 1720, his majesty's full powers were dis- 
patched to his lordship, for signing, in conjunction with 
the ministers of the several allies, the treaty of quadru^^Ie 
alliance, and with the ministers of the king of Spain, the 
proper instruments for receiving his catholic majesty'^ ac- 
ceptance of the terms of peace stipulated in the treaty ; 
and for treating of a cessation of arms between the several 
powers engaged in the war ; which was not brought to a 
conclusion till June 7 following ; when the ratificatronts 
were accordingly exchanged with the minister of Spain. 
The duke of Martborough departing this life on June 16^ 
i72l2, his lordship was, two days afterwards, constituted 
general and commander in chief of his majesty's forces^ 
master- general of the ordnance, and colonel of the first 
yegiment of foot-guards, in room of his grace. Also, on 
Jane 23, 1723, he was declared one of the lords justices of 
i^reat Britain during his majesty's absence. 

His lordship married Margaretta-Cecilia Munter, daugh- 

€ 2 

to C A D O G A N. 

let of William Mtinter, coonsellbr of the court of HqU 
land, by his wife Cecilia Trip, of Amsterdam ; and by her 
left issue only two daughters ; the lady Sarah, married to 
Charles, second duke of Richmond ; and the lady Mar* 
garet, married to Charles John count Bentinck, second son 
to William earl of Portland, by his second wife. His lord- 
ship dying on July 17, 1726, was buried in Westminster* 
abbey. Her ladyship survived him till August, 1749, when 
she departed this life at the Hague, from whence her 
corpse was brought the next month, and interred by his 
lordship's in Westminster-abbey. As they left no male 
issue, the titles of viscount and earl became extinct, and 
the barony of Oakley devolved on Charles, his brother, 
second lord Cadogan, who died in 1776.^ 

CADOGAN (William Bromley), grand nephew. of 
the preceding, and second son of Charles Sloan Cadogan, 
third baron, and first earl Cadogan of the. new creation 
(1800), was born Jan. 22, 1751, at his father's hause in Bru- 
.ton*street, and was educated at Westminster-school, whence 
he was removed to Christ church college, Oxford, where 
he took the degree of B. A. At this university, he distin- 
guished himself by obtaining several prizes for' classical 
learning, and by a diligent application to the study of the 
holy scriptures. In 1774, the vicarage of St. Gileses, 
Keading, became vacant, by the death of the rev. William 
Talbot, a very popular preacher of Calvinistic principles, 
and was conferred on Mr. Cadogan, unsolicited, in the fol^ 
lowing manner. Lord Bathursjt, who was then chancellor^ 
called at lord Cadogan's house in Privy Gardens, and de- 
sired to see him. Lord Cadogan was not at home ; and 
the servants, seeing lord Bathurst plainly dressed, admitted 
him no farther than the hall, on the table of which he wrote 
a note, requesting lord Cadogan to accept the vicarage pf 
St, Giles's for his son. The offer of so valuable a prefer- 
ment, and so near to the family seat at Cayersham, was 
peculiarly acceptable to lord Cadogan : but his son not 
being in priest's orders, it was held by sequestration till 
he was ordained priest in 1775. Soon after, he was pre- 
sented by lord Cadogan to the rectory of Chelsea, but as 
he could not hold two livings without being a master pf 
arts, that degree was conferred upon him by archbishop 
Cornwallis ; and in the following year, being then of suf* 

I Collins's Peerage, by Sir £. Brydges. 

C A D O G A N. 21 

ficient stmnding in the university^ he was regularly ad- 
mitted to the same degree ot Oxford. 

The parishioners of St. Giles's were deeply affected by 
the death of Mr. Talbot, and equally grieved at the ap- 
pointment of his successor; and their only hopes were, that 
as he was a youth of noble family, he would have no incli- 
nation to do the duties himself, and might, perhaps, con- 
tinue Mr. Halward as curate, who had been appointed to 
that office by Mr. Talbot, and was highly acceptable to 
them. Upon a petition, however, being presented to Mr. 
Cadogan in favour of Mr. Halward, he rejected it with the 
strongest marks of disapprobation, and the congregation 
that usually met in St. Giles dispersed themselves among 
the dissenting meetings, and some of them went so far as 
to erect a meeting in lady Huntingdon's connection. On 
this occasion several letters passed between Mr. Cadogan 
and Mrs. Talbot, whose house was opened for religious 
exercises. At first he was highly offended ; but at length* 
his views of religious doctrines became materially altered, 
and he attained before his death a popularity equal, or 
rather superior, to that of his predecessor, and a cor- 
responding change took place in his manner and habits. 
He had usually divided his time between Reading and 
Chelsea; but finding his labours there attended with lit- 
tle or no success, and having been prevailed upon to let 
the rectory-house, he left that populous parish to the care 
of his curate, the rev. Erasmus MiddJeton, except at the 
season of Lent, and of the monthly sacrament. At Read- 
ing, besides preaching on Sundays, morning and evening, 
he preached on Thursday evenings; and on Tuesday even- 
ings he prayed and expounded the scriptures in his own 
house; but finding the number of his hearers too large, 
he removed this instructive exercise into the chancel. He 
also instituted four Sunday schools, in which upwards of 
120 poor children were instructed. These schools he con- 
stantly attended, encouraging those who made the greatest 
improvement, by presents of money or books ; and sup- 
plying every deficiency in the collections of the parishion- 
ers at his own ex pence. He was usually in his study by 
six o'clock, and devoted the greater part of his mornings 
to reading the scriptures in the original languages ; the ' 
remainder he employed in exercise, or in visiting the sick 
and poor. He passed much time in secret prayer, and 
has been frequently surprised on his knees by his servant. 

09 C A D O O A N. 

when the family bad retired to rest. His generosity and 
charity were truly great ; nor could an object of distress 
l>e mentioned to him by any of his congregation without 
experiencing his liberality. Many clergymen, in circum-^ ^ 
stances of indigence or s^iction, have received assistance 
from him, which was conveyed in the most private way. 
He had great politeness in his manners and behaviour : in 
bis conversation, the scholar, the gentleman, and the Chris* 
tian were united. In the pulpit, he endeavoured to reform 
the sinner, and display to all men the blessings of salva* 
tion. His voice was not pleasing, but his delivery was 
forcible ; and he commanded attention by the earnestness 
with which he impressed iipon his bearers the sublime 
truths of the gospel. Amidst these Christian duties, Mr« 
Cadogan was seized on a Thursday evening after his lec« 
ture, with an inflammation in his bowels, which, after a 
short interval of relief, proved fatal Jan. 18, 1797. 

Mr. Cadogan's publications consist of several single ser« 
inons preached on various occasions ; and after his death 
were published ^^ Discourses, &c. Leitters, and Memoirs 
of his. Life, by Richard Cecil, A.M." 1798, 8vo.* 

CiBLIUS (AuRELiANUs), or, as some have called hiroi 
I^ucius CsbUus Arianus, an ancient physician, and the only 
one of the sect of the methodists of whom we have any 
remains, is supposed to have been a native of Sicca, a 
town of Numidia, in Africa. This we learn from the elder 
Pliny ; and we might almost have collected it, without any 
information at all, from his style, which is very barbarous, 
and much resenibling that of the African writers. It is 
half Greek, half Latin, harsh, and difficult ; yet strongs 
masculine, and his works are valuable for' the matter they 
contain* He is frequently very acute and smart, especially 
where he exposes the errors of other physicians ; and al- 
ways nervous. What age Caelius Aurelianus flourished in 
we caanot determine, there being so profound ' a silence 
about it amongst the ancients ; but it is very probable that 
be lived before Galen, since it is not conceivable that he 
should mention, as he does, all the physicians before him, 
great as well as small, and yet not make the least mention 
of Galen. Le Clerc places him in the fifth century. He 
was not only a careful imitator of Soranus, but arlso a 
ftrenuous advocate for him. He had read over very dill* 

1 Coates's Histoty of Reading.— 'Memoini as above. 

C £ L I U & it 

gently the ancient physicians of all the sects : and we are 
obliged to him for the knowledge of many dogmas, which 
are not to be found but in his books ** De celeribus et 
turdis passionibtts." The best edition of these books is 
that published at Amsterdam, 1722, in 4to. He wrote, as 
he himself tells us, several other works; but they are all 
perished. This, however, which has escaped the ruins of 
time and barbarism, is highly valued, as being the only 
monument of the Medicina methodica which is extant. He 
is allowed by all te be judicious in the history and descrip- 
tion of diseases 

. CAESALPINUS (Andkbw), an eminent botanist and 
physician, was bom at Arezzo, in the district of Florence, 
in 1519, He was educated under Luke Ghinus, super* 
intendani of the public garden at Pisa, where he appears 
to have acquired his taste for botanical pursuits. There 
abo he was appointed first professor of physic and botany 
in the university, and afterwards fifst physician to pope 
Clement VIU. a promotion which required his residence at 
Rome, where be died in 1603. He described, says Dr. 
Pulteney, with exquisite skill, 'the plants of his own coun- 
try, and left an herbarium of 768 species. He extended 
Gesner's idea, and commenced the period of systematic 
arrangement. In his ^< Libri XVI de Plantis,** .published 
in 1583, at Florence, he has arranged upwards of 800 
plants into classes, founded, after the general division of 
the trees from herbs, on characters drawn from the fruit 
particularly, from the number of the capsules and cells ; 
the number, shape, and disposition of the seeds ; and from 
the situation of the corculum, radicle, or eye of the seed, 
which he raised to great estimation. The orders, or sub- 
divisions, are formed on still more various relations. On 
the other hand, the biographer of Linnseus remarks, that, 
though hi9 genius was inventive, his knowledge of botany 
was neither original nor universal. He missed both leisure 
and opportunity. Clusius had discovered more fresh plants 
than he ever was acquainted with. His herbal did not con- 
tain nine hundred species, a fact fully proved by the Flo- 
rentine botanist Micheli, who had it in his possession. A 
provision of this kind was too small to give a eomprehen- 
aive view of botany, and the knowledge which Csesalpinus 
acquired of the internal structure of plants was too defective 

1 LeCierc Hist de Med.—Haller Bibl. Med. Pract. 

U' C A E S A L P I N U S. . 

to point out the most perfect order. He was only directed 
Vythe fruit, and mostly by that part on whic^ the shoots or 
germing repose. This system had its defects, but it brought 
CsBsalpinus much nearer to the truth, and he discovered more 
real similarities, more natural classes, than all the botanists 
who preceded, and many who followed him. His specula* 
tions in anatomy are still more ingenious. He describes 
very clearly the circulation of the blood through the heart,- 
and was acquainted with the uses of the valves. Douglas 
thinks him entitled to equal praise with Harvey, who only com- 
pleted what he had nearly achieved. He clearly, Douglas- 
says, diescribes the contraction and dilatation of the heart, 
which is shewn from the following passage from his fourth' 
book *' Question urn Peripateiicarum." ** The lungs,'* he 
says, ^^ drawing the warm blood through a vein (the pul- 
i»onary artery) like the arteries, out of the right ventricle 
of the heart, and returning it by an anastomosis to the 
venal artery (the pulmonary vein) which goes to the left 
ventricle of the heart, the cool air being in the mean time' 
l<at in through the canals of the aspera arteria, which are 
extended along the venal artery, but do not communicate 
^ith it by inosculations, as Galen imagined, cools it only 
by touching. To this circulation of the blood out o^ the' 
right Ventricle of the heart through the lungs into its left 
ventricle, what appears upon jdissection answers very w^ll : 
fbr there are two vessels which end in the right ventricle^ and' 
two in the left : but one only carries the blood in, the other 
seltids it out, the membranes being contrived fpr that pur-' 
prose.'^ His works on the practice of medicine have also 
their portion of merit. '< Questionum Medicarum Libri' 
ir. ;" *^ De Facultatibus Medicamentorum Libri duo," Venet. 
1593, 4t6; *^ Speculum Artis Medicae HippocraticoB, ex- 
hlbens dignoscendos curandosque morbos, in quo multa vi-' 
suntur, quffi a praecls^rissimis medicis intacta relicta erant,'* 
Lyons, 1601-2-3, 3 ypls. 8vo. * 

CiESAR (Julius), the illustrious Ron(ian general and 
historian, was of the family of the Julii, who pretended- 
they were descended from Venus by iEneas. The descen- 
dants of Ascanius son of MneBs and Creusa, and surnamed 
Julius, lived at Alba till that city was ruined by Tulliis 
I^ostilius, king of Rome, who carried them to Rome, where 

i HMIier and Manget. — Pulteuey's Botany.— StO€Ver'8 Life of Uonsos^ p. $0, 
— QcB. Diet.— Freheri Theatnun. 

C ^ S A R, 95 

tibey flourished. We do not find that they produced mora 
than two branches. .The first bore the name of Tuiius, the 
other that of Caesar. The most ancient of the Csesacs were 
those who were in public employments in the 1 1th year of 
the first Punic war. After that time we find there was al- 
ways some of that family who enjoyed public offices in the 
commonwealth, till the time of Caius Julius Csesar, the 
subject of this article. He was born at Rome the 12th of 
the month Quintilis, year of the city 653, and lost his 
father anno 669, and the year after he was made priest of 
Jupiter. Sylla was aware of his ambition, and endeavoured 
to remove him ; but Cee$ar understood his intentions, and^ 
to avoid discovery, changed every day his lodgings. He 
was received into Sylla's friendship some time after ; and 
the dictator told those who solicited the advancement of 
young Caesar, that they were warm in the interest of a man 
who would prove some day or other the ruin of their 
country and of their liberty. When Caesar went to finish: 
his studies at Rhodes, unde/ Apoilonius Molo, he was* 
seized by pirates, who offered him his liberty for thirty, 
talents. He gave them forty, and threatened to revenge 
their insults ; and he no sooner was out of their power than 
he armed a ship, pursued them, and crucified them all,. 
His eloquence procured him friends at Rome; and the> 
generous manner in which he lived, equally served to pro* 
mote his interest. He obtained the office of high priest at 
the death of Metellus ; and after he had passed through thd 
inferior employments of the state, he was appointed over^ 
Spain, where be sigpalized himself by his valour and in* 
trigues. At his return to Rome he was made consul, and 
soon after he effected a reconciliation between Crassus and- 
Pompey. He was appointed for the space of five yearn 
over the Gauls, by the interest of Pompey, to whom he 
had given his daughter Julia in marriage. Here he eiv» 
larged the boundaries of the Roman empire by conquest,, 
and invaded Britain, which was then unknown to the Ro- 
man people. He checked the Germans, and soon after 
had his government over Gaul prolonged to five other 
years, by means of his friends at Rome* The death of 
Julia and of Crassus, the corrupted state of the Roman 
senatje, and the ambition of Caesar and Pompey, soon be« 
came the causes of a civil war. Neither of these celebrated 
Romans would suffer a superior, and the smallest matters 
were sufficient ground for unsheathing the sword. CaesarV 

f « ^ M s An. 

petitions were receiired with coldness or indifference by 
the Roman senate ; and by the influence of Pompey, a 
decree was passed to strip him of his power. Antony, who 
opposed it as tribune, fled to Ca&sar's camp wjth the news; 
and the ambitious general no sooner hea^d this, than he 
made it a plea of resistance. On pretence of avenging 
the violence which had been offered to the sacred office of 
tribune in the person of Antony, he crossed the Rubicon, 
which was the boundary of his province. The passage of 
tJie Rubicon was a declaration of war, and Csesar entered 
Italy sword in band. Upon this, Pompey, with all the 
friends of liberty, left Rome, and retired to Dyrrachium ; 
dnd C^Bsar, after he had subdued all Italy, in sixty days^ 
entered Rome, and provided himself with money from the 
public treasury. He went to Spain, where he conquered 
Ae partizans of Pompey, under Petreius, Afranius, and 
Varro ; and at his return to Rome was declared dictator, 
and soon aifter consul. When he left Rome he went in 
quest of Pompey, observing that he was marching against 
a general without troops, after having defeated troops 
without a general in Spain. In the plains of Pharsalia^ 
B. C. 48, the two hostile generals engaged. Pompey was 
conquered, and fled into Egypt, where he was basely mur« 
dered. Ceesar, after he had made a noble use of victory, 
pursued his adversary into Egypt, where he sometime 
forgot his fame and character in the arms of Cleopatra, by 
whom he had a son. His danger was great while at Alex- 
aiodria ; but he extricated himself with wonderful success, 
and made Egypt tributary to his power. After several 
conquests in Africa, the defeat of Cato, Scipio, and Juba, 
and that of Pompey's sons in Spain," he entered Rome, 
and triumphed over five different nations, Gaul, Alexan- 
dria, Potitus, Africa, and Spain, and was created perpe- 
tual dictator. But now his glory was at an end, his un- 
common success created him enemies, and the chiefest of 
the senators, among whom was Brutus his most intimate 
friend, conspired against him, and stabbed him in the se- 
nate house on the ides of March. He died, pierced with 
twenty-thi^ee wounds, the 1 5th of March, B. C. 44, "in the 
£ifty.sixth year of his age. Casca gave him the first Wow, 
and immediately he attempted to make some resistance ; 
but when he saw Brutus among the conspirators, he sub- 
mitted to his fate, and fell down at their feet, muffling up 
Bis mantle, and exclaimi-ng, " Tu quoque Brute !'* Csesar 


C M S AIL n 

Dtitgbt have escaped the svrord of the cdiitpiralor^ i£ b^ bid 
listened to the advice of his wife Calpurnia, whose dreamsi 
on the night previous to the day of his murder, were 
alarming. He also received, as he went to the senate* 
bouse, a paper from Artemidorus, which discovered the 
whole conspiracy to him ; but he neglected the reading of 
what might have saved his life. When he was in his firsfc 
campaign in Spain, he was observed to g^ze at a statue of 
Alexander, and even he shed tears at the recollection that 
that hero had conquered the world at an age in which be 
himself had done nothing. The learning of Cwsar deserves 
commendation, as wdl as his military character. He te* 
formed the calendar. He wrote bis commentaries on the 
Gallic wars on the spot where he fought his battles, and 
the composition has been admired for the elegance as well 
as the correctness of its style* This valuable book was 
nearly lost; and when Csesar saved bis life in the bay of 
Alexandria, he was obliged to swim from his ship, with h^ 
arms in one hand and his commentaries in the other. Be* 
sides the Gallic and civil wars, he wrote other pieces which 
are now lost. The history of the war in Alexandria and 
Spain is attributed to him, and by others to Hirtius. 
Cffisar has been blamed for his debaucheries and ex* 
pences, and the. first year he had a public office, his debts 
were rated at 830 talents, which his friends distcharged i 
yet, in his public character, he must be reckoned one of 
the few heroes that rarely make their appearance among 
mankind. His qualities were such, that in every battle he 
could not be but conqueror, and in every republic, master; 
and to his sense of his superiority over the rest of the worlds 
or to his ambition, we are to attribute his saying, that he 
wished rather to be first in a little village, than second at 
Rome. It was after his conquest over Pharnaces in one 
day, that he made use of these remarkable words, to ex-* 
press the celerity of his operations, " Veni, vidi, vici.^ 
Conscious of the services of a man, who. m the intervals of 
peace beautified and enriched the capital of his country 
with public buildings, libraries, and porticoes, the senate 
permitted the dictator to wear a laurel crown on his bald 
bead ; and it is said, that, to reward his benevolence, they 
were going to give hiih the title or auttKurity of king all 
over the Roman empire, except Italy, when be was mur- 
dered. In his private character, CsBsar has been accused 
of seducing one of the Vestal virgins^ and suspected of 


being privy to Catiline's conspiracy ; and it was his fond- 
ness for dissipated pleasures, which made his country- 
men say, that he was the husband of ail the women 
at Rome. It is said that he conquered 300 . nations, 
took 800 cities, and defeated three millions of men, one 
of which fell in the field of battle. Pliny says, that be 
could employ at the same time, his ears to listen, his 
eyes to read, bis hand to write, and his mind' to die-* 
tate. His death was preceded, as many authors mention^ 
by uncommon prodigies ; and immediately after his death,' 
a large comet made its appearance. Cassar when young, 
was betrothed to Cpssutia, a rich heiress, whom he dis« 
missed to marry Cornelia, the daughter* of Cinna, by whom 
he had Julia. His attachment to Cornelia was so great, 
that he never could be prevailed upon by the arts or threats 
of Sylla to divorce her; but her attachment he baldly 
preferred to his own personal safety. After her early 
death, which he lamented with great bitterness of grief, he 
married Pompeia, the grand-daughter of Sylia; and for 
bis fourth wife he took Calpurnia, the daughter of the 
consul Piso, a connection formed from political motives. 
The best editions of Ceesar's Commentaries, are the mag- 
nificent one by Dr. Clarke, Lond. 1712, fol. ; that of Cam*- 
bridge, with a Greek translation, 1727, 4to ; that of Ou- 
dendorp, 2 vols. 4t09 L. Bat. 1737 ; that of Elzevir, 8vo, 
L. Bat. 1635 ; that of Homer, London, 1790, 2 vols. 8vo ; 
and of Oberlin, Leipsic, 1 805, 8 vo. * 

CiESAR (Julius), a learned civilian, was born near 
Tottenham, in Middlesex, in 15S7. His father was Caesar 
Adelmar, physician to queen Mary and queen Elizabeth; 
lineally descended from Adelmar count of Genoa, and ad- 
miral of France, in the year 806, in the reign of Charles 
the Great. This Csesar Adelmar's mother was daughter to. 
the duke de Cesarini, from whom he had the name of 
Csesar ; which name Mary I. queen of England, ordered 
to be continued to his posterity ; and his father was Peter 
Maria Dalmarius, of the city of Trevigio in Italy, LL. D-. 
sprung from those of his name living at Cividad del Friulii 
Julius, who is the subject of this article, had his education in 
the university of Oxford, where he took the degree of B. A. 
May 17, 1 575, as a member of Magdalen hall. Afterwards 
be went and studied in the university of Paris ; where, ia 

' The life of Cesar properly belongs to history, and is detailed at great length 
ID every Roman histo y, particularly Hooke's and the Universal History. For 
%$ above sketch we are indebted to Dr. Lempriere. 

C iE S A R. ^9 

the beginning of 1581, he was created D. C. L. and had 
letters testimonial for it, under the seal of that university, 
dated the 22d of April, 1581.. He was admitted to the 
same degree at Oxford, March the 5th, 1583; and also 
became doctor , of the canon law. In the reign of queen Eli- 
zabeth, he was master of requests, judge of the high court 
of admiralty, and master of St Catherine's hospital near 
the Tower. On the 22d of January, 1595, he was present 
at the confirmation of Richard Vaughan, bishop of Bangor, 
in the church of St. Mary-le-^Bow, London. . Upon king 
James's accession to the throne, having before distinguished 
himself by bis merit and abilities, he was knighted by that 
prince, at Greenwich, May 20, 1603. He was also con- 
stituted chancellor and under-treasurer of the exchequer ; 
, and on the 5th of July, 1607, sworn of his majesty's privy 
council. January. 16tb, in the eighth of king James I. be 
obtained a reversionary grant of the ofEice of master of the 
rolls after sir Edward Phillips, knight ; who, departing this 
life September 11, 1614, was succeeded accordingly by 
sir Julius, on the 1st of October following ; and then he 
resigned bis place of chancellor of the exchequer. la 
;1613 be was one of the commissioners, or delegates em*- 
ployed in the business of the divorce between the earl of 
JEssex and his countess ; and gave sentence for that divorce. 
About the same time, he built a chapel at bis house,, on 
the north side of the Strand^ in London, w;hich was conse^* 
erated, May 8, 1614. As he had been privy-counsellor 
to king James I. so was he also to his son king Charles I. ; 
and appears to have been custos rotulorum of the county 
of Hertford. We are likewise informed by one author^ 
that he was chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster. After 
having thus passed through many honourable employment^ 
and continued in particular, master of the rolls for above 
twea;ity years, be departed this life April 28, 1636, in the 
seventy-ninth year of his age. He lies buried in the church 
of Great St. > Helen's within Bishopgate, London, under 
a fair, but uncommon monument, designed by himself; 
being in form of a. deed, and made to resemble a ruffled 
' parchment, in allusion to his ofKce as master of the rolls. 
With regard to his character, he was a man of great gra* 
vity and integrity, and remarkable for his extensive bounty 
and charity to all persons of worth, or that were in want : 
so that he might seem to be almoner->general of the nation. 
Fuller giv^s the following instance of his uncommon charity : 
^^ A gentleman once borrowing bis coach (which was i^jj^ 

scr e iE 8 A R. 

well known to poor people as any hospital in Engiand) 
was so rendezvouzed about with beggars in London, that 
it oost him all the money in his purse to satisfy their im-» 
portunity, so that be might have hired twenty coaches oa 
the same terms/' He entertained for s6nie time in his 
ho«ise the most illustrious Francis lord Bacon, viscount 
St. AU>an*s.' He made his grants to all persons double 
kindnesses by expedition, and cloathed (as one expresses 
it) bis very denials in such robes of courtship, that it was 
not obviously discernible, whether the request or denial 
were oaost decent. He had also this peculiar tohimself^ 
that he was very cauCious of promises, lest falling to an 
incapacity of performance he might forfeit bis reputationf, 
and multipl^y his certain enemies, by his design of creating 
uncertain friends. Besides, be observed a sure principle 
of rising, namely, that great persons esteem better of such 
they have done great courtesies to, than those they have 
received great civilities from ; looking upon this as their 
disparagement, the ot^r as their glory. 

Besides sir Julius, Csesar Adelmar had two sons that 
w^re eminent in their way. His second son, sir Thomas 
Caesar, was one of the barons of the exchequer* And his 
third son, Henry Csesar, educated in Baliol college, and 
St. Edmund Hall, Oxon, became prebendary of Westmin- 
Bter in the second stall, in September 1609, which be re- 
signed the latter end of 1625; and dean of Ely in 1614. 
He died at Ely the 27th of June, I6816, aged seventy- 
two, and was huried on the nortii side of the presbjrtery of 
ifae cathedral. He founded two scholarships and two fel- 
lowships in Jesus coliege, Cambridge, to be elected from 
the king's free^school at Ely, and gave a noble benefaction 
to tAie choir, &c. of Ely cathedral, but his nephew and 
executor having heem prevailed upon to lend the principal 
money of these benefactions, the whole was lost both to 
the cathedral and the college. 

In December 1757, sir Julius Caesar's collection of ma- 
nuscripts, which had long been preserved in the family, 
was sold by public auction by Sam. Paterson. By th^ 
lapse of time and the decay of the family, they had fallen * 
into the hands of some uninformed ^persons, and were on 
the point of being sold by weight tp a cheesemonger, as 
waste-paper> for the siim often pounds ; but some of them 
happened to be shewn to Mr. Paterson, who instantly dis* 
covered their yalue. He then digested a masterly cata« 

• C iB S A R. %k 

Segue of the whole coUectien, and distributing it ia several 
thousands of the most singular and interesting heads, 
caused them to be sold by auction, which produced 356/. 
Many of them were in the library of the late marquis^ 
of Lansdowne, and are now, consequently, in the British 
jnuseum. ' 

CAGLIARI (Paul), a celebrated artist, called PAUI4 
Veronese, the great master of what is called the orna^ 
vaental style, was born at Verona in 1530, and was tha 
disciple of Antonio Badile. When young, in concurrency 
with Batista del Moro, Domenico Brusasoroi, and Paol 
Farinato, he painted at the summons of cardinal Ercolo 
Gonzaga,.in the cathedral of Mantua, and left no doubt of 
his superiority in the contest. He then went to Venice^ 
and with the procurator Grioiani to Rome, where, from the 
frescos of M. Aivgelo and RafTael, he acquired the idea of 
that breadth which distinguishes him in all his aliegorical 
and my thojcrgic pictures ; and tliough the simplicity inse-^ . 
parable from real grandeur was not a principle to be courted, 
by him who aimed at captivating the debauched Venetian 
eye, he gave proofs, that, if i^^ did not adopt, he had a 
9ense for its beauties. The Apotheosis of Venice in the 
ducal palace, in magnificence of combin^on, loftiness, 
splendor, variety, offers in one picture the principles an() 
the elemental beauties of his style. It was, hqwever, less; 
to. this work, than to his C^ne, or convivial compositions,, 
that Paolo owed his celebrity* He painted four at Venice, 
for four refectories of convents, all of enofmous dimedsiona . 
and equal copiousness of invention. Th^ first, ^ith the ^ 
Nuptials of Cana, once in the refectory of St. Giorgio 
Maggiore^ now in the Louvre, and known by numeroua 
copies, is thirty palms long, comprizies 130 figures, witli a 
number of distinguished portraits ; and yet was painted, 
$ays Lanzi, for no more than ninety ducats. The second, 
better preserved, was painted for the convent of S» Gio- 
vanni and Pa(»lo, and represents the call of St. Matthew ; 
|t, is chiefly praised for the character of the heads, which 
Ricci copied for bis studies at an advanced age. The 
third, at St Sebastian, is tlie Feast of Simon, which is 
likewise the subject of die fourth, painted for the refec- 
tory of the Servi, but sent to Lewis XIV., and placed at 
Versaillef . Thi9i perhaps, is the master-^.piece of ^he four, 

1 Biog. Brit.— Beniham's El/. ' 

U C A G L I A R I. 

though placed in an unfavourable light, and greatly in-^' 
jured by neglect, and the dampness of the place. 

No painter ever was hurried along by a greater torrent 
of commissions, and no painter ever exerted jiimself with 
' greater equality of execution. Light grounds and virgin 
tints have contributed to preserve the freshness of his pic^ 
tures : the family of Darius presented to Alexander, in the 
Pisani palace at Venice, and the S. Giorgio, once at Verona, 
iiow in the Louvre, have, without the smallest loss of the 
bloom that tones them, received from time that mellow* 
ness, that sober hue, which time alone can give. More 
fixed in a system, and consequently nearer to manner than 
Titian, with less purity and delicacy ; greyer, not so warm, 
so sanguine, or so juicy as Tintoretto, Paolo excels both 
in fascinating breadth of bland and lucid demi-tints; and 
in his convivial scenes, though thronged with pomp, gor- 
geous attire, and endless ornament, never once forgets 
that they were admitted to shew and not to eclipse the 
actors. The actors were not, indeed, those of the histo-> 
rian, no more than the costume that of the times, or the 
ornaments and architecture those of the country. The 
ostentatioflr of ornamental painting is not to be arraigned at 
the tribunal of serious history. The humble guests of 
Cana, the publican forsaking his till, Magdalen at the feet 
of Christ, travestied into Venetian patriarchs, belles, or 
nobles, ^wei'e only called upon to lend their names, and by 
their authority to palliate or flatter the reigning taste or 
vice of a debauched and opulent public. 

This great artist was highly esteemed by all the prin- 
cipal men of his time ; and so much admired by the great 
masters, as well his contemporaries as those who sue-* 
ceeded him, that Titian himself used to say, he was the 
ornament of his profession. And Guido Reni being asked^ 
which of the masters his predecessors he would choose to 
be, were it in his power, after JRaphael and Corregio, 
named Paul Veronese, whom he always called his Paolino.' 
He died of a fever at Venice in 1588, and had a tomb and 
a statue of brass erected in the church of St. Sebastian. 

Paul left great wealth to bis two sons, Gabriel and 
Chs^rles, who were painters, and lived very happily to- 
gether. They joined in finishing several pieces left im* 
perfect by their father ; and followed his manner so closely 
in other works of their own, that the connoisseurs do not 
easily distinguish them from those of Paul's hand. Charles 


h^ H genius for painting, and at eighteen years of age Iikd 
done some excellent pieces. It is tbQught^ if be bad livedo 
that he would have exceeded his father ; but coiitracting 
an imposthume in his breast, by applying too intensely ta 
his profession, he died of it in 1596, when he was only, 
twenty-six years old. Gabriel had no great genius for 
painting; and therefore, after his brother's decease, ap-- 
plied himself to merchandise. Yet he did not quite lay 
aside his pencil, but painted a considerable number of 
portraits, and some historical pieces of good taste* He 
died of the plague in 1631, aged sixty-three. 

There was also Benedict Cagliari, a paipter and sculptor^ 
who was Paul's brother, and lived and studied with him. 
He assisted him, and afterwards his sons, in finishing se- 
veral of their compositions ; but was most successful in 
painting architecture, in which he delighted. His style 
in painting was like his brother's; and not b^ing ambi- 
tious enough of fame to keep his productions separate^ 
they are, in a great measure, confounded with Paul's. He 
practised for the most part in fresco ; and some of his best 
pieces are in chiaro-obscuro. He possessed moreover a 
tolerable stock of learning, was something of a {)oet| and 
had a peculiar talent in satire. He died in 1598^ aged 
sixty-six. ^ 

CAGLIOSTRO (Count Alexander), a noted impostor, 
whose true name was Joseph Balsamo, was born at Palermo 
the 8th of June 1743 ; Peter Balsamo being his father^ and 
Felix Braconieri his mother, both of humble parentage. 
He was still a child when his father died ; and was there- 
fore brought up by the relations of his mother, who caused 
him to be instructed in the first principles of religion and 
philosophy, but it was not long before he shewed how little 
be was disposed to either, by ruuning away more than once 
from the seminary of St. Roche at Palermo, where he had 
been placed for education. In his thirteenth year his guar-^ 
dians delivered him to the care of the general of the friars of 
niercy, who took him along with him to the monastery of 
that order at Cartagirone ; where he was entered as a no-*^ 
vice, and committed to the tuition of the apothecary ; 
under whom, as he says, he found means of acquiring tiie 
fijfst elements of chemistry and physic. But neither here 

^ Pilkington.^-D'Argenville.— «Sir Joshua Reynolds^! Works. Se« iBdex.-— 
Itrutt^s Diet, of Engrarers. 

' VOL.VnL D 

M C.A G L I D S T R O. 

did he mdike any long stay. He continued to shew hibi* 
self on. his worst side, and his superiors were frequentljl^' 
Qbliged to give him correction for obliquities in hts cOn-- 
duct. When, according to the custom of monastic foun-^ 
dationsy it came to his turn to read during dinner-time^ 
he never read what was contained in the book, but deli-* 
vered a lecture according to the dictates of his fancy* He' 
himself confesses,' that in reading frotti the martyrology^ 
instead of the names of the holy women, be inserted those' 
of the most noted courtesans of the town. At length, being 
weary of repeated chastisement, he thirew off the cowi^ and" 
went back to Palermo, where for a time be studied draw- 
ing ; and without ihaking any reform in his manners, '2lA* 
dieted himself to excesses of every kind. It was bis great- 
est pleasure to rove about armed, and to frequent the com- 
pany of the most profligate young men of the tdWn. Thielrfe 
was no fray in which he was not concerned, and he fert-/ 
joyed nothing more than when he could resist the magis- 
trate, and deliver the prisoner from his authdrity. Hfe 
even stooped to the mean felony of forging the tickets of 
admission to the thesltres ; and from an uncle, with wfaoni 
he liv4sd, he stole considerable sums of money and othei^ 
property. In a l6ve intrigue between 4 peir^on of rank 
and a cousin of his, he made himself the lett^r-carrierj 
and occasionally de'tii^nded of the Ibver dt brie time monfey, 
at another a watchj and always something of f&lue, in the 
name of the fair one, which he Appropriated to hithseljfl 
He then insinuated himself into the good graces of ^ no-^ 
tary, to whom he Was related ; and, for the sake of a bribe, 
counterfeited a will in favour of a certain niarchese MeEu- 
rigi; The forger)^ was discovered some years afkerWairdsi 
and the affair being brought before the judges, was fully 
proved ; but this was at a time when the persons interested 
ivere not at Palermo. He was likewise charged with hav- 
ing murdered a canon, and with obtaining several sums of 
money from a monk fot giving him written permits of ab-* 
fience from his convent at various times ; all of which pa* 
pers were found to be forged. * 

For such transactions as these he was several times at- 
rested and put into prison; but either for want of sufl9ciebt 
evidence, or from the complicated nature of the busin^ss^ 
or from the extensive influence of his relations, he as often 
found means of soon regaining his liberty. At length he 
was forced to take to flight for cheating a silversmith, 

(f A G L BjO S T Jl O. 3* 

mned Marwo, of apwards erf Mxty onndies of gold) under 
pretencjb of shewiivg bim a tretisure hid in a care. On*, 
bringing BiikLto the place, be began t6 exhibit a variety of 
fantastidal muinmeries^ an if practising some magical rites^ 
which terminated in the appearance of tome accomplices 
df Bfeilaamo,. whoy ih the di^uise of theatrical devils, be*^ 
labottrad the shoulders of poor Marano. The silversmith, 
though highly incensed at this infamous treatment, thought 
it not prudent to have recourse to the law, but resolved to 
have his revenge bjr murdering the impostor, which being 
suspected hj. Balsarao, he thought it expedient to remove' 
to another place. 

- from k newspaper of the time of his being arrested at 
Bame it appears that he was strongly suispected of witchcraft, 
wkieh smpicion was grounded on two circumstances; The 
fikoner, ihat^ a«ider pretext of relieving one of his sister^ 
who was posbesslsd by a devil, he obtained from a country^ 
vicar^ mmed Bagario, a pledget of cotton dipped in holy 
oil, though none of his sisters were possessed. - The other 
tes the appafritioi(i of a lady. It was affirmed, that, being 
asked i» a certain company, in what attitude and employ -> 
m^nt the absent lady was at the moment %tiey were speftk- 
iag of her; Balsamo, to satisfy their curiosity, immediately 
drew a quadrangle on the floor, atid passing his hands to 
and fro abuvt^ it, she was fairly seen upon the floor playing 
at cards with three other persons^ A servant was directly 
dispatched to the lady's house ; who found her exactly tn 
the aiititude atid employment with the three friends &s te- 
presented in the figure. 

Balsamo, wbo had quitted his country, Palermo, i^ th^ 
maaner above mentioned, now began to roam- about tfa6 
world. We can here only follow his own account, till Wd 
flpjeet hkn at Rome, ^ for want of other traces and informa* 
tiom.. With the money he had procured by his fraud bn 
the sil^rsmith he travelled to Messina. Here he got ac- 
^aiftted vf ith a certain Altotas, a Greek-, or, according td 
others^ a Spaniard, who was versed in several l-Anguage^: 
possessed b namber of Arabic writings, and gave himself 
out for a great chemist. With thi^ tiew friend he took ship, 
vj^ed' the >Archi|}0lago^ and landed at Alexandria ill 
Sggrpt, where th^y staid about forty days, diid his feHbit 
tr^dtkr uiideiiloc^ a variety of chemical operations, and 
among the rest that of making a sort of silky stuff from 
hamp and flaac^ by which he got much money. From 

D 2 

^6 C A G L I' Oi S' T R' O; 

Alexandria tbey firoceeded to Rodiy where they nk^wcMe^ 
obtained sa^q money by chemical operations. Quitting* 
tbje isle of Rodi they bent their course to Grand Cairo^ but 
by contrary winds were driven to Malta, where they re- 
ijKiained some time, working in the laboratory. of the grand* 
master Pinto. Here Altotas died ; and Badsamo resolved* 
to go, in company with a knight to whom he was recom* 
mended by the grand-master himself, to Naples. 

It is impossible by any means to contract the numberless 
tricks and stratagems of this grand impostor, in almost 
every part of Europe, within the limits prescribed to the 
articles of this work. His astonishing ingenuity in every 
species of fiction and deceit, exceeds all that has been re- 
corded in the annals of ancient or modern roguery, inso- 
much that he was held for a real prodigy by every one <o 
whose ears his fame had reached. His impostures iu each 
of the places he visited would fill a considerable volume ; 
and we must content ourselves with adding, that, for some 
enormities committed at Rome, he was thrown into the* 
castle of St. Angelo, where he died towards the latter end 
of 1794; referring such readers as would wish to know 
more of him to the Italian original, published at Rome by 
the apostoUcal chamber, under the title of- ^^ Compendium 
of the Life and Actions qf Giuseppe Balsamo, otheiwise 
called count Cagliostro, extracted from the documents of 
the process carried on against him at Rome in the year 
1790 " &c. * 

, CAGNATI, or CAGNATUS (Marsiuus), of Verona, 
an eminent physician, was first lecturer in that faculty at 
'Rome in the sixteenth century, under the popes Clement 
VIII. and Paul V. He studied at Padua under Zabarelia, 
and was a man of great learning, and considered as the 
head of bis profession. His distinguished merit procured 
him an invitation to Rome, where he taught philoso^y 
and medicine, in the college, and was honoured with some 
considerable appointments. As he was an excellent Greek 
and Latin scholar, anji conversant with the historians in 
both languages, his lectures acquired a particular interest 
from the quotations he occasionally made .in them from 
these writers. He wrote two books on. the manner of pre- 
serving health, on diet, exercise, &c. .Rome 1591, and 
Padua, 1605. He wrote aUo on the inundations of the 

1 From tiie last edition of tkii DieiioQary. 


^b^; the'salubpity of the air at Rome, ^[ndemic disorders^ 
the 24th aphorism of Hippocratesi which be thought had 
been long misunderstood, and on the cure of fevers as 
practised at Rome. His knowledge appeared also in his 
four books of ** Observations," Rome, 1587, inserted af- 
terwards in the third volume of Gruter*s " Thesaurus Cri'- 
ticus/' 1604, 8vo.. In 1603 a quarto volume was pub^ 
Itshed of his ^* Dissertations" on various medical topicsr. 
He died in 1610.^ 

• CAIET, or CAYET (Pbtbr Victor Palma), was born 
in 15125 at Montrichard in Touraine, of a poor family, and 
was at first a protestant divine, fittached to Catherine of 
Bourbon, sister of Henry IV. but was deposed in a synod 
on a charge of practising the arts of magic, and for hciving 
written a book in favour of public stews. This sentence 
accelerated his abjuration, which he delivered at Paris in 
4595, and died in 1610, at the age of eighty-five, doctor 
of Sorbonne, and professor of Hebrew in the college royaL 
Caiet was of a kind and officious disposition, and was so 
unfortunate as to have for' his enemies all whom he had 
obliged. His slovenly dress, his manner of life, and tiis 
absurd attempts to discover the philosopher's stone, drew 
upon him no less contempt than his learning brought hini 
respect. Notwithstanding his humble and shabby exterior^ 
Henry IV. continued to admit him to court, not without 
wishing, however, to avoid it, which he shewed by pre- 
senting him with a small estate in the country, a philoso^ 
phical retreat sufficient to satisfy the ambition of a dcholan 
The Calvinists, whom he had deserted, endeavoured to 
expose his principles and conduct, and as after his abjura^ 
tion he had had a conference with Du Moulin, this was a 
fresh reason for their animosity. Caiet did not remain 
silent, but published, in 1603, against Du Moulin, the 
book emphatically entitled ^^ The fierv Furnace, and the 
reverberatory Furnace, for evaporating the pretended wa- 
ters of Siloam (the title of Du Moulin's work), and for 
strengthening the fife of purgatory." The intimacy be- 
tween the count de Soissons and the sister of Henry IV* 
proceeded such lengths, that they ordered Caiet to marry 
them immediately.. On his refusal to do it, the prince 
threatened to kill him. *^ Kill me then," replied Caiet ^ 

* Hfforeri.-^Haller and Manfet.— ^Erytbrci Pinacotbeca.— Diet. Hist.-r-Saxii 


<' I -had pHich ratker die by tbe k^nd of' pi t»dpc# llH^n by 
tbs^t pf the hangman.'* 

He left behind him seyernl controversial pieces, iiar leif 
consultj&d than bi$. ^' Ghrotiologie septenpair^/' 160/6, 8vc^ 
from the peace of Vervins in 1598 to 1604. The reception 
this work noet with obliged him to add to the history of the 
peace that of the war that went before it. We have this 
additional history in the 3 vols, of hi* ** Chrpnologie no- 
vennaire," 1608, 8vo, from 1589 to 1598. Theabb6 d'Ax- 
tigny has collected the principal' particulars of it in hi^f 
" Nouveaux Memoires de Litterature." Dr. Caiet enters 
into all the details that may furnish amuseoient to curiosity, 
and matter of reflection to philosophy. In the " Chrono- 
Jogie septennaire" ar^ contained reUtioi^Sj poems, miani- 
festos, instructions, letters, pleadings, and other pieces, 
of which the greater part would have b^en lo<$t to posterity. 
Besides these public pieces, wfs Und a great number of 
private anecdotes, unknown to other writers, which tfaft 
author was enabled to pick up ajt thie court qf Catherine de 
@ourbon, and that of Henry IV. with whooi be wa3 on a 
familiar footing. ^ 

d AJETAN, a cardtnd^ was born in 1 46^, at Csgeta, » 
town in the kingdom of Naples. JHis proper name was 
Thomas de Vio, but he took that of Cajetan from the place 
pf his nativity. He was entered of the order of Dominic, 
pf which be became an illustrious ornament; and having 
taken a doctor's degree when be was about twenty-two 

?ears of age, he taught philosophy and divinity first at 
*aris, and afterwards at Rome. He went regularly through 
all the honours of his order, till he was made general of 
it; which office he exercised for ten years. He defended 
the authority of the pope, which suffered greatly at the 
council of Nice, in a work entitled " Of the Power of 
the Pope ;'' and for his zeal upon this occasion, was made 
bishop of Cajeta. Then he was raised to the archiepisco^ 
pai see of Palermo ; and in 1517 was made a cardinal by 
pope {^o X. The year after he was sent a legate into 
Germany, to quell the commotions which Luther had 
Yaised by his opposition to Leo's indulgences : but Luther, 
being under the particular protection of Frederic elector 
0f Saxony, set him at defiance; and. though, in obedience 
to the cardinaPs summons, he repaired to Augsburg, yet 

1 Geo, Diet, 10 Ca^et^^Morerl^—Dict. Hitt 

C A J E T A N. 9» 

|;ie refider^ )^» endeayours of poeffqc^ paj^tao indeed 
wa^ tfajB most improper person that cpqjjl jiaye been se- 
lected to oppose Luther, having nothing ito advance but 
the arrogant dicUtes of mere authority. Pe was, however, 
ippfe advantagpousLy employed in several other negotia- 
tions ^nd trau^actiQps, being not only a rpan of lettern, 
but having a peculiar turn for business ; apd at length died, 
in 1534, when be y^as sixty- five years old. 

Sixtus SepeQsis tells us, that he i^§is a most subtle lo-, 
gician, an ^4i^i^^})^^ pbilo,sQpher, ^ud an it)comparabie 
divine. He wrote upon Arjstotle's philo- 
fophy, and upop ThoB^a^ iVq^inas's theology ; the latter, 
ho^jireyer, by np means c;^lcu)ated to give us a favourable 
idea of his log|c, or his perspicuity. He gaye a lUeral 
translation of ai| the booljLS of the Q14 and New Testaments 
from the originals, excepting Solomon's Song anci the Pro- 
gbets, which h^ bad beguu, l^ut did npt )iy^ to proceed far 
\^; and the ^evelatigms of St. Jp.ho, designedly 
omitted, saying, that tq e::^p)ain ^hem, it w^ necessary for 
^ man to l^e eudqed, pot \yith parts and learning, but with 
^e spirit of prophecy. F^er Simon's account of him, 
af.a tiansl^or of the Bib^e^ is critical and historical: ."Car- 
dinal Cajptan," says he, ^f was very fpnd of translations pf 
)be Sibie purely literal; being persuaded, that the Scfip-r 
|uji;;e poul4 ^9^ ^e translated pqo literally, it. being the word 
pf ,Qod, to . v^hicb it is exprpssjy forbid either to add or 
flimip|sh any thing, fl^is cardinijLl, in his- preface to the 
J^^alpis, largely explains th.e metjiod he observed in his 
translation of that bo9k ; and he affirms, that although he 
i:new nothing of the Hebreyir, yet he had translated part of 
^he Bible word for wprd from it. Fgr this purpose he 
H^ade Mi/se of two persons, w^o unders.tQQd the language 
well, the^ o^ne a Jew, the other a (Christian, .whom he de- 
sired to t^auslfite . the Hebrew words exactly according to 
the letter ai^d grammf^-, ^though .their translation mig^t 
appear to make np sense at all. I oyvn, says he, that my 
interpreters we-re pft^n sayiog^o me, this Hebre v diction 
fs literally ' [^p ;. but then the sense, will not be clear unless 
^t is cbangied ^p :. to wbpn) (, when I heard all the different 
signific^M^iop^, cpnstaptly replied, Neyer trouble yourselves 
.fibpjut the S^^se, if 'ip.49i^9 QOt apf^ieac to you ; because it 
|a jioty pur business .to, e^^pQupd) but. ito interpret : do you 
interpret it exactly as it lies, and leave to the expositors 
the care of making sense of it." 'Cardinal Pallavicini, who 

4d C A J E T A N. 

looked upon this as too bold, says, that Cajetan, '^ who 
has succeeded to the admiration of the whole world in his 
other works, got no reputation by .what he did upon the 
Bible, because he fallowed the prejudices of those who 
stuck close to the Hebrew grammar/' But father Simon 
is .of opinion that he *^ may in some measure be justified : 
for he did not, says he, pretend to condemn the ancient 
Latin translator, or the other translators of the Bible ; bnt 
nvould only have translations of the Bible to be made from 
the original as literally as can be, because there are only 
these originals, which can be called the pure word of God ; 
and because in translations, which are not literal, there are 
always some things which do not thoroughly express the 
original." These ^^ Commentaries on the Holy Scriptures,'' 
if they deserve the name, were published at Lyons in 5 
vols. fol. 1639. > 

CAILLE (Nicholas Lewis de la), an eminent French 
mathematician and astronomer, was born 
the diocese of Rheims on March 15, 1713. His' father 
having quitted the army, in which he had served, amused 
himself in his retirement with studying mathematics and 
mechanics, in which he proved the author of several in^ 
^ mentions of considerable use to the public. From this ex-? 
ample of his father, our author almost in his itifaticy took a 
fancy to mechanics, which proved of signal service to him 
in his maturer years. At school he discovered early tokens 
of genius. He came to Paris in 1729 ; where he studied 
the. classics, philosophy, and mathematics, and afterwards 
divinity in the college de Navarre, with a view to the 
church, but he never entered into priest's orders, appre- 
hending that his astronomical studies, to which he had 
become much devoted, might too much interfere with his 
religious duties. His turn for astronomy isoon connected 
him with the celebrated Cassini, who procgred him an 
apartment in the observatory ; where, assisted by the coun- 
sels of this master, he soon' acquired a name among the 
astronomers. In 1739 he was joined with M. Cassini de 
Thury, son to M. Cassini, in verifying the meridian through 
the whole extent of France ; and in the same year be was 
named professor of mathematics in the college of Mazarine. 
Jn 1741 oar author wai| admitted into the academy Of 
. sciences as an adjoint member for astronomy ; and ha4 

1 Moreri and Diet. Hist, in yio.-i-Mo8heiin. — ^XHirio* 

C A I L L E. 41 

many excellent papers inserted in their memoirs ; beside 
ivhich he published several useful treatises, viz. Elements 
of Geometry, Astronomy, Mechanics, and Optics. He also 
carefully computed all the eclipses of the sun and moon 
that had happened since the Christian ssra, which mere 
printed in the work entitled ** UArt de verifier les dates,*! 
&c. Paris, 1750, ito. He also compiled a volume of astro- 
nomical ephemerides for the years 1745 to 1755;. another 
for the years L755 to 1765 ; and a third for the years 1765 
to 1775 ; as also the most correct solar tables of any ; antd 
an excellent work entitled ^^ Astronomiae fundameuta no^- 
yissimis solis et stetlarum observation ibus stabilita." 

Having gone through a seven years series of astronomical 

observations in bis own observatory in the Mazarine college, 

he formed the project of going to observe the southern 

stars at the Cape of Good Hope. This expedition being 

countenanced by the court, he set out in 1750, and in the 

space of two years he observed there the places of about 

ten thousand stars in the southern hemisphere that are not 

visible in our latitudes, as well as many other important 

elements, viz. the, parallaxes of the sun, moon, and some 

of the planets, -the obliquity of the ecliptic, the refractions, 

&c. Having thus executed the purpose of his voyage, and 

no present opportunity offering for his return, he thought 

of employing the vacant time in another arduous attempt; 

no less than that of taking the measure of the earth, as he 

bad already done that of the heavens. This indeed had been 

done before by different sets of learned men both in Europe 

and America ; some determining the quantity of a degree 

at the equator, and others at the arctic circle : but it had not 

as yet been decided whether in the southern parallels of 

latitude the same dimensions obtained as in the northern. 

His labours were rewarded with the satisfaction he wished 

for; having determined a distance of 410,814' feet from a 

plaee .called KUp-Foutyn to the Cape, by means of a base 

^f S8j802 feet, three times actually measured : whence he 

discovered a new secret of nature, namely, that the radii 

Ojf the parallels in south latitude are not the same, length 

as thos^e of the corresponding parallels in north latitude* 

About the 23d degree of south latitude he found a deglree 

on the meridian to contain 342,222 Paris feet. The court 

of Versailtes.also sent^biq^ fm order to go and fix the situ- 

f^tion pf the Isles of France and qf Bourbon. While at the 

i^ape too he observed a vybnderful effect of the atmosphere 

#♦ C A L A M Y. 

ittinister of St. Mary Aldermanbory, which brought him tip^ 
to LoDdon,' 16S9. The controversy coucerning church- 
gchremment was then at its greatest height, in which Mr*. 
Calamy had a very large share. In the ' month of July 
163^, he was incorporated of the university of Oxford^ 
which, however, did not take him off from the party in 
which he was ejigaged. In 1640 he was concerned in 
writing that famous book, called Smectymnuus, which 
himself says, gave the first deadly blow to episcopacy, and 
therefore we find frequent references to it in all the de^^ 
fenc^ and apologies for nonconformity which have been 
since published. In 1641 he was appointed by the house 
of lords a member of the sub-committee for religion, whieb 
consisted of very eminent divines, whose conduct, how-^ 
ever, has been differently censured. He made a great fi^ 
gure in the assembly of divines, though he is not n>en^' 
tioned in Fuller's catalogue, and distinguised himself both 
hy his learning and moderation. He likewise preached 
several times before the house of commons, for which his 
Memory has been very severely treated. He was at the 
same time one of the Corn hill lecturers, and no man had 
a greater interest in the city of London, in consequence 
of bi& ministerial abilities. He preached constantly in his 
own parish church for twenty years to a numerous au-^ 
dience, composed of the most eminent citizens, and even 
persons of great quality. He steadily and strenuously op-- 
posed the sectaries, and gave many pregnant instances of 
bis dislike to those violences which were committed after- 
wards, on the king's being brought from the Isle of Wight. 
He opposed the beheading of his sovereign king Charles I. 
with constancy and courage. Under the usurpation of 
Gromwell he was passive, and lived as privately as be 
could ; yet he gave no reason to suspect that he was at all 
a well-wisher to that government. When the times af- 
forded a favourable opportunity, he neglected not pro-* 
moting the return of king Charles II. and actually preached 
before the house of commons on the day they voted that 
g^reat question, which, however, has not hindered some 
from suggesting their suspicions of his loyalty. After this 
step was taken, he, Mr. Ash, and other eminent divines, 
were sent over to compliment the king in., Holland, by 
whom they were extremely well received. When his ma- 
jesty was restored, Mr. Calamy retained still a considerable 
^lare in bis favour, and in June 1660,' was appointed one- 


•f his chaplains in ordinaiy, aiid was offered the bi^hop-^ 
ric of Coventry and Litchfield, which he refused. Whettf 
the convocation came to be chosen, he and Mr. Baxter 
were elected. May 2, 1661, for Loudon; but the bishop 
of that diocese having the power of chasing two out of 
four, or- four out of six, elected within a certain circuit:. 
Dr. Shddon, who was then bishop, was so kind as to ex^' 
cuse both of them; which, perhaps, was owing to the 
share they had in the Savoy conference. After the mis- 
carrying of that design, Mr. Calamy made use of all his 
interest to procure the passing of an act agreeable to the 
king's declaration at Breda : bat when this was frustrated^ 
and the act of uniformity passed, he took a resolution 06 
^bmitting to ejection, and accordingly preached his fare*- 
wel sermon at Aldermanbury, August 17, 1662. He made^ 
however, a last effort three days afterwards, by presenting 
a petition to his aiajesty to continue in the exercise of hisi 
ministerial office. This petition was signed by many of 
the London clergy, and Dr. Manton and Dr. Bates assisted 
at the poesenting it, when Mr. Calamy made a long and 
moving speech ; bat neither it nor the ' petition had any 
good effect, though the king expressed himself in favour 
of toleration. He remained, however, in his parish, and 
came constantly to church, though another was in the 
pulpit, which proved an occasion of much trouble to him ; 
for on December 28, 1662, the expected preacher not 
coming in time, some of the principal persons in the parish 
prevailed upon Mr. Calamy to supply his place, which, 
with some importunity, he did ; but delivered himself with 
such freedom, that he was soon after, by the lord mayor's 
warrant, committed to Newgate for bis sermon. But the 
ease itself being thought hard, and some doubt arising how 
far the commitment was legal, his majesty in a few days 
discharged him. He lived to see London in ashes, the 
sight of which broke his heart. He was driven through the 
rains in a coach to Enfield, and was so shocked at thedis- 
oial appearance, that he could never wear off the impres- 
sion, but kept his chamber ever after, and died October 
29, 1666, within two months after this accident happened. 
He was, though a veiy learned man, yet a plain and prac- 
tical preacher, and one who was not afraid to speak hi^ 
.sentiments freely of and to the greatest men *. He was 

* Dr. Calamy tells «8« that our author, greatest ii^terest in court, city, aod 
tkithe tim« of th« RestoratioQj had the couatry, «f .any of the ministers, and. 


C A L A M Y. 

twice married. By his fiit^t wife he bad a $ oo arid daugbie^} 
and by bi& second seven childteii, sodie of lAiom W^ $ba\\ 
have occasion to mention in suceeeding atticles. ? 

Besides th^ piec^ already mentioned, Mr. Calaniy p«b« 
lished several single sermons pre!ached on different occ^^ 
sions^ and fiye sermons entitled /^ The Godly Man's Ark/ 
or a city of refuge in the dajr of bis distress/' the eigbib 
^ition of which W2M5 printed ftt London, 16SS, in 121110^ 
He had a hand in drawing up the ^^ Vindication of the Pres« 
by terian Government and Ministry/' London, 1650; and 
the ^^ Jus Divinum Ministerii Evangeliei Anglicani," printed 
in 1*654. Since his death,, there was a treatise of Meditft'^ 
tion printed in a clandestine way, not by his son, nor fr<N» 
his manuscript, but from some impeirfect notes tak^i by 
an auditor. ' 

. CALAMY (EDMUND)i elde$t son of the preceding, waft 
born at St. Edmund' s-Bury^. in S^affdlk, about the year 
1635. In his jurfior years he was carefully instructed b^ 
his father, and. when he had acquired a sufficient fund ot 
teaming, he wits transferred to the university of Cambridge, 
where he wb& entered of SEdney college^ Mbreh<28^ 165 U 
He took the de^s;Tee of bachelor 0f arts in 1654-5. Thteft 
he removed to Pertibroke-hajl, where he took tii^ degree 
of master of artfii in 1658. He became afterwards feUo#' 
of that eoUege ; and on April 20, 165d, was presented to 
the living of Moreton in Essex, which be held tiU be w«i 
iremoved by the act of uniformity in 1662. After his eject* 
ment he retired to London, and kept a meeting prUately 
in his house in Aldermanbury. When Charles II. poblished 
his declaration for indulgence, he set up a. public meetii^ 
in Curriers-hal), near Gripplegate. Biit when the dissen- 
ters were again persecuted, he had recourse to his formef 
method ; and thoUgh he was very assiduous in his duty, 
yet he escaped imprisonment, nbtwitbstanding warranti 
were frequently out against him ; but he had the misfor- 
tune, with several other of his brethren, to fall under tt 
crown-office prosecution, which put him to a great deal of 

therefore, was extremely caressed at 
first ; bat he sobn saw ivbithsr things 
were tending. Among other evidences 
of it this ,is one : That having general 
Monk for. his auditor in his own church, 
A little after the Restoration, on a sa- 
crament-day, he had occasion to speak 
of ^i% lucres " And why," said he, 


is it called Jilihy, hut because it 
inaktiS then' do ba^b ^ti^ Jilihy things t 
Some men,'' Said hfr, « wiH betr»^ 
three kingdoms iov filthy lucre's sake." 
Saying which, he thi^w his handker- 
chief, which he nsnaUy Wared np And 
down while he was preaching, toward* 
the general's pew. 

> Biog; Brit.«^mlaffly'8 Liyes^ fcc. 

C A L A M Y- 47 

trouble and expence. As be was a person of mucb leai-n-. 
ing and unaffected piety, so he was very careful to avoid 
whatever might draw upon him the imputation of party. 
}n the earlier part of life he declined takihg the cotenant^ 
and through the whole course of it lihewed a spirit of mo-^ 
deration and charity agreeable to his calling. He w6^j 
though a tionconformist, a man of very free notiotis, ana 
one who never pretended to confine the church of Christ 
within the bounds of any particular sect. He had a great 
contempt for the goods of this world, and was Such a loveir 
of obscurity and retirement, that though he was a veiy able 
preacher, and was known to have done much good in th^ 
qjace of three .and twenty years that he exercised the 
ministry in London, yet he would never be prfevailed oh id 
appear in print, but satisfied himself with the conscious* 
nests of having performed his duty. Having thuA led h 
private and peaceable, though not ^ quiet life, he etchah^ed 
it for a better in the month of May 1685, being laket^ off 
by a consumption. He left behind him a son and foUir 
daughters. ^ 

CALAMY (Bknjamin), an eminent divihe of thfe fchlirt-ft 
of England, was the son of Mr. Edmund Calaniy^ inihUtek^ 
of Aidertiianbury befote-menlioned, by a second wife^ and 
received the first tincture of learning at St. Pftur§ sbhool^ 
from whence he was sfent, when very young, to the uniVer** 
stty of Cambridge, and there (entered of Catberihe-hall.' 
In 1664-5, he took the degree of bachelor of artis; in 
1668, that of tnaster of and, and became also fellow df that 
hall, and a very emiiieht tutor there. April 25, 1677, he 
was chosen in the room of Dr.. Simon Ford, minister of St; 
Mary Aiderttanbury ; and soon after appointed one of hii 
majesty's chaplains in ordinary. In 1680, he took his de- 
gree of doctor in divinity. In 1683, he preached in that 
church his feiiions sermon, which he afterwards published 
under the title of "A Discoursie about a jScrupulous Con- 
science,^* than which no piec^ df its kind or size gained 
nibre credit to its author^ of was morts taken notice of by 
the public. This iertnon he plieacbed a second tim^ iL% 
Bow church with great effect, and this csxcited a eealou^ 
noncdnformi^ dtie Mr. Thomas pe Lauhe, who had beth 
forrnerty a schoolmaster, to write against it ; which he did 
in such a manner as drew upon him a fatal iiUprisoniiient, 

1 Bioy. ferit. — CaUmy*! Lives, he. 

• » 

4f C A t A M Y. 

ivhich he endeavoured by all means to ascribe to D^. CJa/ 
lamy, though his complaints on. this head had little or no 
foundation. In 1683^ Dr. Calamy was admitted to the 
vicarage of St. Lawrence Jewry, with St. Mary Magdalen 
Milk-street annexed, to which he was collated by the dean 
and chapter of St. Paul's^ in the room of Dr. Benjamin 
Whichcot. June 18, 1685, be was, on the decease of Dn 
John Wells, installed into the prebend of Harleston, in the 
cathedral church of St. Paul. These preferments are 
abundant proofs of his merit, and of his great interest in 
the city of London, which he maintained, not by attaching 
himself to any party, but by living in great intimacy with 
the best men of all parties. He was particularly acquainted 
with alderman Cornish, whp was his parishioner, and for 
whom he had so great a respect, that he gave testimony in . 
kis favour when. he was tried for high-treason, October 16, 
16S5, which was no ordinary mark of friendship in those 
times. It is thought, that a sense of public calamities had 
a great share i\^ bringing his last illness upon our author, 
who fell into a declining state in the autumn of the year 
last mentioned^ and died of a pleuritic fever in the month 
of January 1.686. He was a man equally valuable for the 
abilities which he possessed, and the uses ,to which he 
applied them. He was a sincere son of the church of Eng- 
land, and very intent on gaining over dissenters of all sort9 
to her communion ; and had an extensive charity, and a 
just aversion to persecution. He was heartily loyal, but 
without bitterness or passion ; and his loyalty occasioned 
his grief, when he saw those steps taken which could end 
in nothing but public confusion. His own virtues, how-*' 
ever, exempted him in a great measure from envy and 
scandal, even in the worst of times; insomuch, that the 
greatest men of all sects and all parties readily joined m 
paying a just tribute of praise to his memory. Though 
few in his situation were either better or more frequent 
preachers, yet he left behind him very little in print. Some 
sermons of his were after his decease, published by hiB 
brother, which served only to raise a great regret in the 
world, as that so many more of his excellent performances 
were buried in oblivion. His sernions are still valued as 
well for the beauty of their language as the excellent sen^ 
timents contained in tbeni.^* 

^ Biog. Brit.-^Faiieral Sermon by Sherlock. 

C A L A ft| Y. 49 

6 ALA MY j[ James), son to Edmund Calamy, B. D. be- 
fore-mentioned, by a second wife, and younger brother to 
Dr. Benjamin Calamy, of whom in the preceding article, 
was educated at Catherine-hall, in the university of Cam- 
bridge, where, in 1672, he took the degree of bachelor of 
arts ; and in 1676, that of master. Having received holy 
orders, and being highly considered on account of his fa- 
ther's reputation, he was presented to the rectory of Nor- 
thill, in Bedfordshire, where he continued till 1707, when 
he was presented by his intimate friend Df, Blackall, 
bishop of Exeter, to that of Cheriton-Bishops in Devon- 
shire ; and had at the same time a prebend in the church 
of Exeter bestowed on him. He was a man of great learn- 
mg, but much greater modesty, which is the reason that 
he left nothing behind him in print, except his dedication 
of his brother's/ sermons. He led a sinorle life, and on 
December 14, 1714, was surprised by a sadden death.* 

CALAMY (Edmund), a very eminent divine among the 
nonconformists, grandson to Mr. Edmund Calamy, minister 
of Aldermanbury, by his eldest son Mr. Edmund Calamy 
(who was ejected out of the living of Moreton in Essex, on 
St. Bartholomew's day, 1662), was born April 5, 1671. 
Having made a considerable progress in grammar learning 
at several private schools, and under Mr. HartclifFe at Mer- 
chant Taylors, where he contracted a close friendship with 
Mr. Dawes, afterwards sir William Dawes, and archbishop 
of York, as also with Mr. Hugh Boulter, the primate of 
Ireland, he went through a course of logic, natural philo- 
sophy, and metaphysics, under the tuition of Mr. Samuel 
Craddock at the academy kept by him at Wickham Brook 
in Suffolk. In March 1688, he went over to the univer- 
sity of Utrecht, where he studied philosophy under Da 
Vries, and civil law under Vander Muyden, and attended 
Grsevius^s lectures upon Sophocles and PufFendorf's In- 
troduction. His application to his studies at this place 
was so great, that he spent one whole night every week 
among his books; and his proficiency gained him the 
friendship of two of his countrymen at that university, who 
rose afterwards to very high stations in church and state, 
lord Charles Spencer, the famous earl of Sunderland, and 
his tutor Mr. Charles Trimnell, afterwards successively 
bishop of Norwich and of Winchester, with both of whom 

» Bioff. Brit 


60 C A L A M Y. 

he kept up bis acquaintance as long as he and they lived* 
Whilst he resided in Holland, an offer of a professor's chair 
in the university of Edinburgh was made him by>Mr. Car- 
stairs, principal of that university, sent over on purpose to 
find a person properly quaUfied for such an office ; which 
he declined, and returned to England in 1691, bringing 
with him letters from Graevius to Dr. Pocock, canon of 
Christ-church, and regius professor of Hebrew, and to Dr. 
Edward Bernard, Savilian professor of astronomy, who ob- 
tained leave for him to prosecute his studies in the Bodleian 
library; and his residence at Oxford procured him the ac- 
quaintance of the learned Mr. Henry Dodwell. Having 
resolved to make divinity his principal study, he entered 
into an examination of the controversy between the xon- 
formists and nonconformists, and was led tp join the latter. 
Coming to London in 1692, he was unanimously chosen 
assistant to Mr. Matthew Sylvester at Blackfriars ; and on 
June 22, 1694, was ordained at Mr. Annesley's meeting- 
house in Little St. Helen's, which was the first public trans- 
action of the kindi after the passing of the act of unifor- 
mity, and was not undertaken without some timidity on 
the part of the elder nonconformists, such as Mr. Howe 
and Dr. Bates, who seemed afraid of giving offence to go- 
vernment. Six other young ministers were ordained at 
the same time, and the ceremony lasted from ten o'clock 
in the morning: to six in the evening. He was soon after 
invited to become assistant to Mr. Daniel Williams in 
Hand-alley, Bishopsgate-street. Oct. 20, 1 702, he was chosen 
one of the lecturers at Salters'-hall, and in 1703 succeeded 
Mr. Vincent Alsop, as pastor of a congregation in West- ' 
minster. He drew up the table of contents to Mr. Baxter's 
History of his life and times, which was sent to the press 
in 1696, made some remarks on the work itself, and added 
to it an index ; and reflecting on the usefulness of the 
book, he saw the expediency of continuing it, for Mr. 
Baxter's history came no lower than 1684. Accordingly 
he composed an abridgment of it ; with an account of many 
others of those ministers who were ejected after the resto- 
ration of Charles H. their apology for themselves and their 
adherents ; containing the grounds of their nonconformity 
and practice, as to stated and occasional communion with 
the church of England ; and a continuation of their history 
till the year 1691. This work was pubHshed in 1702, The 
t'ollowing year Mr. Hoadly (afterwards bishop of Winches- 

C A L A M Y. «l 

ter) published the two parts of his '' Reasonableness of 
Conformity to the Church of England, &c. in answer to Mr. 
Calamy's Abridgement of Mr. Baxter's history, &c." As a 
reply to these treatises, Mr. Calamy published the same 
year, " A Defence of moderate Nonconformity ;" and soon 
after Mr. Hoadly sent abroad, ^' A serious -admonition to 
Mr. Calamy,'' occasioned by the first part of his ^^ Defence 
of moderate Nonconformity." 

Next year Mr. Calaipy published the second part of bis 
** Defence of moderate Nonconformity ;" with an answer to 
Mr. Hoadly's Serious Admonition. In 1705 he sent abroad 
the third part of his Defence ; to which was added, ** A 
letter jto Mr. Hoadly, in answer to his Defence of the Rea- 
sonableness of Conformity." In 1707 Mr. Hoadly pub- 
lished his Defence of Episcopal Ordination ; and Mr. 
Calamy drew up a reply, both to the argumentative and 
historical part of it, but forbore printing it, as he tells us 
himself in his abridgment of Baxter's life, that he might 
not give his antagonist any disturbance in the pursuit of 
that political contest, in which he was engaged. In 1709 
Mr. Calamy made a tour to Scotland, and had the degree 
of D. p. conferred on him by the universities of Edinburgh, 
Aberdeen, and Glasgow. In 1713 he published a second 
edition of his Abridgment of Mr. Baxter's history of his life 
and times; in which, among other aciditions, there is a 
continuation of the history through king William's reign, 
and queen Anne's, down to the passing of the occasional 
bill ; and in the close is subjoined the reformed liturgy, 
which was drawn up and presented to the bishops in 1661 ; 
^' that the world may judge (he says in the preface) how 
fairly the ejected ministers have been often represented as 
irreconcileable enemies to all liturgies." In 1718 he wrote 
a vindication of his grandfather and several other persons, 
against certain reflections cast upon them by Mr. archdea- 
con Echard in his History of England; and in 172S ap- 
peared his continuation of the account of the ministers, lec- 
turers, masters, and fellows of colleges, and school-masters, 
who were ejected and silenced after the restoration in 1660, 
by, or before the act of uniformity. He died June 3, 1732, 
greatly regretted, not only by the dissenters, but also by 
the moderate membets of the established chur(?h, both 
clergy and laity, with many of whom he lived in great in- 
timacy. Mr, Daniel Mayo, by whom his funeral sermon 
w^s preached, observes, ** that he was of a candid and be- 

¥. 1 

52 C A L A M Y. 

nevolent disposition^ and very moderate with regard to 
differences in point of religion." Besides tiie pieces already 
mentioned, iie published a great many sermons on several 
subjects and occasions, particularly a vindication of that 
celebrated text, I John v. 7, from being spurious, and an 
explanation of it on the supposition of being genuine, in 
four sermons, preached at the Salters^-hall lectures. He 
was twice married, and had thirteen children. 

Dr. Calamy left behind him a MS. in 3 vols, folio, en- 
titled " An historical account of my own life, with some 
reflections on the times I have lived in." Some account 
is given of this MS. in the Biog. Britannica, by Dr. Kippis, 
who was favoured with the perusal of it by the author's 
grandson Edmund Calamy, esq. barrister at law ; but there 
does not appear to be much in it that would now be 
thought interesting. His most valuable work is undoubtedly 
his Lives of the Nonconformists, to which, whatever objec- 
tions may be offered to individual passages, every student 
of English biography must acknowledge his obligations. 
An abridgment of this work, in 2 vols. 8vo, under the title 
of " The Nonconformist's Memorial,'* was published by the 
rev. Sam. .Palmer .of Hackney, in 1775, and republished, 
with additions, in 1802, 3 vols. 8vo. ^ 

CALANUS was an Indian philosopher who followed 
Alexander the Great in his expedition to the Indies. Being 
tormented with the colic after passing eighty-three years in 
health, he petitioned the conqueror to cause a funeral pile 
to be erected whereon he might finish his days according 
to the custom of his country. That prince, who loved and 
esteemed him, reluctantly yielding to his entreaties, or- 
dered his army to range itself in order of battle round the 
funeral pile. Calanus, crowned with flowers, and magni- 
ficently habited, ascended the pile with a tranquil and 
composed countenance, saying as he went up, that ^^ hav- 
ing lost his health, and seen Alexander, life had nothing 
more to interest him." He bore the action of the fire 
without discovering any signs of uneasiness or pain ; and, 
on being asked if he had nothing to say to Alexander ?— - 
** No," returned the philosopher, " I reckon soon to receive 
him at Babylon." The hero dying three months after- 
wards in that city, thfe brachman was thought to have been 
a prophet ^ a circumjstance which added not a little of the 

> Biog. Brit»— Funeral Sermon by Mayo. 

C A L A N U S. 53 

marvellous to his history. Calanus's death took place in 
the fourth year of the 1 13th Olympiad, or 325 B. C. ' 

CALASIO (Marius) was a Franciscan^ and professor of 
the Hebrew language at Rome, but we have no other in- 
formation respecting his personal history. He p.biished 
at Home in 1621, a '^Concordance of the Bible," which 
consisted of four great volumes in folio. This work, which 
is properly a concordance of Hebrew words, has been 
highly approved and commended by both papists and pro* 
testants. Besides the Hebrew words in the Bible, which 
are in the body of the book, with the Latin virrsion over 
against them, there are in the margin the ditiFerences be* 
tween the Septuagint version and the Vulgate; so that 
at one view may be seen wherein the three Bibles agree, 
and wherein they diiFer; and at the beginning of every 
article there is a kind of dictionary, which gives the signi- 
fication of each Hebrew word, and affords an opportunity 
of comparing it with other oriental languages, viz. with the 
Syriac, Arabic, and Chaldee; which is extremely useful for 
determining more exactly the true meaning of the Hebrevt 
words. The plan of this Hebrew concordance was takea 
from a concordance of rabbi Nathan, which was pnnted 
first at Venice, iand afterwards at Basil, much augmented 
by rabbi Mordochee. Calasio's concordance was published 
in London by Romaine, Rovve Mores, and Lutzena, a 
Portuguese Jew, 1747, 4 vols, folio; but very incorrectly, 
as it is said ; and the fidelity of the principal editor, who 
was a follower of Hutchinson, has upon that account been 
suspected, probably without justice, but it is certain that 
the learned give the preference to the old edition. * 

CALCAGNINI (Crlio), a canon of the church of Fer- 
rara, and a poet and orator of considerable distinction, 
was born at Ferrara in 1479, and, as generally supposed, 
was the natural son of a person who was an apostolic ro-^ 
tary. He studied under Peter Pomponazzo, but devoting 
himself to a military life, served under the emfieror Maxi« 
xnilian. He afterwards engaged in the service of Julius IL ' 
and was endployed in several important negociations. Re- 
turning to Ferrara, he obtained the particular favour of the 
family of Este, and was chosen to accompany the cardinal 
Ippolito on his journey into Hungary. About the year 
1520, he was appointed professor of the belles lettres in 

1 Moreri.— •Bruckert— Qaintuf Curtiuf • * Moreri.-— Diet. Hist. 


the unirersity of Ferrara, which situation he 611ed with 
great credit untii his death, in 1541. He was interred in 
the hbrary of the Jacobins, to which he bequeathed his 
books, and on «yhich are two inscriptions to his memory, 
one signifying that ^^ by continual study, he had learned to 
despise earthly things, and not to be insensible of his own 
ignorance," fignorantiarn suavi non ignoi^are.J His works 
were published at Basil in 1541, one vol. folio, or accord- 
ing to Moreri, in 1544, and contain sixteen bo4»ks of epis- 
tles, and philosophical, political, and critical dissertations 
on various subjects, and he also wrote some Latin poetry, 
which the critics of his time prefer to his prose, the latter 
being heavy, unequal, and affected ; his poetry was pub- 
lished with the poems of John Bapttsta Pigna and Louis 
Ariosto, at Venice, 1553, 8vo. He appears to have cor- 
responded with Erasmus, whom, like many others, he 
hlamed for his undecided character in the questions which 
arose out of the reformation. ' 

CALCAR, or KALKAR (John), a historical and por- 
trait painter, was born at Calcar, a city ofOleves, in 1499, 
and was the principal disciple of Titian ; and by the pre- 
cepts of that great master, made such progress, that several 
of his designs and paintings have been accounted, by very 
sufficient judges, the work of Titian's own hand. Even 
Goltzius himself, when at Naples he was examining some 
of Calcar's portraits, was of opinion they were Titian's, nor 
could he be undeceived till he saw the name of Calcar in- 
scribed on others, which were equally excellent. It is also 
affirmed by Sandrart, that he imitated the works of Ra- 
phael with such exactness, as to deceive the connoisseurs. 
Vasari, who knew hiip at Naples, says that it is impossible 
to observe in the works of this master, the smallest traces 
of the Flemish taste. He designed all the beads for the 
works of Vasari, and the' anatomical figures in the works of 
Vesalius. Rubens possessed a most capital picture by 
Calcar, a nativity, afterwards purchased by Sandrart, and 
* sold by him to the Emperor Ferdinand. Calcar died in 

' CALDERINUS (Domitius), a man of great learning in 
the fifteenth century, was bom at Torri sul lago, in 1445. 

1 Moreri.— Diet. Hist. — Rotco«'i Leo.— Paul Joyius, who gires a rary ai^ 
flilroarabl^ account of X^alcagniifi, % Pilkiogtoq, 


C A L D E R I N U S. 5p 

•Sacfa was fais early reputation, that at the age of twenty- 
four he was invited by Paul II. to take upon him the office 
of public lecturer on the belles-lettres at Rome ; and Sixtus 
IV. appointed him apostolic secretary. After a short life / 

of incessant study and literary warfare, he was cut o(F by a 
fever in 1477, when only thirty-two years of age. To him 
is attributed the praise of having first pointed out and ex- 
emplified the true method of elucidating ancient authors, 
by combining with verbal criticism, the lights of antiquity 
and general erudition. The literary reputation of Cal- 
derinus procured him many rivals during his life-time, as 
George Merula, Aurispa, Aug. Sabinus, Nic. Perottus, 
Trapezuntius, &c. and it is certain that Politian draws his 
character with much more blame than praise. Of his ta- 
lents, indeed, his application and skill in Latin, Politian 
speaks in handsome terms, and acknowledges that his pro- 
ficiency in Greek was not inconsiderable ; but adds, that 
he was so vain of his own talents, and so tenacious of any 
opinion he had once adopted, as to adhere to it in open 
defiance of conviction and truth. The style of his compo- 
sitions is haughty, contemptuous, and overbearing ; he 
cavils on every trifling pretext, and attacks all without 
discrimination. These were propensities which involved 
him in numberless disputes with the learned of the day. 
Yet while he was the object of undisguised hatred to per- 
sons of this description, such was his authority in letters, 
that even in his youth be carried away the palm of ce- 
lebrity from all the Roman professors. Politian adds more 
to the same purpose, which may be seen in our authority ; 
on the other hand, the learned world are under unquestion* 
able obligations to Calderinus, and probably, had he lived 
longer, he would have corrected that vivacity of passion 
which involved him so often with his contemporaries. > 
Among his works, is an ample Commentary on Martial, 
Venice, 1474, fol. ; another on Juvenal, ibid. 1475, fol. 
The edition of Virgil of 1492, has some notes of his ; and 
, he commented on Ovid's Metamorphoses, Persius, and Ca- 
tullus. His notes " In Ibih" were published at Venice, 
1485, and on the " Sylvae" of Statins, Brixiae, 1476, with 
a dissertation on the letter of Sappho, and another on the 
most difficult passages of Propertius, addressed to Francis 
of Arragon, son of Ferdinand, king of Naples. * 

1 Gen. Diet.— CirttwelPs Politian.— 'PaulJorius in Elogiis. — Saxii Oaomast. 


CALDERONI de la Barca (Don Pedro), a celebrated 
Spanish dramatic poet, was chevalier of the order of St. 
James, and at first distinguished himself as a soldier. This 
profession he quitted, and became an-ecclesiastic, and was 
made priest and canon of Toledo. There are several dra- 
matical pieces by him in 9 vols. 4to, Madrid, 1689; not 
to mention, several others that have not been printed. 
The imagination of Calderoni, however, was too fertile to 
allow him to be regular and correct. The rules of the 
drama are violated in almost all his works. We perceive 
in his tragedies the irregularity of Shakspeare, his eleva- 
tion and his degradation, flashes of genius as strong, comic 
turns as much out of place, an inflation no less capricious, 
and the same bustle of action and incident. Some of 
his pieces are still performed on the Spanish stage, and 
some have been translated into Frenqb. This poet flou- 
rished about the year 1640. * 

C ALDER WOOD (David), a famous divine of the 
church of Scotland, and a distinguished writer in behalf 
of the presbyterians, was descended of a good family in 
that kingdom, and born in 1575. Being early designed 
for the ministry, he applied with great diligence to the 
study of the scriptures in their original tongues^ the works 
of the fathers, the councils, and the be^t writers of church 
history. He was settled, about 1604, at Crailing, not far 
from Jedburgh, in the south of Scotland. James VI. of 
that country, and the first of Great Britain, being desirous 
of bringing the church of Scotland to a near conformity 
with that of England, laboured earnestly to restore the 
episcopal authority, and enlarge the powers of the bishops 
in that kingdom ; but this design was very warmly opposed 
by many of the ministers, and particularly by David Cal- 
derwood, who, when James Law, bishop of Orkney, came 
to visit the presbyteries of the Merse and Teviotdaie, de- 
clined his jurisdiction, by a paper under his hand, dated 
May 5, 160S. The king, however, having its success 
much at heart, sent the earl of Dunbar, then high-trea- 
surer of Scotland, Dr. Abbot, afterwards archbishop of 
Canterbiiry, and two other divines, into that kingdom, 
with instructions to employ every method to .persuade both 
the clergy and the laity, of his majesty's sincere desire to 
promote the good of the church, and of his zeal for th« 

1 Diet. If i|t.—Moreric— Antonio Bibl. Hisp. 


-Protestant religion, in which they succeeded. Calder- 
wood, however, did not assist at the general assembly held at 
Glasgow, June 8, 1610, in which lord Dunbar presided as 
commissioner ; and it appears from his writings, that he 
looked upon every thing transacted in it as null and void. 
Exceptions were also taken by him and his party, against 
a great part of the proceedings of another general assembly, 
held with much solemnity at Aberdeen, Aug. 13, 1616. 
In May following, king James went to Scptland, and iii 
June held a parliament at Edinburgh ; at the same time 
the clergy met in one of the churches, to hear and ad- 
vise with the bishops ; which kind of assembly, it seems, 
was contrived in imitation of the English convocation. Mr. 
Calderwood was present at it, but declared publicly that 
he did not take any such meetings to resemble a convoca- 
tion ; and being opposed by Dr. Whitford and Dr. Ha- 
milton, who were friends to the bishops, he took his leave 
of them in these words : " It is absurd to see men sitting 
in silks and satins, and to cry pqverty in the kirk, when 
purity is departing." The parliament proceeded mean 
while in the dispatch of business ; and Calderwood, with 
several other ministers, being informed that a bill was de-* 
pending to empower the king, with advice of the archbi-^ 
shops, bishops, and such a number of the ministry as his 
majesty should think proper, to consider and conclude, as 
to matters decent for the external policy of the church, 
not repugnant to the word of God ; and that such conclu- 
sions should have the strength and power of ecclesiastical 
laws : against this they protested for four reasons : J . Be- 
cause their church was so perfect, that, instead of needing 
reformation, it might be a pattern to others. 2. General 
assemblies, as now established by law, and which ought 
always to continue, might by this means be overthrown. 
3. Because it might be a means of creating schism, and 
disturb the tranquillity of the t^hurch. 4. Because they 
had received assurances, that no attempts should be made 
to bring them to a conformity with the church of England. 
They desired, therefore, that for these and other reasons, 
all thoughts of passing any such law may be laid aside ; but 
in case this be not done, they protest, for themselves and 
their brethren who shall adhere to them, that they can 
yield no obedience to this law when it shall be enacted, 
because it is destructive of the liberty of the church ; and 
therefore shall submit to such penalties, and think them* 


C A L D E R WO O D. 

selves obUged to undergo such punishments, as may be 
inflicted for disobeying that law. This protest was signed 
by Archibald Simpson, on behalf of the members, who sub- 
scribed another separate roll, which he kept for his justi- 
fication. It was delivered to Peter Hewet, who had a seat 
in parliament, in order to be presented ; and another cqpy 
remained in Simpson^s hands, to be presented in case of 
any accident happening to the other. The affair making 
a great noise. Dr. Spotswood, archbishop of St. Arjdrew's, 
asked a sight of the protest from Hewet, one day at court ; 
and, upon some dispute between them, it was torn. The 
other copy was actually presented by Simpson to the 
clerk register, who refused to read it before the states in 
parliament. However, the protest, though not read, had 
its effect ; for although the bill before-mentioned, or, as 
the Scottish phrase is, the article, had the consent of par- 
liament, yet the .kingf thought fit to cause it to be laid 
aside ; and not long after called a general assembly at St. 
Andrew's. Soon after, the parliament was dissolved, and 
Simpson was summoned before the high commission courts 
where the roll of names which he had kept for his justi- 
fication, wa3 demanded from him ; and upon his declaring 
that he had given it to Harrison, who had since delivered 
it to Calderwood, he was sent prisoner to the castle of 
Edinburgh ; and Calderwood was summoned to appear be- 
fore the high commission court at St. Andrew's, on the 8th 
of July following, to exhibit the said protest, and to an- 
swer for his mutinous and seditious behaviour. 

July 12, the king came to that city in person, and soon 
after Hewet and Simpson were deprived and imprisoned. 
After this, Calderwood was called upon, and refusing to 
comply with what the king in person required of him, 
James, after haranguing at some length on his disobe- 
dience, ' committed him to prison ; and afterwards the 
privy^council, according to the power exercised by them 
at that time, directed him to banish himself out of the 
king's dominions before Michaelmas following, and not to 
. return w ithout licence ; and upon giving security for this 
purpose, be was discharged out of prison, and suffered to 
return to his parish, but forbid to preach. Having applied 
to the king for a prorogation of his sentence without suc- 
cess, because he would neither acknowledge his offence, 
nor pifomise conforgaity for the future, he retired to Hol- 
land in 1619, where his publicatioais were securely muU 


tiplied, and diffused through Scotland, particu^iiy one 
entitled " The Perth Assembly/* which was condemned 
by the council. In 1623 he published his celebrated trea- 
tise entitled ^' Altare Damascenum, seu ecclesiae AngU- 
canae politia, ecclesise Scoticans obtrusa k formalista quo- 
dam delineata, iliustrata^ et examinata." The writer of 
the preface prefixed to Calderwood's ^^ True history of 
the church of Scotland" tells us, that ^* the author of this 
very learned and celebrated treatise (which is an answer to 
Liuwood^s * Description of the Policy of the church of 
England') doth irrefragably and unanswerably demonstrate 
the iniquity of designing and endeavouring to model and 
conform the divinely simple worship, discipline, and go-, 
vernment of the church of Scotland to the pattern of the 
pompously prelatic and ceremonious church of England ; 
under some conviction whereof it seems king James himself 
was, though implacably displeased with it, when, being 
after the reading of it somewhat pensive, and being asked 
the reason by an English prelate standing by and observing 
it, he told him he had seen and read such a book ; where- 
upon the prelate telling his majesty not to suffer that to 
trouble him, for they would answer it ; he .replied, not 
without some passion, ^ What would you answer, man i 
There is nothing here but scripture, reason, and the fa- 
thers*.*' This work was in fact an enlargement, in Latin; of 
one which %e wrote in English, and published in 1621, 
under the title of ** The Altar of Damascus," and which is 
uncommonly rare. It concludes with noticing a rumour 
spread by bishop Spotswood, that Mr. Calderwood had 
turned Brownist, which rumour it denies in strong language, 
and with the following intemperate and unbecoming threat: 
** If either Spotswood, or his supposed author, persist in 
their calumny after this declaration, 1 shall try if there be 
any blood in their foreheads." Calderwood having in 1624 
been afflicted with a long fit of sickness, and nothing 
haying been heard of him for some time, one Patrick Scot 
(as Calderwood himself informs us), took it for granted 
that he was dead ; and thereupon wrote a recantation in 
his name, as if before his decease he had changed his sen- 
timents. This imposture being detected, Scot went over 
to Holland, and staid three weeks at Amsterdam, where 
he made diligent search for the author of " Altare Damas- 
cenum," with a design, as Calderwood believed, to have, 
dispatched him: but Calderwood had privately returned 

90 C A L D E R W O O D. 

into his own country, where he remained for several years. 
Scot gave out that the king furnished him with the matter 
for the pretended recantation^ and that he only put it in 

During his retirement, Calderwood collected all the 
memorials relating to the ecclesiastical affairs of Scotland, 
from the beginning of the reformation there, down to the 
death of king James ; which collection is still preserved, 
that which was published under the title of " The true 
History of Scotland," 1680, fol. being only an extract 
from it. He probably returned to Scotland about 1636, and 
in 1 643 we find him one of those who were appointed to 
draw up the. form of the " Directory for the public worship 
of God" by the Genecal Assembly ; and when the English 
army lay at Lothian, in 1651, he went to Jedburgh, where, 
we are told, he sickened and died ia a good old age, but 
the date is not given. 

It. may be necessary to say somewhat more of his manu- 
script his^tory, which is contained in six large folio volumes, 
in the Glasgow library*. In the first volume, immediately 
after the title-page, there is the following note. — " This 

work, comprehended in P^g^s, is collected out of 

Mr. Knox's History, and his Memorials gathered for the 
continuation of his History, out of Mr. James Melvil's Ob* 
servations, Mr. John Davidson his Diary, the Acts of the 
General Assemblies, and Acts of Parliament, and out of 
several Proclamations, and Scrolls of diverse ; and com- 
prehendeth an History from the beginning of the reign of 
king James V. to the death of king James VI. but is con- 
tracted and digested in a better order, in a work of three 
volumes, bound in parchment, and is comprehended in 
2013 pages. Out of which work contracted, is extracted 
another, in lesser bounds, but wanting nothing in sub- 
stance, and comprehended in — pages, which the author 
desireth only to be communicated to others, and this with 
the other, contracted into three volumes, to serve only for 
the defence of the third, and preservation of the History, 
in case it be lost.'' The first of the six volumes gives a 

* There are three other transcripts formerlymlnister of Glasgow; and the 

of it, one in the Advocates library at third belongs to the General Assembly 

Edinburgh ; another in the possesfiion of the church of Scotland, to whom it 

of general Calderwood Durliam of was presented by Mr. Wodrow, a 

Largo, the representative of Mr. Cal- more recent ecclesiastical historian of 

derwood, and of Mr. James Durham, Scotliind. / 


large introduction, in which the author undertakes to 
inform us of the time when, and the persons by whom 
the island of Great Britain was first inhabited ; and after- 
wards brings down the Scottish Civil History as well 
as the Ecclesiastical, from the first planting of Chris-* 
tianity to the end of James the Fourth's reign. Aftec 
his account of the affairs of the state and the church, 
we have a view of all the most considerable wars and 
battles (domestic and foreign) wherein the people of 
Scotland have been engaged before the said period, aa 
also of the ancient honorary titles, and their institution. 
On thisi last head he quotes an old manuscript, sent from 
Icolmkiil to Mr. George Buchanan, which testifies that a 
parliament was held at Forfar, in the year 1061, wherein 
surnames are appointed to be taken, and several earls, 
barons, lords, and knights, were created. After this ge« 
neral preface he begins his proper work. The History of 
the Scottish Reformation. And in this volume advances as 
far as the marriage of queen Mary with the lord Darnley, 
in 1565. In his story of Mr. Patrick Hamilton, the pro* 
tomartyr in this cause, he gives a copy of the sentence 
pronounced against him, together with a congratulatory 
letter from the doctors at Louvaiu to the archbishop of St. 
Andrew's, on the occasion of his death. Amongst those 
learned men, who upon the first persecution fled into Ger- 
many, he reckons Mr. George Buchanan. In his large 
account of the disputes and sufferings of the reformers, 
under the administration of cardinal Beaton and the queen 
regent, we have the particulars of the contentions at Frank- 
furt, which are mostly taken out of a book entitled ^' A 
brief discovery of the Troubles of Mr. John Knox, for op- 
posing the English Service Book, in 1554." After which 
we have Knox's Appeal from the sentence of the clergy, 
to the nobility, estates, and community of Scotland, with 
a great many letters from the nobility to the queen-regent 
and him, on the subject of religion. All this part of the 
history, which in the printed book makes no more than 
thirteen pages, ends at page 571; from whence (to the 
end of the book at page 902) there is a good collection of 
curious letters, remonstrances, &c. which are not in the 
prints, either of Knox or Calderwood. The second vo- 
lume contains the history from 1565 to the arraignment of 
the earl of Moreton for treason, in December 1590, aii4 
contains 614 pages, wherein are mmy valuable discoveries 

€2 C A L D E R W O 6 D. 

relating to thfe practices of David Rizzio, the king's mur- 
der, Bothwell's marriage and flight, &c. and a more per- 
fect narrative of the proceedings in the general assemblies, 
than the printed history will afford us. The third volume 
comprehends the entire history^ of both church and state, 
from the beginning of January 1581 to July 1586, when 
queen Mary's letter to Babington was intercepted. Under 
the year 1584, there is a severe character of Mr. Patrick 
Adamson, archbishop of St. Andrew's ; which, in the con- 
clusion, refers us for a farther account of him to a poem 
made by one Robert Semple, and entitled " The Legend 
of the Limmer's Life." Here is also " An account of the 
State and Church of Scotland to the Church of Geneva,'* 
which was written by Andrew Melvil, in answer to the mis- 
representations of the Scottish discipline scattered in fo- 
reign countries, by the said archbishop Adamson. The 
fourth gives the like mixed history of affairs, from July 1586 
to the beginning of 1596. Here we have a full collection 
of papers relating to the trial, condemnation, and execu- 
tion, of the unfortunate queen Mary, with abundance of 
others, touching the most remarkable transactions of this 
Decennium. In 1587 there is a large account of the 
coming of the sieur du Bartas into Scotland ; of his being 
carried by king James to the university of St. Andrew's, his 
hearing of the lectures of Mr. A. Melvil there, and the 
great opinion he had of the abilities of that professor, &c. 
In 1590 there are some smart reflections on Dr. Bancroft's 
sermon at Paul's Cross, censuring the proceedings of J. 
Knox, and others of the northern reformers, with the as- 
sembly's letter to queen Elizabeth about that sermon. The 
fifth volume reaches from the beginning of January 1596, 
to the same month in 1607. After the accounts of the 
proceedings of the assembly in 1596, the author subjoins 
this pathetic epiphonema: " Here end all the sincere assem- 
blies general of the kirk of Scotland, enjoying the liberty 
of the gospel under the free government of Christ." The 
new and constant Piatt of Planting all the Kirks of Scotland 
(written by Mr. David Lindsay, one of the Octavians) is 
here inserted at large, as it was presented to the king and 
states in the said year 1596. The history of the conspiracy 
of the Gowries, and the manner of its discovery, is likewise 
here recorded at length, in the same order, wherein the 
king commanded it to be published. The new form of 
nomination to bishoprics, the protestation in parliament 


against the restitution of episcopacy, and the reasons of- 
fered against it by others, are the remaining matters of 
consideration in this book. The sixth concludes with the 
death of king James VI. 

Besides what we have already mentioned, Calderwood 
was the author of many other works relating to the church 
discipline of Scotland, which are now of rare occurrence, 
and prized only by collectors. These were printed in 
Holland, but imported into Scotland, notwithstanding the 
most severe prohibitions.-* 

CALDWALL (Richard), or Chaldwell, an English phy- 
sician, was born in Staffordshire about 1513, and was ad- 
mitted into Brazeu-nose college in Oxford, of which he 
was in due season elected fellow. In 1539 he took his 
decnree of M. A. and became one of the senior students of 
Christ Church in 1547, which was a little after its last 
foundation by king Henry VIII. Afterwards he studied 
physic and took the degrees in that faculty, and became 
so highly esteemed for his learning and skill, that he was 
examined, approved, admitted into, and elected censor 
of, the college of physicians at London in the same day. 
Six weeks after, he was chosen one of the elects of the said 
college, and in 1570 made president of it. Wood tells 
us, that he wrote several pieces upon subjects relating to 
his profession ; but does not say what they were. He men- 
tions a book written by Horatio Moro, a Florentine physi- 
cian, and called ** The Tables of Surgery, briefly com* 
prehending the whole art and practice thereof;'' which 
Caldwall translated into English, and published at London 
in 1585. We learn from Camden, that Caldwall founded 
a chirurgical lecture in the college of physicians, and en- 
dowed it with a handsome salary. He died in 1585, and 
was buried at the church of St. Bennet near Paul's wharf.* 

CALDWELL (Andrew), a literary gentleman of Ire- 
land, was the son of Charles Caldwell, esq. an eminent so- 
licitor, and was born in Dublih, 1732. He received part 
of his education in one of the universities in Scotland, from 
whence he removed to London ; and after a residence of 
about five years at the Temple, returned to Dublin, where 
he was admitted to the bar in 1760 ; but his father being 
possessed of a good estate, fully adequate to his son's wishes^ 

1 Biog. Brit— -Biog. Scoticana.-^Baillie's Letters and Journali.— Laing's His- 
tory of Scotland.— Brewster's Ediubuifh £ncvclop»dia. 
* Ath. Ox. rol. I.— Geo. Diet. 


he never paid much attention to the profession of the law,- 
and for several years before his death had entirely quitted 
it. His studious disposition, and taste for the fine arts, 
always afforded him sufficient employment, and be was a 
liberal patron of those who excelled in any of the various 
branches of art. He had studied architecture with parti- 
cular attention ^ and about the }'ear 1770, published, anony- 
mously, some very judicious " Observations on the pub- 
lic buildings of Dublin," and on some edifices, which at 
that time were about to be erected in that city at the ex- 
pence of the state. The only other known production of 
his pen that has been published, is a very curious ^^ Ac- 
count of the extraordinary escape of James Stewart, esq* 
(commonly called Athenian Stewart) from being put to 
death by some Turks, in whose company he happened to 
be travelling ;" the substance of which had been commu- 
nicated to Mr. Caldwell by the late Dr. Percy, bishop oif 
Dromore, as related to his lordship by Stewart himself. 
Of this narrative, of which only a small number was printed 
'at Lonidon in 1304, for the use of the author^s friends, it 
is believed not more than a dozen copies were distributed 
in this country. Mr. Caldwell's love of literature naturally 
led him to collect an ample library, which was particularly 
rich in natural history. His manners were gentle and 
pleasing, and his benevolence, various knowledge, and cul-. 
tivated taste, endeared him to a very numerous circle of 
friends. He died at the house of his nephew, major-gene- 
ral Cockburn, near Bray in the county of Wicklow, July 
2, 1808, in the seventy-sixth year of his. age. * 

CALENTIUS, or CALENZIO (Eusius), a modern 
Latin poet of the fifteenth century, was a native of Naples, 
and became preceptor to Frederic, the son of Ferdinand I. 
king of Naples, whom he endeavoured to inspire with the 
love of those virtues and principles of justice which would 
dignify his high station. He did not approve of condemn- 
ing malefactors * to death. According to him, ^^ thieves 
should be obliged to restore what they had stolen, after 
being beaten for the theft; homicides should be made 
slaves ; and other criminals be sent to the mines and the 
gallies." He had also studied and practised agriculture 
and horticulture with great success. Having come to 
France, he was a witness of the war between Charles the 
hardy, duke of Burgundy, and the Swiss, the history pf 

1 QenU Mag. I80S. 


ti4i]ch he was requested to write, but declined it, aslie 
thought it did not become, him to speak ill of princes, or to* 
tell what was not true. It appears by his letters that he 
tnarried young, was extremely fond of his wife, and had 
many children. Yet he was accused of illicit amours, 
which it is said k^pt him poor. He is supposed to have 
died about [503. There have been three editions of his 
works, two at Rome, one in 1 503, fol. *^ Opuscula Elisii 
Calentii, poetsB clarissimi ;** and a third at Basil, 1554. 
They consist of elegies, epigrams, epistles; the battle of 
the frogs, imitated from Homer ; satires, fables, &c. &c« 
His poem of the battle between the rats and the frogs, 
from Homer, was reprinted in 1738 at Rouen, in a collec- 
tion, 12mo, of select fables of la Fontaine put into Latin 
verse, publii^ed by the abb6 Saas. Calentius composed 
this poem at eighteen years of age, and finished it in seven 
days. * 

CALEPIN, or CALEPINUS (Ambros^, a lexicogra- 
pher of considerable fame, was a native of Calepio near 
Bergamo in Italy, from which lie took his name, and lived 
in the fifteenth and beginning of the sixteenth century. 
He took the habit of the Augustine order, and was^much 
esteemed for learning and personal character. His ^' Lex- 
icon,'* on which he had laboured for many years, appeared 
first in 1503. He died in 1510, deprived of his sight 
through old age, but had employed his latter days in re* 
viewing and correcting his work. It appears to have had 
the fate of Moreri^s Dictionary, to have fallen into the 
hands of editors who by repeated corrections and enlarge- 
ments, rendered it a publication of some consequence. The 
editors of Stephanus* Thesaurus concur, with Erasmus^ 
Ludovicus Vives, Borrichius, and others, in speaking with 
great contempt of Calepin, and, perhaps, with more than 
he deserves. Jacobus Philippius only, of that age, speaks 
respectfully of Calepin. The Lexicon, however, has gone 
through fifteen editions, with successive improvements, the 
best of which are that of Chifflet, Lyons, 1631, 2vols. foL 
and that of Facciolati, Padua, 1758, also in 2 vols. fol. 
Chrbtopher Wase's Latin Dictionary, the second edition 
of which was published at Oxford in 1675, is a very judi4 
cious compendium of Calepin. * 

» Morcri.— Diet. Hist. 

* Moreri.— Fabr. Bibl. Med. et Inf. ^at.i^Stephen's Theiaurat.-«-6aiU«t 
Ju^mens d«t SaTani.— Saxii OnoituieC. 

Vol. VII I. F 


^ALETTI (JoS£Ph), called II Cremonesi:, an eminenr 
.arti9t of Ferrara, where he was born about 1600, studied 
and imitated, beyond all others, the tones of Titian, and 
carried the illusion to such a degree, that his half-figures, 
bacchanal^ and small histories, entered, the best galleries 
of Rome and Bologna as originals ; nor is he easily disco<- 
yered by the be&t eye or taste, but from the admission of 
some moce modern conceit, or carelessness of execution. 
That he possessed talents superior to what m^re mimickry 
can confer, is evident from his St. Mark, in the church of 
S« Benedetto at Ferrara, a majestic, correct, e^cpressive 
:$gare, girt by a profusion of volumes, whose picturesque 
arrangement and truth of touch procured him the name of 
the Bo(5k-Painter (Pittor da' Libri). Immediately after the 
e:s:eciition of this work, some say that h6 disappeared, and 
was heard of no more : whilst others, with tess probability 
of conjecture, extend the date of his death to 1660. ' 

CALFHILL, or CALFILL (James), a learned divine of 
the sixteenth century, otherwise named Calfield, Cawfield, 
Chalffaill, or Calfed, was born in Shropshire^ in 153G« 
Strype, however, says he was a Scotchman^ and cousin to 
Toby Mathew, afterwards archbishop of York. He ^-* 
eeived his education at Eton school, and from thence was 
sent, in 1545, to King's college in Cambridge, from which 
he was removed, with many other Cambridge men, in 1 54^S-, 
to Christ Ohurch in Oxford, newly founded by king Henry 
VIII. Here 1^ shewed himself to be a person of quick 
wit and great capacity ; being an excellent poet; and au- 
thor of a tragedy, with other theatrical performances. In 
1549, he took his degree of bachelor of arts ; and that of 
master in 1552, being junior of the act celebrated in St 
Mary^j^ church, July 13. He was made, in 1560, canon of 
the second canonry in Christ Church cathedral, Oxon ; and, 
on the 12th of December 1 56 1, took the degree of bachelor 
pf divinity. In 1 562 he was proctor for the clergy of Lon* 
don and the chapter of Oxford in the convocation that 
made the XXXIX Articles ; and on the 16th of May, the 
same year,, was admitted ro the rectory of St. Andrew 
Wardrobe, London. The 4th' of October following, be 
was presented by the crown to the prebend of St. Pan eras J 
i» the cathe'dral church of St-'-Paul; and May 4, 1565, wai 
collated by Matthew Parker, archbishop pf Canterbury, .to 

C A L F H t L L^ 6» 

tlie tectory of Bocking, in Essex; and on July l€th'fol« 
lewing, to the archdeaconry of Colcbestef in Essex, by 
Edmund Grindal, bishop <tf London. The same year, De- 
cember 17 th^ he took the degree of doctor in divinity. In 
1568, he preached two sermons in Bristol cathedral, on pur« 
pose to confute Dr. Cheney, who held that see in commen- 
dam, and who had spoken disrespectfully of certain opi« 
hions of Ltttherand Cal?in. In 1569 he made application 
to secretary Cecil, chancellor of the university of Cam- 
bridge, for the provostsbip^ of king's college^ but Dri 
Goad's interest prevailed. Upon the translation of Dr. Ed- 
win jSandys from the bishopric of Worcester to that of 
London in 1570^ Dn Caifhill was nominated by queen 
f^Iizabeth to succeed him j but before his consecration h6 
(^ied^ about the beginning of August (having a little be- 
fore resigned his canonry of Christ Church, and rectory of 
St. Andrew Wardrobe), and was buried in the chancel of 
Booking church. « His works were, 1. *' Querela Oxonien- 
sis Academis ad Cantabrigiam/' Lond. 1552, 4to> a Latin 
poem on the death of Henry and Charles Brandon, sons of 
Charles duke of Sttff<rik, who died of the sweating-sick-^ 
ness in the bishop of Lincoln's house at Bugden, July 
14, I55L 2. ^' Historic de exhumatione Catherine nuper 
Qxoris Pet Martyris ;" or, The History of the digging up 
the body of Catherine late wife of Peter Martyr, Lond^ 
1562, 8vo. The remains of this lady bad been deposited 
in the cathedral of Christ Church, near to the relics of St* 
Frideswide, and in queen Mary's reign were dug up and 
buried in the dunghill near the stables belonging to the 
dean ; but on the accession of queen Elizabeth, an ordet 
was given to replace them with suitable solemnity. This 
order our author partly executed, and the remains of 
Martyr's wife were on this occasion purposely mixed with, 
those of St. Frideswide, that the superstitious worshippers 
pf the latter might never be able to distinguish or separate 
them. 3. Answer to John Martiall's *^ Treatise of the Cross^ 
gathered out of the Scriptures, douncils^ and ancient Fa** 
thers of the primitive Church," Lond. 1565, 4to. 4. 
i^ Progne," a tragedy, in Latin; which probably was never 
printed, k was acted before queen Elizabeth at Oxford 
in 1566, in Christ Church hall ; but, says Wood, ^* it did 
hot take half so well as the much admired play of PalsDroon 
and Arcyte," written by £;dwards. 5. " Poemata varia.'* 
As to his character^ we are inforiped, tha^ he was in his 

F 2 

«» C A L F H I L L. 

* , . • 

younger days a noted poet and comedian ; and in bis eldei^ 
an exact disputant, and had an excellent faculty in speak« 
ing and preachmg. One who had beard him preach, gives 
this account of him : <' His exceUent tongue, and rhe^ 
torical tale, filled with good and wholesome doctrine, sd^ 
ravished the minds of the hearers, that they were all' in 
admiration of his eloquence." One John Calfhili, chap- 
lain to Dr. Matthew, archbishop of York, a prebendary of 
Durham, &c. who died in 1619, was probably son to our 
author. * 

CALIGNON (SoFFREY de), a native of Saint Jean, near 
Voiron in Dauphiny, was secretary to M. de Lesdiguiercsy 
and minister of the reformed religion, aftlerwards chancel- 
lor of Navarre. Henry IV. had a particular esteem for 
him, and employed him in affairs of the highest import- 
ance. Cahgnon and Thuanus together drew up the edict 
of Nantes. He died September 1606, at Paris, aged fifty- 
six, much lamented. He was a man of great learning^r 
und well skilled in the management of affairs. A satire 
written by him, entitled " Le Mepris des Dames,'* has been 
preserved to us by du Verdier Vauprivas. ** L* Histoire 
des choses plus remarquables advenues en France en Aiv^ 
pees 1587, 1538, et 1589, par S. C." printed 1590, Svo; 
is also attributed to him, and contains much information Of 
importance to the protestant cause. His life has been writ- 
ten by Gui Allard, with that of the baron des Adrets, and 
Dupuy Monbrun, Grenoble, 1675, 12mo. * ' 

CALIXTUS (George), an eminent Lutheran divine, 
was born at Medelbui, in Holstein> Dec. 14, 1586. His 
ifather, who was also a minister, intended him for the same 
profession, and seut him to study at Helmstadt, Jena, and 
Giessen, and most of the protestant schools of Germany. 
He travelled also with Matthias Overbeck, a rich Lutherarf, 
who resided in Holland, and conceiving a high opinion of 
Calixtus, became his liberal patron, as he had been to Her- 
man Conringius and many othert. After travelling also in 
f ranee and England, Calixtus returned to Germany, and 
was appointed professor of theology at Helmstadt in 1614^ 
and there he died, March 18, 1656, after a long theologi- 
cal warfare, both with his brethren aitd.the Roman catho- 
^ lies, excited by his endeavours to effect a comprehension 

1 Ath. Ox. vol, 1. — ^Wood's Hist, and Ajitiq. of Oxford, — llutchlssou's Hi^U 
•f DurhUDa, toL 1L p. 1B7. « Mor«ri;— 'Diet. Hiit, 

C A L I X T t S. W • 

Wtween the Roman and the Lutheran and Calv inist churches. 
According to MosheiiBy Calixtus was the first person that* 
reduced theology into a regular system, and gave it a truly 
scientific and philosophical form. As he had imbibed the 
spirit of the Aristotelian school, he arranged the substance* 
of Christianity according to the method of the Stagirite ; 
and divided the whole science of divinity into three parts« 
viz. the end, the subject, and the means. He was also the 
first who separated the objects of faith from the duties of 
morality, and exhibited the latter under the form of an in- 
dependent science. These innovations rendered him the 
object of much censure and opposition. In his attempt to 
reunite the several bodies of Christians, and to comprehend 
the different churches in one profession of religion, he was 

* 9, principal promoter of that system which was called syn- 
cretism. The controversy which was thus occasioned, sub- 
sisted long after his death ; and though he seemed, in his 
efforts for comprehension, to give advantage to the Romish 
church, no one attacked its tyranny and corruption with 

^ .greater vigour. Mosheim has entered largely into his sys- 
tem and the consequence of it, but it appears to us to be 
in sdme parts inconsistent ; and experience has shewn that 
all plans of comprehension are impracticable, without such 
sacrifices as the respective parties either cannot or will not 
make* His writings, which are extremely numerous, on 
various subjects of controversy, are enumerated by Freher, 
but without the necessary appendages of size, dates, &c. ' 
CALLE, or CALLET (John Francis), a French ma- 
thematician, was born on the 25th of October 1744, at 
Versailles, where he received a good education, and ac- 
quired an early taste for the mathematics. In 1763 he 
came to Paris, where he had an opportunity of being more 
thoroughly instructed. In 1774 he formed some distm- 
guished pupils for the school of engineers, where the ex- 
aminations were strict, ^nd admission difficult to be ob- 
tained. In 1779 he gained the prize proposed by the so- 
ciety of arts at Geneva, for escapements. In 1783 he com- 
pleted his edition of " Gardiner's Tables of Logarithms,** 
.which were exceedingly convenient, of great utility, and 
very correct; and which possessed advantages above all 
the others. In 1788 he was appointed professor of hydro- 
graphy at Vannes, afterwards at Dunkirk ; and in 1792 he 

* Moreri.— Mosheim's History. — Frehiri Theatrum. — Saxii OAomasticon, . 

70 C A L L E, 

returned to Paris, and was for a few years professor cfr^ tn^ 
genieurs geographes at the dep6t of war. This place hav- 
ing been suppressed^ he continued to teach in Paris^ where 
he was alyva^ys considered fts one of the beat mathematical 
mftsters to whom pupils could apply. In 1795 be published 
the new stereotype edition of the " Tables of Logarithms," 
considerably enlarged with logarithmic tables of the sines, 
ILccording to the new decimal division of the circle. The^e 
are the first which ever appeared. Towards the end of 
1797 he presented to the National Institute the plan of a 
new telegraph and a telegraphic language, accompanied 
with a dictionary of 12,000 French words adapted to it by 
a combination worthy of so able a mathematician. These 
labours had injured his health, and he had been a long time 
asthmatic, but, notwithstanding his condition, he published 
that year an excellent memoir on finding the longitude at 
sea, under the modest title of *^ A Supplement to the . 
Trigonometry and Navigation of Bezout/' He died on 
the. 14th of November, 1798, leaving behind him a daugh'v 
ter, born 4t Vannes ia 1793. According to a tradition ia 
the family, be was descended from Descartes. ^ 

CALLIERGUS (Zacuaiuas), a native of Crete, became 
^ very eminent Gree^ printer about tbe.^od of the fifte^intb 
eentury, which business he carried ofi first at Yeniee, and 
^terwards at Ropfie. He had a principal concern in the 
compil$ition as well as printing of the ^' EtymologicuiQ. 
magnum," printed at Venice in 1499, and printed in the 
aame year Simp(icius*s Commentary on Aristotle^s cate- 

fories. His edition of Pindar, with Greek scholia collected 
y himself, appeared at Roipe in 1515, 4to, and was: the 
first Gr^ek book printed, in that city. He also printed^ 
which is thought to be the secpnd Greek book executed. a|^ 
Rome, an editit)n of Theocritus, 1516j 8vo. Reiske CQn<4 
siders it among the most accurate and complete, of the 
early editions of Theocritus, and it was the first with the 
scholia. It is now both scarce and dear. An edition of 
Phavorinus*s Lexicon was also published by Cailierggs, a| 
Rome, 1523. Of the personal history of this learned an4 
ingenious printer we have no account. J^rasqiiis calls hioi 
f^ juvenis eximie doctus,'' and Gyraldus speaks of him aat 
having been of a family of some rank. ^ 

* Leland*s History of Astronomy for 1798 — "Rees's Cyclopedia.— Diet. Hist. 
< Hodiui de Qraecis iliustribss. — Fabric. BibU^Grec— Dibdin's Classic«.«^ 
^xii Onomast. 

C A L L I M A C H U S. 7t 


, CALLIMACHUSy m ancletu Greek poet, was bovn at 
Cjrrene, a town in Africa, and flourished under the Ptole- 
mies Philadelphus and Euergetes ; Berenice, queen -of 
the latter, having consecrated her locks in the temple of 
Venuii, and a flattering astronomer having translated them 
from thence into a constellation in the heavens, gave occa« 
sion to the fine el^y of this poet, which we have now 
only in the Latin of Catullus. He may be placed, there* 
fore, about 2S0 B. C. His common name Battiades has 
made the grammarians usually assign one Battus for bis 
father ; but perhaps he may as well derive that name from 
king Battus, the founder of Cyrene, from whose line, as 
Strabo assures us, he declared himself to be descended. But 
whoever was his father^ the poet has paid all his duties 
and obligations to him in a most delicate epitaph, which 
we find in the Antholpgia ; and which shews that Martial 
bad good reason to assign him, as he has done, the crown 
amcMtg the Grecian writers of the epigram. He was edu- 
cated under Hermocrates, the grammarian; and before 
he was reeommended to the favour of the kings of Egypt, 
he> taught a school at Alexandria ; and had the honour of 
educating Apollonius, the: author of the Argonautics. But 
Apoilonius making an unmteful return to his master for 
the pains he had tdcen wiw him, Callimachus was prpvoked 
to revenge himself in an invective poem, called Ibis^'^ 
which, it is known, furnwhed Ovid with a pattern iand title 
for a satire of the same nature. Suidas relates, that Calli-- 
macbus wrote above 800 pieces ; of which we have now 
remaining only a few hymns and epigrams. Quintilian is- 
'very justtfiable in having asserted, that Callimachus wds. 
the first of all the elegiac poets. He has the credit of hav- 
ing first spoken the proverbial spying, ^^ a great book is w 
jgreat evil,^* which critics have been fonder of repeating 
than authors. 

We know no more of the time of this poet's death than 
we do of ti)»t of his birth ; but it was probably in the reign 
of Ptolemy Euergetes : for Apollonius Rhodius, who was his 
scholar, vtm chosen by that prince to the care of the Alex* 
imdrian libraty, and after dying in that office was buried 
in Caliunacbus's grave. * 

The best e4?tions of Callimachus are those of Grs^vius, 
Utrecht, 1697, 2 vols. 8vo; Bentley, London, 1741, 8vo ; 
Ernest, Leyden, 176 1, 2 vols. Bvo^ &c. The English reader 
h^s been in some measure made acquainted with CalU<> 

IZ C A L L I M A C H U «. 

xnachus in the translation of > the unfortunate Dr. Dodd, 
and more recently (1793) in that of Dr. H. W. Tytler. * 

CALLISTHENES, a Greek philosopher and historian, 
tvas a native of Olintbus, and the disciple and relation of 
Aristotlfy by whose advice he accompanied Alexander in 
his expeditions. Aristotle gave him to his scholar, that he 
might moderate the fury of his passions ; but Callisthenes 
was top deficient in the arts of a courtier to render truth ^ 
sufficiently palatable to the prince. Hi$ animadversions 
on him were probably conveyed in repulsive language, and 
he is said to have placed his writings far above the con- 
quests of the king of Macedon, who ought^ said he, ** to 
look for immortality more from his books than from the 
madness of being the son of Jupiter.'^ He thus coarsely 
eicpostulated with Alexander on the absurdity of his ex- 
pecting divine honours, and he became insupportable to 
the youthful hero, Callisthenes. being accused, in the 
year 328 before the Christian sera, of conspiring against 
the life pf Alexander^ the prince eageiiy seized that op- 
portunity for getting rid of his censor. " This conqueror (says . 
the historian Justin), irritated against the philosopher Callis-' 
thenes for boldly disapproving his resolution to make himself* 
adored after the. manner of the kings of Persia, pretended ^ 
to believe that he had engaged in a conspiracy against 
him ; and made use of this pretext for cruelly causing his 
lips^ his nose, and his ears to be cut off. In this mutilated 
condition he had bim drawn in his retinue, shut up with a 
dog in an iron ca^e, to make him an object of horror and- 
affright to his army. Lysimachus, a disciple of this vir^? 
tuous man, moved at beholding him languish in a misery be'' 
had brought on himself only by a laudable frankness, pro- 
cured him poison, which at once delivered him from hisv 
exquisite torments and such unmerited indignity. Alex-^. 
ahder, being informed of it, was so transported with rage,* 
that he caused Lysimachus to be exposed to the fury of 
a hungry lion, The brave man, on seeing the beast ap*' 
proach to devour hiniy folded his cloak round his arm^ 
plunged it down his throat, and, tearing out his tpngue,- 
stretched him dead upon the sppt. An exploit so courage-' 
ous struck the king with an admiration that disarmed hisi 
wrath, and made Lysimachus more de^to biga^than ever.'^ 


t Fabric. Biblt Graec— Vossius de Poet. Graec. — Saxu Onomast. — Dibdin aQ^ 

C A L L I S T H E N E S. 7« 

Them are, howevar, other accounts of his di^ath, but all 
of them sufficiently shocking. It is reported that Alex- 
ander caused these words to be engraved on the tomb of 
Callistbenes : " odi sophistam qui srBi non sapit.** In 
the seventh volume of Memoirs of the academy o( belles- 
lettres of Paris may be seen some curious researches on 
the life and writings of this philosopher by the abb6 Sevin.' 
The philosophers that succeeded Callistbenes thought it 
their duty (says M. Hardion) to avenge their brother by 
launching out into furious declamations against the memory . 
of Alexander, whose criminality, according to Seneca, was 
never to be effaced, because he was the murderer of Callis- 

. The " Life of Alexander,** said to have been written by 
Callistbenes, often referred to by the ancients, has been 
long since lost ; but a Greek life of Alexander, under the 
adopted name of Callistbenes, at presetit exists, and is no 
uncommon manuscript in good libraries. There is one 
copy in the Bodleian, and another in the roysl library at 
Paris, It was written in Greek, being a translation from 
the Persic by Simeon Setb, styled magister and protoves- 
tiary or wardrobe-keeper of the palace of Antiochus at' 
Constantinople, about the year 1070, under the emperor. 
Micha^ Ducas. ' It was most probably soon after translated' 
from the Greek into the Latin, and at length from thence 
into French, Italian, and German. But it is unnecessary 
to say more of a work which does not belong to our Callis- 
tbenes. He is said to have written other works, as ^'A 
History of Greece," 4 "History of the Trojan war,'* &c. 
but no traces of them are now to be found. ^ 


CALLOT (James), a famous engraver, son of John 
Callot, herald of arms in Lorrain, was descended from an 
ancient and noble family, and born at Nancy in 1593. * He 
cherished almost from his infancy a taste and spirit for the 
belles lettres, as well as for the fine arts. When he was 
only twelve years old he set off for Rome, without the 
knowledge of his parents, in order tx) see the many curiosi- 
ties there he had heard so much talk of; but his money 
failing, he joined himself to a party of Bohemians, wha 
were going into Italy, and went with them to Florence. 

* Moreri.— Vossius. — ^Arriao. — Justin. 

74 C A L L O T. 



Tfaene he was taken under the protection of an officer of 
the great duke, who placed him to learn designing under 
Ramigio Canta GaUiiia, a skilful painter and engraver. 
Afterwairds he got to Rome, where he was known by a 
merchant of Nancy, and sent immediately home to his 
parents* When. he was about 14 years of age he left home 
again, atid directed bis course towards Rome ; but being 
discoviered by his elder' brother, who was at Turin about 
business, he was brought back a second time to Nancy. 
His passion, however, for seeing Rome being still ardent 
and irresistible, his father at length gave him leave to go 
in the train of a gentleman whom the duke of Lorrain 
sent to the pope. 

\\{hen he arrived at Rome, he learned to design and en« 
grave first with Giulio Parigri, and afterwards with Philip 
Thomassin .of Troyes in Champaghe, who bad fettled in 
that city ; but this latter ha;iring a beautiful wife, who paid 
some; marked attentions to Callot, a disagreement took 
plage, aqd ouy young arti»t removed to Florence, where 
the great duke employed him with several other excellent 
workmen. Callot at that time began to design in minia- 
ture, and had so happy a genius for it, that be became in^ 
comparable in that way. He quitted his graver^ and used 
aquafortis^ becauae this was both the quickest way* of work- 
iug, and gave more strength and spirit to the performance, 
Aner the great duke's death^ he began to think of return*- 
ing to his own country -y and about that time, prince 
Charles, coming through Florence, and being uncommonly 
struck with. some of his curious pieces, persuaded Callot 
to go along with him to Lorrain, and promised him a good 
salary from his father-in-law Henry, the reigning duke. 
Callot attended him, and had a considerable pension set- 
tled upqn him ; and, being in his S2d year^ he took a wife, 
^ho was a woman of family. His reputation was now 
spread all. over E^urope, and the infanta of Spain sent f6r 
))im to Brussels, when the marquis of Spinola was laying 
siege to Breda, that he might first draw, and afterwards 
engrave, as he did, the siege of that town. He went to 
France in 1628, when Louis XIIL made him design and 
engrave the siege of Rocbelle and the isle of Rh6. After 
he bad been amply recompensed by that monarch, he re-, 
tumeii to Nancy ; where he continued to follow the busi- 
ness of engraving so assiduously, that he is said to have 
left 1500 pieces qf hi^ own; au incr^c^ible nun^beir for 30 

C A L L O T. 75 

i^ort a life as bis ! When tbe duke of Orleans, Gaston of 
France, withdreve into Lorrain, he made him engrave seve- 
ral silver stamps, and went to his house two hours every 
day to learn to draw. }n 1G31, when the king of France 
had reduced Nancy, he sent for Callot to engrave that new 
conquest, as he had done Rocbelle ; but Callot begged to 
be excused, because that being a Lorrainer he could not 
do any thing so much against the honour of his prince and 
country. The king was not displeased at his answer, but 
said, ** The duke of Lorrain was very happy in having 
such faithful and affectionate subjects." Some of the 
courtiecs insinuated, that he ought to be forced to do it ; to 
which Callot, when it was told him, replied with great firm- 
ness, ^' That he would sooner disable his right band than 
be obliged to do any thing against his honour.^' The king 
then, instead of forcing him, endeavoured to draw faim into 
France, by offering to settle upon him a pension of 300D 
livres ; to, which Callot answered, "That he conld no« 
leave his countjy and birth-place, but that there he wo«ld 
always be ready to serve his majesty." Nevertheless, when 
he afterwards found the ill condition Lorrain was reduced 
to by the taking of Nancy, he projected a scheme of re- 
turning with bis wife to Florence ; bat was hindered firom 
executing it by his death, which happened on the 2Sith of 
March, 1636, when he was. only 43 years of age. He was 
buried in the cloister of the cordeliei*s at Nancy, where his 
ancestors lay ;^ and had an epitaph inscribed upon a piece 
of black marble, on which was engraved a half portrait of 
himself. He left an excellent moral character behind him, 
and died with the universal esteem of men of taste. 

This artist engraved in several styles; the first of which 
w^ ah imitation of his master Canta Oallina. He after- 
wards worked altogether with the graver ; but without 
success. His next style was the mixture of the point and 
the graver, with coarse broad hatchings in the shadows. 
But his best manner, is t^hat which appears to have been 
executed with the greatest freedom, by which he has ex- 
pressed^ as we may say, with a single stroke, variety of 
character, and correctness of design. He is said to have 
been the first who used hard varnish in etching, which has 
been found much superior to that which was before adopted. 
The fertility of invention, and the vast variety, found in 
the works of this excellent artist, are astonishing. It could 
Jiardly have been supposed possible to combine so great a 

19 C A L L O T- 

number ctf figures together as he has done, and to vary the 
attitudes, without forced contrast, so that all of them, whe- 
ther single figures or groupes. may be easily distinguished 
from each other, even in the masses of shadow ; more 
especially when it is considered that they are often ex- 
ceedingly minute. On a cursory view of some of his most 
admired pieces, the whole appears confused, and without 
harmony ;-but a careful examination discovers therichne^, 
the beauty, the taste, and the judgment which are be- 
stowed on the disposition of the figures, the management 
of the groupes, and the variety and proprietj^ of the atti- 
tudes. The works of this master are very numerous and 
various. In representation of all the varieties of human 
life, from beggars and peasants to knights and nobles, be 
excelled ; characterising all with the nicest touches of na>« 
tufe. Of his subjects, many are of the most painful and 
shocking kind, such as public executions, the miseries of 
war, and the like ; many are grotesque and fanciful, and 
^^shibit a strong imagination. Among his most admired 
prints, Strutt enumerates : " The Murder of' the Inno- 
cents," of which that engraved at Florence is most rare ; 
a fine inapressioa of it being found with difficulty ; " The 
Marriage of Canain Galilee," from Paolo Veronese ; "The 
Passion of Christ," the first impressions of which are very 
scarce ; " St. John in the island of Palma ;" " The Temp- 
tation of St. Anthony;" "The Punishments," exhibiting 
the execution of several criminals; " The Miseries of 
War ;" " The great Fair of Florence ;" The little Fair,** 
otherwise called " The Players at Benti," one of the 
scarcest of Callot's prints ;" ^^ The Tilting, or the New 
Street at Nancy;" The Garden of Nancy;" " View of 
the Pont Neuf;" "View of the Louvre;" and "Four 

CALLY (Peter), a celebrated French philosopher, wa^ 
ft native of Mesnil-Hubert, near Argenton, in the diocese 
of Seez. About 1655, he studied philosophy at Caen, 
and afterwards divinity at Paris, but philosophy was hid 
favourite pursuit, and the foundation of his fame. In 
1660 he taught in the college du Bois, in Caen, and be- 
came there acquainted with Huet, afterwards bishop of 
Avranches, who acknowledged the assistance he derived 

> Moreri.r—Strutt. — Feliblen*s Fntreticns gur les vies deg pemtres.~>PerrBult 
. ks Hommes lUustitiii. — Evelyn's Sculpture, p, 87. ^ 

C A L L y. 77 

from Cally in his studies. Their intimacy, however, was 
interrupted by Cally*s avowal of adherence to the Carte- 
sian system. Cally was the iSrst in France who had the 
courage to profess himself a Cartesian, in defiance of thei 
prejudices and numbers of those who adhered to the aur 
cient philosophy. He first broached his Cartesianism in 
the way of hypothesis, but afterwards taught it more 
openly, wbiqh procured him many enemies. Huet, al- 
though then very young, ventured to censure him \ and 
father Valois, the Jesuit, who was a contemporary prp- 
fessbr of philosophy, attacked both Caily and his opinions 
in a work which he published under the name of Louis de 
la Ville, in J 680, entitled " Seutimens de M. Descartes^ 
touchant Tessence et les p)ropri6t^s des corps, opposes a la 
doctrine de Teglise, et conformes aux erreurs de ^alvin sut 
reucharistie." Cally, not thinking there was much in this, 
did not answer it until pressed by his friends, when he 
wrote an aniswer in Latin, which, however, was not al 
this time published. When the duke de Monta\isier was 
appointed by Louis XIV. to provide eminent classical 
scholars to write notes on the, classics published for the use 
of the Dauphin, Cally was selected for the edition of 
'^ fioethius de Consolatione," which he published, accord* 
ingly, in 1680, in 4to, now one of the scarce quarto Del* 
phin editions. In 1674 he published a short introduction 
to philosophy, '^^Institutio philosophica," 4to, which he 
» afterwards greatly enlarged, and published in 1695 under 
the title '^ Universal philosophise institutio," Caen, 4 vols. 
4to. In 167S he was appointed* principal of the college of 
arts in Caen, on which he began a new course of philoso-^ 
phical lectures, and laid out ten or twelve thousand francs 
an rebuilding a part of the college which had fallen into 
iruin. In 1684 he was appointed curate of the parish of 
St Martin, in Caen, and the Protestants who were then 
very numerous in that city, flocked to his sermons, and he, 
held conferences once or twice a week in his vestry, which 
they attended with much pleasure, and we are told he made 
many converts to the Popish religion. But this success, 
for which every Catholic ought to have been thankful, ex- 
cited the envy of those who had quarrelled with him befor^ 
on account of his Cartesianism, and by false accusations, 
rtey procured him exiled to 1686, where 
he remained for two years. Finding on his return that the 
Protestants w^re stilji numerous in Caen, and that they en- 

▼9 ' C A L L Y. 

tertained the same resp^et for him as befofe^ he wrote for 
their use a work Entitled '^Durand comment^y ou Taccord 
de la philosophic avec la theologie, touchant la trarisub- 
stantiation.^* In this^ which contained part of his answer 
to father Valois, mentioned above, he revives the opinion 
of the celebrated Durand, who said, if the church decided 
that there was a transubstantiation in the eucharist, there' 
must remain something of what was bread, to make a dif- 
ference between the creatioiv and production of a thing 
which was not, and annihilation or a thing reduced to 
nothing. Caily sent this work in MS. to M. Basqage, who 
had been one of his scholars, but received no answer. In 
the mean time, uHwilling to delay a work which he hoped 
.would contribute to the conversion of the Protestants^ he 
engaged with a bookseller at Caeii to j^int only sixty 
copies, which he purposed to send to his friends at Paris^ 
and iobtain their opinion as to a 9iore extended publication. 
The bookseller, however, having an eye only to his own 
interest, undertook to assure Cally that the work would be 
approved by the doctors of the Sorbonne, and he therefore 
would print eight hundred. Cally unfortunately con- 
sented, and the work no sooner Appeared, than he who 
fondly hoped it would convert heretics, was himself treated 
as a heretic. M. de Nesmond, then bishop of Bayeuity 
condemned the work in a pastoral letter March SO, 1701^ 
and Cally in April following made his retractation,, which 
be not only read in his own churchy but it was read in ail- 
other churches ; and he also destroyed the impression, '^o 
that it is now classed among rare books. It was a smatt 
vol. 12mo, 1700, printed at Cologne, under the name of 
Pierre Marteau. Cally also published some of his sermons^ 
but they were too philosophical and dry for the closet, aK 
though ne had contrived to give them a popular effect in 
the pulpit. A work entitled <^ Doctrine heretique, &c, 
touchant la primaut^ du pape, enseign^e par les Jesuites 
dans leureoUege de Caen," is attributed to him, but as it 
bears date 1644, he must have then been too young. He 
died Dec. 31, 1709.* 

CALMET (Augustine), a learned Benedictine of the 
college of £t Vannes, was born at Mesnil-la-Horgue, near 
Commercy, Feb. 26, 1672, arid was^ first educated in the 
priory Qf Breuil. In 1687 be went to study at the univer- 

* Moreri* 

C A L M E T* M 

slty of Podt-a-Mousson, where be was taught a bonrM of 
rhetoric. On leaving this class, he entered among* tjfaa 
Benedictines in the abbey of St. Mansuy, in the fauxbourg 
of Touly Oct 17, 1683, and made profession in the same 
place Oct. 33, 1689. He began bis philosophical course 
ia the abbey of St Evre, and completed that and his theo« 
logical studies in the abbey o^St Munster. At his leisure 
hours be studied the Hebrew language with great attention 
and success, and likewise improved his knowledge of the 
Greek. In 1696 he was sent with some of his companions 
to the abbey of Moyenmoutier, where they studied the 
Holy Scriptures under P. D. Hyacinthe Ailiot Two years 
after, in 1698, Calmet was appointed to teach philosophy 
and theology to the young religious of that monastery, an 
employment which he filled until 1704, when he was sent, 
with the rank of sub-prior, to the abbey of Munster. There 
he was at the head, of an academy of eigh*t or ten religious^ 
with whom he pursued his biblical studies, and having, 
while at Moyenmoutier written commentaries and disserta- 
tions on various partes of the Bible, he here retouched and 
improved these, although without any other design, at this 
time, than his own instruction. During a visit, however, 
at Paris^ in 1706,.he was advised by the abb^ Duguet, to 
whom he had been- recommended by Mabillon, to publish 
bis commentaries in . French, and the first volume accord- 
ingly appeared in 1707, In 1715 he became prior of Lay, 
9nd ia 1718 the chapter-general appointed him abb^ of 
St Leopold, of Nancy, and the year following he was 
made visitor of the congregation. In 1728 he was chosen 
abb£ .of Senones, on which occasion he reigned his priory 
of Lay. When pope Benedict XIII. confirmed his elec- 
tion, the cardinals proposed to his holiness that Calmet 
should also have the title of bishop in partibus in^^Utm^y 
with power to exercise the episcopal functions in those 
parts of the province which are exempt from the jurisdic^^ 
tion of the ordinary ; but this Calmet refused, and wrote 
on the subject to Rome. The pope in Sept. 1729, ad- 
dressed a brief to him, accepting of his excuses, and some 
time after sent •him a present of his works, in 3 vols. fol. 
Calmet took possession of the abbey of Senones, January 
3, 1729, and continued his studies, and increased the )i* 
hraiy and museum belonging to th^ abbey with 9everal 
valuably purchases, particularly of the medals of the de- 
ceased M« de Corbei;on, • secretary of ^late, and of^ the na- 

•O C A L M E T. 

tural curiosities of M. Voile, Here he died Oct. 55, 1 757, 
respected, by all ranks, Roman cathplics and Protestantsy 
for his learning and candour, and by his more particular 
friends and those of his own order, for his amiable temper 
and personal virtues. • His learning, indeed, was most ex- 
tensive, as the greater part of his long life was devoted to 
study; but amidst such vast accumulation of materials, we 
are not surprised that he was sometimes deficient in se-* 
lection, and appears rather as a collector of facts, than a» 
an original thinker. His principal works are^ 1. ^^ Corn- 
men taire litteral sur tons les livres de T Ancien et du Nou- 
veau Testament," 1707 — 1716, 2S vols. 4to ; reprinted 
in 26 vols. 4to, and^ fol. and abridged in 14 vols. 4to. 
Rondet published a new edition of this abridgment in 
17 vols. 4to, Avignon, 1767 — 1773. M. Fourmont, Arabic 
professor in the royal college, had begun an attack on 
this commentary*, because Calmet had not, as he thought^ 
paid sufficient respect to the rabbins, but the king (Louis 
XIV.) and the cardinal de Noailles obliged him to desist* 
The celebrated father Simon wrote some letters against 
Calmet) which were ccmimunicated to him by Pinsonnat, 
the. Hebrew professor, who did not approve of them, nor 
did Anquetille, the librarian of Tellier, archbishop of 
Rheims, nor were they published until eighteen or twenty 
years afterwards, and even then the censors expunged 
many illiberal passages respecting Calmet. 2. The " Dis- 
sertations and Prefaces" belonging to his commentary, 
published separately with nineteen new Dissertations^ 
Paris, 1720, 2 vols. 4to. 3. " Histoire de I'Ancien et da 
Nouveau Testament," intended as an introduction to Fleu- 
ry's " Ecclesiastical History," 2 and 4 vols. 4to ; and 5 and 
■'7 vols. l2mo. 4. " Dictionnaire historique, critique, et 
chronologique de la Bible." Paris, 1730, 4 vols. foL This 
work, which is a valuable treasure of sacred history and 
criticism, was soon made known to the English public by 
a translation, in 3 vols. fol. London, 1732, by Sam.D'Oyly^ 
M. A. vicar of St. Nicholas, Rochester, and John Colson, 
F.R.S. vicar of Chalk, in Kent, a work elegantly printed 
and embellished with a profusion of fine engravings. A 
new edition appeared in 1793, 4to, with valuable additions 
from subsequent critics, travellers, and philosophers. 5« 
** Histoire ecclesiastique' et civile de la Lorraine," .3 vola» 
foL reprinted 1745, in 5 vols. fol. 6. " Bibliotheque des 
Ecrivains de Lorraine/' fol, 1751. 7, '^ Histoire univer* 

C A 1 M tT* il 

tellie siBLcrie et pKO&t) e/' 1 5 i^ofe. 4to. Tbis €«1ri^ iid not 
live to finisfa, and in cKher 4res]p«e.ts it is -not iiis b«8l wotk. 
t. ^* Dissertatioms sur l<es apparii;ions des AugeSjAe^ De9koiti»^ 
et d^ Espms, etsorles ReveB.aM'et Vampires de ftongJEie^'' 
Paris, itr46, l2iiio,and£iDiVdl«n9 4 74d)i2g)a,awork,$aytte , 
FretKh crkics, in wbich tbere are many sy<ftptoin6 of old ag^| 
aad ha eredi»Iou8 weakn^sse^. it was how^^f%r translated and 
published in Ejngjish in 1739) Sv.p* The author admits «b^ 
reality of eppanHiiosis, on tke auidiorKy«of the scriptu^eS) 
but disGredit!! oiaiiy of the n]ira0uious stories coneeralng 
tbem to which his own church has given currency* ^4 
^'Coiskttientairelitteral^hi^torique, et aaioraJ, su'r la lliegLe da 
St. Benoit^" 1754, 2 vdk fto. 10. ** DeJaPoe$ie et Mu- 
aique des anciens HebreuK^^' A-npst. '1 723, ^vo. Hiti con-^ 
jectui^s on this subject, Dr. Bumey thinks, ^fe p^haps a* 

Eobabie as vthose of any one of the nu melius authors who 
iT>e -exercised their skill in ^expounding and defining what 
some bav^e longsince <6bougbt involved in CiitMinei'iaii dark^ 
ness. Calrnet also left a vast number of manuscripts, ot 
father fi>anuscript coUeotions, as i,t had long been (his prac- 
tice to copy, or employ others to copy, whatever he found 
eufious in books. In 1733, be deposited in the royal 
libpary, a correct transcript of the Vedaai, a work which 
the natives of Hipdostan attribute to their legislator Sraiif>a» 
who 'received it, a,€Gording to their tradition, from God 
himself. Thiscopy came iiHoCaln^et^spossesufion^by meaiis 
# z bi^amin <who had been Gonyeyted by the Jesuit m^is-» 
tiottaries* Calmet's life was written by Dom Fang^, his 
BOphewand successor in the abbey of Senonos^ and pub- 
lished in 8vo. It was afterwards traoslat-ed into Italian by 
Benedetto Passionei, and published at Rome in 177^.^ 

CALMO (Andrew), who was born at Venice about th« 
year 1 5 10, became celebrated both as a comedian and aui 
author, tie composed several comedies in prose, of whioli 
%he best is bis Rodiaiva, which in fact belongs to him^ 
though -printed under the name of Ruzssants. There k 
tdso by bim^a volume of letters, ^entitiled '^'Discorsi Piace«> 
voK,*' IMS, Svo, oft^en reprinted, and which had a great 
ttm in vbeir day, af)d ^'^lie Giocose mo4erne, e faoefirsf 
ftme Egloghe Pas^orali/' Yenioe, 1^53, Hvo. These loti* 
tens, ^. as Mrell as-ahnosi aH his other woi4ss, are writteA 
te the Veiieti«a dialect. Calmo died at Vemoe jin 1 S^l I A 

y Diet. Hist.— Haym fiiMivteta Italiana. 

Vol. VIII. G 

M C A L O N N E. 

CALONNE (Charles Alexander de)) an eminent but 
unfortunate French minister, was born at Douay in 1734. 
His father was president of the parliaaieut of Fianders, and 
descended from a noble family, originally of Toarnay, and 
well known in the history of that city, which makes honour- 
able mention of his ancestors in the remotest times. Hav- 
ing finished his studies at the university of Paris with ex^ 
traordinary success, young Calonne was appointed, in his 
twenty-third year, advocate or solicitor- general of the su- 
perior council of Artois ; and before he had attained the 
age of twenty -five, was promoted to the office of procura- 
tor-general of the parliament of Flanders, the duties of 
which he performed with distinguished ability for six years. 
He was then called as rapporteur to the king's council, to 
report to his majesty the most momentous affairs of admi- 
nistration, of which arduous and laborious task he acquitted 
himself in a manner that evinced bis profound knowledge 
of the government, constitution, history, and jurisprudence 
of France, and established his reputation as a writer of no 
less perspicuity and judgment, than elegance and energy 
of diction* 

In 1776, he was named intendant of the province of the 
Trois Eveches, and for four years fulfilled the duties of 
that important office with universal approbation, and 
greatly to the satisfaction of the inhabitants, by whom he 
was much beloved, and who expressed the utmost regret at 
his departure when he quitted that province in 1780, bein^ 
appointed intendant-general of Flanders and Artois. The 
same affability and mild and equitable conduct in the ad- 
ministration of public affairs, which had procured him theiif 
esteem, conciliated no less the affections of his country- 
men in Flanders, to whose commercial interests' he shewed 
particular attention, in promoting the fisheries and every 
useful establishment, both during the three years of his 
residence at Dunkirk, and after being appointed in 1783, 
comptroller-general of the finances, and minister of state. 
In this important office he continued until 1787, and during 
the period of his administration raised and maintained the 
public credit by a punctuality till then unknown in tbd 
payments of the royal treasury, although on his accession 
he found it drained to the lowest ebb, and had the mortifi-* 
pation to perceive that the annual income had long been: 
inadequate to the annual expenditure. To^trace the cause 
•f this deficiency^ its oiigin and pro^res^ was the sepifet 

C A L O N N iTi sV 

>vork of many an hour, supposed by the public to be de- 
voted to pleasure or repose, as he conceived it of the ut-. 
most importance to conceal the deficiency until he had 
explored its source, and provided such an adequate remedy 
for it, as might restore the proper equipoise between the 
annual income and expenditure, and provide a surplus for 
emergencies without increasing the burthens of the people 
beyond their ability to support. For this purpose he pre* 
vailed on the king to revive the ancient usage of national 
assemblies, by calling together the Notables of the king- 
dpm ; and after laying before them a true state of- the 
l^uances, he boldly proposed, as a chief remedy for the de* 
ficiency, that the pecuniitry privileges and exemptions of 
the nobility, clergy, and magistracy, should be suppressed;, 
and although aware that a measure which appeared to mill-' 
tate so much against the . immediate interests of the three 
most powerful ranks of the community must meet with op- 
position, he determined to risk the sacrifice of his own situ- 
ation, rather than longer to conceal or palliate the evil. 

When this assembly met, Calonne accused his prede- 
cessor M. Necker, of having caused the deficiency by his 
system of loans, and of war y^ithout taxation ; and Calonne^s 
enemies, on their side, threw the blame on his personal ex- 
travagance, and his readiness in yielding to the unlimited' 
demands of the royal family. The comparative merits of 
those two ministers, equally unfortunate in the issue, may 
be probably ascertained by a perusal of the appeals they 
made to the public, M. Calonne in his ** Speech to the As- 
j^embly of Notables,'' in his '^Requete au Roi," and his 
" Reponse a I'Ecrit de M. Necker ;" and M. Necker in his 
** Answer to Calonne's Speech, and Requete, &c." The 
consequence, however, of the opposition Calonne. met with, 
was, that the king withdrew his confidence from him, took 
from him the insignia of his order, and banished him to 
Lorraine. He and his brother presented themselves to the 
assemblies of the bailiwick of Bailleul in Flanders, but .were 
disrespectfully received, and obliged to withdraw into the 
Low Countries. He returned to France for a very short 
time, and in 1790 left it again, and retired to England. In 
1791 the brothers of Louis XVI. summoned him to join them 
at Coblentz, where he for some time managed their finances, 
if not with ceconomy, at least wjith integrity, as appeared 
by hb inability two years afterwards to maintain his sou, 
Hdio served as a foot soldier in the corps of nobility in the * 

e 2 

8* C A L O N N £. 


BTtivy of CondiS. It was at that tirtie that he ptoposed a 
plan of counter-tevotiition, which was not generally ap- 
proved iu the royalist party, to w'bom, it is certaiti that 
lAany of the sentiments he expressed in his political^ wri- 
tings, published at London in 1793 and 1796, were not ac« 
c^eptable. In 1 8d2, during the consular government, the re- 
putation of bis talents, which no party has questioned, |>ro- 
cured him permission to return to 'Prahce, where he gave ih 
some memorials on finani^e, which, however, were not fa- 
vourably deceived. Me died in Paris October 29, 1802. 

In the course of his administration and exile he {yiblished, 
1. " Observations et Jugemens sur plusieurs matieres da 
^roit civil et coutumier,'* 17'8*, 4to. 2. " Gorrespon dance 
de N^ckcir avec Calonne,*' 1787; 4to. S. " Requete an 
Koi," 1787, 8vo. 4. " Reponse de Calohne a I'Ecrit de 
Necker," London, 1788, 2 vols. 8vo. 5. ** Second Lettrie 
au Roi/' ibid. 1789, 8vo. 6. " Notes sur \e Memoire re- 
mis par Necker au comit^ des subsistances,^' ibid. 178^^^ 
12mo. 7. ** De Tetat de la France, present et a venir,** 
1790, 8vo. He is also the reputed author of, 1. *' De Tetat 
de la France, tel quMl peut et quMl doit 6tre,^' London, 
1790, 8\^o. 2. " Observations sur les Finances," ibid. 1790, 
4to. 3. *^ Lettres d^un publiciste de France a un publi- 
diste d'Allemagne,'* 1791, 8vo. 4. " Esquisse de Tetat de 
la France,'* 1791, 8vo. 5. " Tableau de TEurope en No- 
vembre 1795," 1796, 8vo. 6. " Des financefs publiques 
de la France,'* 1797, 8vo. 7. " Lettre a I'auteur des Con- 
siderations sur I'etat des affaires publiques,*' 1798, 8vo.^— 
The abb6 Calonne, his brother, who accompanied him to 
England, was for some time editor of the '^ Courier de Lon- 
dres," and died in 1799. * 

CALOVIUS (Abraham), a celebrated Lutheran divine, 
and one of the ablest opponents of the Socinians of his 
tiibe, was born Aug. 16, 1612, at Morungen in the ddchy 
of Brunswick, where his father was a man of some conse- 
quence. Having finished his studies, and especially di$« 
tinguished himself by his knowledge in oriental languages, 
he came to Rostock,^ where, in 1637, he took his doctor's 
degree in divinity, and some tim^ after was made professor 
of that faculty. He was very rigid in adhering to the Lu- 
theran tenets, and the firmness he displayed in a tbntro* 
tersy with John Bergius, a protestant divine, on the sub* 

* ' • ' * 

1 Plot HisL«-Blevtaphw Modern^ kcm 



ject of th^ Lorfl^s supp€r^ Qcca$ipne<l his being appo|nte4 
visitor pf t^d churches and schools pf the circle of ^^oilandi^ 
in Prussia^ and counsellor in ^he cpurt of justic^. In 1643 
he was invited to Dantzjc^ ^nd made rector of the college. 
Ue.cai'ried on several controversies, especially with Martin 
Statins, a Lutheran deacon, with Henry NicoUi, professor 
of philosophy, and with John Caesar, a protfstant minister 
of Dantzic. In i65p he w^s appointed professor of ^ivinity 
at Witteniberg, and becfiipe one of th^ warmest opponent 
of the comprehending systein pfoppsed by palixtus (see 
Calixi us), apd the partizans of the respective poinbatants 
were called Calixtins and Caloyians. IThis dispute, con- 
ducted with much intemperance on both sides, tasted until 
bis death, Feb. 20,^ 1686. His principal yyqrks, exclusive 
of those he wrote against Bergius, Nicolai, and Calixt^s, 
were, I. "Metaphysica divina, etaliascriptaphilpsophiea.'* 
2. ** Criticus sacer Bibliciis." 3. " Socinianismus proflU 
gatus." 4. " Systema loporum tbeplpgicorum/' 5. *f Cop- 
fiider^tip Arminianismi." 6. ^^ ^iblia illustrata,'* a Gem^ai^ 
Bible with Luther^s notes. His " Historia Syncretistipa,'* 
first published in 1682, W3$ suppressed by order of the; 
elector of $axony, a$ calculated to revive the dispute with 
Calixtus, but was republished in 1685.' 

CALPRENEDE (Walter de Costes), a French dr^* 
matic and romance writer, was born in th^ chateai) of 
Toulgon in P^rigord, in the 4iocese 6f Cabors, about thci 
year 1612, and became gentleman in ordins^ry to the king. 
He i^ said to have conciliated the good opinio^ pf the court 
by bis happy talent for telling agreeable stories. Whpn a 
very yoqng man he wrote several tragedies and comedies 
i^bich procured him some reputation, particularly hia 
♦^Mithridates" and the ^* Earl of Essex," but he was most 
celebrated for his romances, particularly ^* Cassandra," 
** Cleopatra," and ** Pharamond," which gave place, how- 
ever, to a better taste in the course of some years, and are 
now thought intolerable by their insipidity and tediousness^ 
Calprenede had an excellent opinion of himself, and when 
the cardinal Richelieu said of some of his vei^ses, th^t they 
were dull, he replied that ^'nothing dull belonged to tb^ 
family of Calprenede." He died in 1663.* 

nktive of Sicily, lived about the end of the thud centu^, 

* Moreri.^-^xii Onomast-^I^osheiin^s UiBtory* 

* Diet. Hiit,'>«^ Moferi ia art, Costes. 

S6 . C A L P U R N I U S. 

under the empetors Carus, Carinus, and Numerianns. 
Seven of his eclogues are extant, which were once in such 
high reputation as to be read in schools ; but they hav€ not 
preserved their reputation, and are generally considered, 
notwithstanding some occasional passages of genius, as 
indicating the declining taste of the age. Poggio is said 
to have found them in England, and sent them to his friend 
Niccolo Niccoli. They are published in the " Poeta) rei 
Vehaticae," Leyden, 1728, 4to, and in the "Poetse Latini 
Minores ;" but there are editions along with Silius Italicus 
and other wjriters, aseaCrlyas 1471, 1472, 1481, &c. The 
latest edition is that, of Beck, Leipsic, 1803, 8vo, with 
notes and a glossary. Adelung translated them into Ger- 
man, and published them in 1S05, in a magnificent man-r 
ner. * 

CALVART (Denis), an artist, was born at Antwerp in 
1553, and first painted landscapes, having accustomed him- 
self to retire to groves and fields, to study such scenes 
and objects after nature, as might be useful to him in that 
branch of his profession. But being desirous to obtain a 
better manner of designing figures, to adorn his landscapes, 
he determined to travel to Italy. In his journey he stopped 
at Bologna, where he unexpectedly met with many induce^ 
ments to detain him in that city for some time ; and became 
the disciple of iProspero Fontana, who had every qualifica-r' 
tion requisite for th^ improvement of his pupils, as well 
by his precepts as his performances. In such a situation 
Calvart applied himself diligently to his studies, not only 
carefully examining, but also copying the works of Co- 
reggio and Parmigiano ; and when he afterwards quitted 
the school of Fontana, he placed himself with Lorenzo 
Sabattihi, with whom he travelled to Rome, where he per- 
fected himself in design, in perspective, architecture, and 
anatomy. At his return from Rome to Bologna, which 
city he now considered as the place of his nativity, he 
there opened an academy ; and his style of colour pro- 
cured him a large number of disciples, among whom were 
some of the first rank for genius ; he is ^relebrated as the 
first instructor of Guido, Albano, and Domenichino^ as 
well as of several other excellent painters. He died in 
l6l9. In the Palazzo Ranuzzi, at Bologna, there is a fine 
picture by Calvart, representing two hermits, which is cor- 

* Moreri. — Diet. Hift«-«Roscoe'8 Lorenzo.— -Saxii Onomast. 

t^ALVART. «7 

rectly designed, beautifully coloured, and delicately pen* 
ciiled ; and in the Pembroke collection, at Wilton, there is 
a Nativity painted by him* * 

CALV£RT (George), descended from the ancient and 
noble house of Calvert, in the earldom of Flanders, and 
afterwards created lord Baltimore, was born at Kipling in 
Yorkshire, about 1582. In 1593 he became a commoner 
of Trinity college, Oxford, and in Feb. 1597 he took the 
degree of B, A. At his return from his travels he was made 
secretary to Robert Cecil, one of the principal secretaries 
of state to James I. who continued him in his service when 
he was raised to the office of lord high-treasurer. On Aug* 
30, 1 605, when king James was entertained by the univer- 
sity of Oxford, he was created M. A. with several noble« 
men and gentlemen. Afterwards he was made one of the 
clerks of the privy council, and in 1617 received the ho- 
nour of knighthood, and in Feb. 1619 he was appointed to 
Ibe one of the principal secretaries of state. Thinking the 
duke of Buckingham had been the chief instrument, of his 
preferment, he presented him with a jewel of great value ; 
but the duke returned it, acknowledging he had no hand in 
his advancement, for that his majesty alone had made choice 
of him on account of his great abilities. In May 1620 the 
king granted him a yearly pension of 1000/. out of the 
customs. After having held the seals about five years, he 
resigned them in 1624, frankly owning to the king, that 
he was become a Roman catholic. The king, nevertheless, 
continued him a privy counsellor all his reign ; and in Feb. 
1625 created him (by the name of sir George Calvert of 
Danbywiske in Yorkshire, knight) baron of Baltimore in 
the county of Longford in Ireland. He was at that time a 
representative in parliament for the university of Oxford* 

While he was secretary of state, he had obtained a pa- 
tent for him and his heirs to be absolute lord and proprie- 
tor (with the royalties of a count- palatine) of the province 
of Avalon in Newfoundland. This name he gave it from 
Avalon in Somersetshire, whereon Glastonbury stands, the 
first-fruits of Christianity in Britain, as the other was in 
that part of America. He laid out 2500/. in advancing this 
new plantation, and built a handsome house in Ferr)7land. 
After the death of king James he went twice to Newfound- 
land When M. de TArade, with three French men of 

1 Pilkington.— IVAr|;eavnie. 


wsiTy ^kt wH^teA th^ EngUsb Kaberoimi Ih6ni to ffeat ew 
treoiiiy, lard Bakiraore, With tv^e sbipi manBed at bis enrn 
expence, drove away the Fretiish, taking sixty of them 
|>hsmiers9 and relieteid the English; but still finding his 
plantation trery much Exposed to the in&dtts of the French^ 
heait ias£ deiennined to abandon it. He then went to 
Virginia ; and havitig viewed the n^glibeufing ooaHtry, 
teturn^d to Etigladd, ^nd obtained ft-ona Cbaries h (tvha 
had aa ^at a regaixi for him as Jam^s bad) a patent td^ 
hint and hh beirs for Maryland on the noilh of Ytrginim 
He died at London, April 15^ 1692^ before the grant wtw 
iliade cKrt; but his 6oh Oecil Calvert, lord Baltimore) wbo 
kad been at Virginia, took it out in bis own natne, and the 
patent bears da^e June bb^ 1632. He wds to bold it of tbn 
orbv^n of £t)gland in eomnion soceage^ as df the manor of 
Windsdr; paying yearly, on Easter Tuesday^ two Indian 
ILfrbtr^ of those parts at the castle of Windsor, and the fift^ 
part of the gold arid silver ore that should be found thereim 
King Charles hinsself gave that p)*ovinoe the nUme of Mary^ 
lano^ in honour of his queen Henrietta Maria* The fif^f 
colbny sent thither consisted of about 200 people, RdiiMifl 
catholics, th^ chief of Wfad^m were gendeoien of good fa^ 
ttiilids. The Baltimore family were in danger of losin^f 
tfalEur ph)perty dn acconnt of tbeir,. religion, by the htt 
trhiefa reqtlir^s all Roman catholic heirs to profess the pm^n 
lestant tehgioil, on pain of being deprived of their estatci t 
but this w^ prevented by tlietr professisig the protectant 

George^ the fii^st iopdl, wi^ bwried in the ehanoel of St, 
Bunstan's in the west. In Fleet-stmet. As to l]|is ebaracter^ 
Lloyd says, ** he was the only ^taftiesaien, tbat^ being efi<» 
gaged to a decHed party (the RoMia^i catholics), mana^^ed 
his business with that great respect for all i^des, that ail 
who knew him applauded him, aM nen« that had any 
thing to 'do with hi'aft eovnpkMYed of him.'* But arohbishop 
A'bboty in a letter to sir TboniaB Roe (Ro^'s Letters, p* 
S72) seems to impute his turning Roma«i «atbolic to politic 
eal discontent. This nobleman wrote, 1 . ^^ Carmen fune<» 
bre in D. Hen. Untonum ad Galios bis ilegatudn^ ibit|ai» 
Duper fatb functum." 2. " Spefeefbes in Parliafment.*' 9« 
** Varioxis Letters of State." 4. " The Answer of Tbiti 
Tell Tmth." 5. " The Practice ^ Princes ;"' and 6. '^ iThft 
Lamentation of the Kirk.'' There ^rQ $pme pf bis letteri ' 


Ifk tit Harltftan MS ^olleetion) and «pmie in HoiR49d> 
collection, 4to, p. 5^—61, * 

CALVERT (Frebehick), Lord BAtTiMOHE, adew^eiw 
daivt of the preceding, and eldest son of Charles, the sUih 
lord, was born in 1731, and sueceedied to the ti^l^ oa vbf 
death of iiis father in 1751, and also to the |>roprietorfbi|^ 
of Maryland. After •returning from his travels be Q»arrie4 
lady Diana Egerton, youngest daughter of the duke of 
Bridgwater. In 1768 he was indicted at thie Kiogston aar 
ttzes for $1 rape, but aequitted* He went soon aftef t# 
reside on the continent, and died at Naples, Sept 14, 1771, 
without issue by marriage, leaving his fortune to bis sister^ 
Mrs. Eden. In 1767, he published ^' A Tour to the East 
in tiie years 1763 and 1764, with remarks on th^e oity of 
Cooataotinople and the Turks. Also ^lect pieces of Orir 
ental wit, poetry, and wisdoaa,^^ Lond. 1767. This book 
abounds with quotations from tljke. Roman classics, many of 
which bis lordship has translated into very indifferent pooseu 
He also published, but iu a confined way, a collection^ 
the tide of which is ^^ Gaudia Poetica, Latina, AogUcat 
et Gallica, Lingua com po^ta, anno 1769. Augustae Lit* 
teris Spaibianis, 1770.'* It is dedicated, h\ Laitm^ to Lin^ 
9SBUS, and consists of various piieces in Latio, Fr^^ocli, and 
Eogiiah, prose and verse, of v^ry little Q»erit. A eopy# 
the only oae said to be known in this country^, was .sold 
at Mr. Itttao Reed's sale, who likewiiie h^d another peiH 
fonnance of iua lordsliip'a, equaiiy rare, and valued qnijr 
for its rarity, entitled ^^ Ccelestes et laferi,** V^eo^trnf 
}77i, 4to. The foniier was sold for 6i. lOr.aiid the h^tef 
forbalf a gnini».* 

CALVERT (James), the son of Robert Calvert, a g«o« 
eer and sheriff of York, was born on the Pavement in ^at 
^jfKieot x:ity. HeVos educated at Clare*hall, Cambridge, 
whom hn was oontnmpocmry w4th the famoijs arcbbisbup 
TiUatsna. He was bned up under Mr. David Cbrikaon, 
and was a graduate ui iihe univei^ity. He bad been for 
several yeans at Topcliff, when be was silenced by iJfte act 
of unifonnity ; afiier which he retired to Tork, lavad prif^ 
vately, but ataidiad kacd ; and tbere it was that tie wooto 

* Tbif it qptftrlctlf the case. ^ correspondent in the Gent. Mn^. n,95, 
jrtio datss from Northampton, speaks of possesstng* both these works. 

^ TWoj. Brit— Ath. Ox. !. 

* Park'! ediu of Lord Orford's Royal and Noble Authors. 

90 C A L V E R T. 

his learned book concerning the ten tribes, entitled ^ Naph* 
thali, seu eoUuctatio theologica de reditu decern tribuum, 
conversione Judeeorum et mens. Ezekielis,*' Lond. 1672, 
4to* This book he dedicated to bishop Wilkins, on whom 
he waited at Scarborough Spaw, together with Mr. Wil« 
liams of York. Bishop Wilkins received him with much 
Respect, and encouraged him to live in hopes of a com- 
prehension. About the year 1675 he became chaplain to 
sir William Strickland of Boynton, where he continued 
several years, preaching and educating his son, till both 
he and his lady died ; then he removed to Hull, and from 
thence into Northumberland, to sir William Middletou's^ 
where he constantly exercised his function as chaplain, 
educated his only son, was left tutor to bim when his father 
died, and was very careful of his education both at home 
and in Cambridge. He died in December 1698. ^ 

CALVERT (Thomas), uncle to the preceding, was bom 
at York in 1606, and studied at Sidney college, Cambridge. 
After being chaplain for some time to sir T. Burdet, in 
Derbyshire, he held the vicarage of Trinity in the king's 
court, York. He also preached at Christ Church, and was 
one of the four preachers who officiated at the cathedral 
during the time of Oliver Cromwell. On passing the act 
of uniformity he was ejected from AUhallows parish in that 
city, and lived privately. His studies appear to have been 
much directed to the scriptures in the original languages, 
and to the Jewish rabbins. He was much disturbed in mind 
and injured in his' property by an extravagant son, but was 
greatly comforted in the excellent character of his nephew, 
the subject of the preceding article. He died March 1679, 
His works are, 1. '^ Mel Coeli, an exposition of Isaiah, 
chap. 53,'' 1657, 4to. 2. *^ The blessed Jew of Morocco : 
a demonstration of the true Messias, &c. by Rabbi Samuel, 
a converted Jew, &c." 1648, 8vo, originally written in 
Arabic, and translated into English by our author, with 
notes. He published also translations of Fox's <^ Christus^ 
Triumphans ;" << Comqedia Apocalyptica;" Gerard^s ^* Scho-* 
la Consolatoria," with additions, and wrote some poetical 
pieces, elegies, and a practical work entitled *^ Heart- 
salve for a wounded Soul, &c." 1675, 12mo. ^ 

CALVI (Lazzaro), an artist, remarkable for longevity 
as well as skill, a native of Genoa, was a son of Agostiuo 

> Calanijr. ' f Ibid, and X<e toof , Bibl, Sacr. fol. p. 66% 

C A t V I. 91' 


Calvi, one of the most tolerable painters and reformers of 
the old style, and was with Pantaleo Calvi, his eldest brother^ 
among the first pupils of Perino del Vaga. Pantaleo was 
content to lend his assistance and his name to Lazaaro, 
without pretending to share the praise due to his numerous 
ornamental works at Genova, Monaco, and Napoli ; among 
ii^hich, none excels the fagade of the palace Doria (now 
S^pinola) with prisoners in various attitudes, and stories in 
colour and chiaroscuro, considered as a school of design 
and models of taste. In the palace Pallavicini al Zerbino 
they represented the story commonly called the Conti- 
nence of Scipio, and a variety of naked figures, which, in 
the opinion of Mengs himself, might be adjudged to Peri- 
no. Whether or not he assisted them with his hand, as he 
had with his cartoons, is matter of doubt : certain it is, that 
Lazzaro, giddy with self-conceit, fell into excesses un- 
known to other artists, if we except Corenzio. At the 
least appearance of rival merit, jealousy and avidity prompt- 
ed him to have recourse to the blackest arts. Of Giacomo 
Bargone he rid himself by poison, and others he depressed 
by the clamour of hired ruffians. Such were his cabals 
when he painted the Birth of John the Baptist in the chapel 
Centurioni, in concurrence with Andrea Semini and Luca 
Cambiaso, which, though one of bis best works and most 
in the style of his master, fell short of the powers of Luca, 
to whom prince Doria gave the preference in the ample 
commission of the frescos for the church of S. Matteo. This 
80 enraged Calvi that he turned sailor, and touched no 
brush for twenty years : he returned at last to the art, and 
continued in practice to his eighty -fifth year, but with di- 
minished powers : his works of that period are cold, la« 
boured, and bear the stamp of age. The death of Pantaleo 
still ferther depressed him, and the only remaining mark of 
his vigour was to have protracted life to one hundred and five 
years. He died at that very uncommon age in 1606, or 
1607, leaving only a daughter, whom he had married to 
an opulent gentleman. Whatever his talents, we see no- 
thing but what is atrocious in his personal character. ' 

CALVIN (John), one of the chief reformers of the 
church, was born at Noyon in Picardy, July 10, 1505. He 
was instructed in grammar at Paris under Maturinus Cor*^ 
derius, to whom he afterwards dedicated his Commentary 

! Filkin^on.— ^Moreri. 

n C A I, V I N. 

fD tbie first epi||tl« ^f the Th^MatoBians, and atudied pbtr 
lQ&opb3f ^a t\\e coilleg^ 9S Montaigu ^nder a Spanish pr.Q^ 
fes^^qr. Dis father, who diacorered many mark^ of bis 
early pietV) particularly in his r^prehjen$ions of the vices of 
bis cp^ipanioqsi d^sign^ him for the church, ai^d got him 
presented, Afay 21, 1521, to th^ chapel of Notre Dame 
de la Ge»pe, in the phurch of Noyon. In 1527 he was 
presenle^ to the rectory of Marteville, which he excha&ged 
lin , i 5?9 for th^ reptory of Pont TEyeqite »ear Noyon, His 
father afterwards chfinged his res&luiion, and would have 
biqi study law; to which C^^'vin, who, by reaching the 
fpriptur«s, had co^ce4v^d a dislike to the superstitions of 
papery, readily cpns^nted, ajid resigned the chapel of Ge- 
sise ^n{\ th^ roctory of Pont TEveque in 1534. He had 
neyer, it ipqst b^re b^ ob^erred, been in priest's orders, and 
b(slpi)ged t» the churph only by having received the tonsure. 
U^ was sent to study the law fir9t Hinder Peter de TEtoile 
(Petr^s Stella) £|( Orleani;, and afterwards under Andrew 
V^lciat at Bpuxg^&i and while be made a great progress in 
fhat science, he impro^y^d no less in the knowledge of di^ 
vinity by his priv^^ studies* At Bourges he applied to the 
Qr(^k tongue, und^r the dire^stion of professor Wolo^ar. 
Hi$ father's dea^h haying called hint back to Noyon, he 
staid there a stiort time, and then went tp Paris, where be 
wrpfQ^a cQmmentai'y pp Senega'^ treatis^^ '^ De Clemeniaay^' 
b^in^g at this tiqcie abqu^ twenty-four ye9rs of age. . Having 
put his name in Latin tp this piece, he laid aside his sur^ 
nstmie C^ny^n, for that of CaUin, styling himself in the 
^tle-jpage. *^^ Lucius Caivinus oivis Romanus.^' He aooti 
P9ade himself kpi^^wn at Pai:is to such &s bad privately ^n« 
bracecjl the reformatio^, and by freqtient intercourse with 
)khein be^*sip^ more cpnBrmed in his principles. A speech 
of Nicholas Cop, reptor of the university of Paris, of which 
£;alvin furiiisihed the materials, having greatly displeased 
Ibe S^rboniie and the parliaqoeiYt^ gave rise to a peraecfi<» 
^n i^atDist the protestants; und Calvin, who narrowly es- 
caped being taken in the c^lege of {Torteret, wa^ forced to 
retire to Xaintonge^ after having bad the honour to be intro* 
duM^efl to the qoeen of Navarre, who allayed this first storm 
raised against the protestants^ Caivjn returned to Paris .in 
1534. This year the reformed met with severe treatinedt, 
!i^hich determined him to leave France, after puhiishioga 
treatise against those who believe that departed souls are 
in aikind of sleep. He retired to Basil, where he studied 


Hebrew : at tins tioie he published bis ^* Invtittitions of the 
€hf istian Rel^rion,'' a work weii adapted to spread his famfe^ 
tbofQgh be himself was desirous of living in obscurity. It 
is dedicated to the French king^ Francis I. TMs prince 
being solicitous, according to Be2»a, -to gain the friendiAi|» 
of the Protestants in Germciny, and knowing that tlhejr 
were highly incensed by the crnel persecations which tbe«^ 
brethren buffered in France, be, by advice of Williatn de 
Beliay, represented to them that be had.oihly punished 
obtain enthusiasts, who substitnted their own innrgrnationi 
in the place of God's word, and despised the cipvil •tfna^is* 
trate. Calf^in, stung with indignation at tibis wicked e"^^ 
sion, wrote this work as an apology for tbe Protesttants who 
were burnt for their religion in France. The dedicfation t6 
Francis L is one of the three that <bave been highly ad-' 
mired : that of Thuanus to his hiytory, >and Gasaubon*s to 
PolybioS) are the two otfaevs. Bat fti^ ti»eatise, when first 

Published in 1535, was only a sfcelch of a larger Wo^k. 
'he complete editions, both in Latin and in French, With 
the author's last additions and corrections, tlid not appear 
till 1558. After the publication of this work, Calvin went 
to Italy to pay a visit to tte duchess of Ferrara, a lady of 
eminent piety, by whdm he was Very kindly received. 
From Italy he came back to France^ and having settled his 
private aflatirs, ^he purposed to go to Strasbourg, or Basils 
in company with his sole sarviving'brother Antony Calvin ; 
bot as the roada were not safe on account of the war, e)t- 
<rept through the duke* of Savoy^ territories, he chose that 
fdad. ** This was a paHicalar direction df Providence,'* 
aaya Bayle; ^it was his >destiny< that be i^uld settle at 
€}eneva, ^dnd when be was whdUy imtent on going farther^ 
be found himself detained by^ an ord^r from heaven, if I 
may so itpeakJ*^ William Fai'el, a mto ^f ia *Wai^ entfau'* 
nastic temper, who bad in vain ulsed mafty entreaties 'to 
ptbiestt with Calvin to be bis fetlow-^abdtrrer in that part df 
the Lord^s vineyard^ at last sotenMtydeetared to him, in 
the name ^of God, that if 'hewould^not stay, the curse 6f 
God would^attend him wh«r6i^er <be went, as seeking hhn-^ 
self and not Christ. Calvin therefore was obliged to 
comply widi the choice which the consistory and magis- 
traterof Geneva made ^f him, with die consent of the 
people, to be one of their ministers, and professor of di* 
Tioity. It was his own wish to undertake only this last 
o£ce^ but^bie in» "oMig^ to tsdce btyth upon him in Au|^st 


C A L V IN. 

1536. The y^r following he made all the people declare^ 
vpw oath, their assent to a confession of faith, which con* 
tained a renunciation of Popery ; and because this reforma- 
tion in doctrine did not put an entire stop to the immo- ' 
ralities that prevailed at Geneva, nor banish that spirit o£ 
faction which had set the principal families at variance, 
Calvin, in concert with his colleagues, declared that they^ 
could not celebrate the sacrament whilst they kept up their 
animosities, and trampled on the discipline of the church^ 
He also intimated, that he could not submit to the regula* 
tion which the synod of the carfton of Berne had lately. 
Qiade ^. On this, the syndics of Geneva summoned an as*, 
sembly of the people; and it was ordered that Calvin, 
Earel, and another minister, should leave the town in two 
days, for refusing to administer the sacrament. Calvin 
retired to Strasbourg, and established a French church in 
that city, of which he waa.j:he first minister ; he was ako 
appointed to be professor^ of divinity there. During his 
stay at Strasbourg, he continued tp give many marks of 
his affection for the church of Geneva; as appears, amongst: 
other things, by the answer which he wtQte in 1539, to the 
beautiful but artful letter of cardinal Sadolet, bishop of 
Carp^ntras, inviting the people of Geneva to .return into 
the bosom of the Romish church* Two years kfeer, the. 
divines of Strasbourg being very desirous that he i^ould 
assist at the diet which the emperor had appointed to be 
held at Worms and at Ratisbon, for accommodating reli* 
gious differences, he went thither with Bucer, and had a 
conference with Melancthon. In the mean time the people 
of Geneva (the syndics who promoted his banishment being 
now some of them executed, and others forced to fly their 
country for their crimes), entreated him so earnestly ta 
return to them, that at last he consented. He arrived at 
Geneva, Sept 13, 1541, to the great satisfaction both i of 
the people and the magistrates ; and the first measure hm 
adopted after his arrival, was to establish a form of church 
discipline, and a consistorial jurisdiction, invested with 
the power of inflicting censures and canonical punishments. 

* The church of Genera made use 
of leavened brtead in the holy commu- 
nioQ, had removed all the baptismal 
font! out of the churches, and ob- 
'lenredno holidays but Sundays. These 
three things were disapproved by the 
^htucbes of tii« «Mitem of Berne, who 

made an act in a synod held at Lau- 
sanne» that the church of Geneva 
should be required to restore the use 
of unleavened bread, the baptismal 
fonts, and the observation of the feasts. 
These were the regulation! to which 
Calvin refiwed to Buj^tti^ 


as far as excomraunicatioi;! inclusively* This step was ex-* 
claimed against by many, as a revival of Romish tyranny; 
but it was carried into execution, the new canon being 
passed into a law, in an assembly of the whole people^ 
held on Nov. 20, 1541; and the clergy and laity solemnly 
promised to conform to it for eveir. Agreeably to the 
spirit of this consistorial chamber, which some considered 
as a kind of inquisition, Calvin proceeded to some of those 
lengths which have cast a stain upon his memory in the 
opinion of even his warmest admirers, and had a consider* 
able hand in the death of Michael Servetus, a Socinian 
writer, and in the lesser punishments inflicted on Bolsec^ 
Castalio, and others whose opinions were < at variance witk 
his new establishment. 

The inflexible rigour with which Calvin asserted, on all 
occasions, the rights of his consistory, procured him many 
enemies ; but nothing daunted him ; and one would hardly 
beHeve, if there were not unquestionable proofs of it, that 
amidst all the commotions at home, he could take so much 
care as he did of the churches abroad, in France, Germany^ 
England, and Poland, and write so many books and letters. 
He did more by his pen than his presence ; yet on some 
occasions he acted in person, particularly at Francfort, in 
1556, whither he went to put an end to the disputes which 
divided the French church in that city. He was always 
employed, having almost constantly his pen in his hand, 
even when sickness coniined him to his bed ;. and he con« 
tinued the discharge of all those duties, which his zeal for 
the general good of the churches imposed on him, till the 
day of his death. May 27, 1564. 

The character of Calvin, like that of Luther, and the 
other more eminent reformers, has been grossly calumni- 
ated by the adherents of popery, but the testimonies in its 
favour are too numerous to permit us for a moment to doubt 
that he was not only one of the greatest, but one of the 
best men of his time, and the deduction which necessarily 
must be made from this praise, with respect to his conduct 
towards Servetus and oth^ers, must at the same time in can- 
dour be referred to the age in which he lived, and in 
which the principles of toleration were not understood ^. 

* Joseph Scaliger, a man not lavish of the prophets ; and he particularly 

of his. praise, could not forbear ad-, commended him for not attempting t9 

miring Calvin : none of the commenia- comment the book of the Revelation. 

tors, be said, bad'hit sq ffeU the sense We learn from Guy Patin^ that many 



i)n ibe (ntker band his ufuxnnftMMi talentt Imve b^iert ae« 
kaowledged not only by tbe m^st etninefit person^ ef bis 
9^^) bat by ail who.bave studied bra works, or have tra^d 
tbe vast and <Mrerpovi/<erkig mfluenoe he posteesed in e^^ry 
country in Europe, where tbe work <»f reformation was 
caitying on> Every society, every obiai>eh, 'every district^ 
^£ry nation that bad in any degree adopted the prinoVpies 
of tbe reformers, were glafd to cons»tt and coiH'est>ond with 
Calvin on tbe steps they were to pui^fte. Tif>e i;<Mirt of 
England in particular, Edward VI. queen Eiizabetn, »rob<> 
faisbop Cranmer, and the leading prelates and refornaera 
here, ex^pressed their high respect for him, and freqo^ntty 
asked <and followed his advice, In France perhaps he was 
yet more consulted, and at Geneva be was an ecclesiastical 
di^ctaior^ whose doctrines and discipline became tbe regu- 
lar church establishment, and were afterwards adopted and 
stirll remain in full force in Scotland. Calvinism was also 
extensively prc^agated in Germany, the United Provinces, 
and England. In France it was abolished, as well as every 
other species of protestantism, by the revocation qf the 
edict of Nantz in 1685. Durinar the reio^n of Edward VL 

<}f the Roman catholics would do justice 
to Calvin's merit, if they dared to 
t|*e«k tfieir minds. One camnot help, 
says Bayte, laughing at those who 
have been so stupid as to accuse him 
of ha^nK been a loTer of wine, good 
«heer, monay, kc. Artful <laiiderers 
would have owned that he was sober 
by constitution, and that he was not 
tolteitous to -heap up riehes. That a 
man who had acquired so great a re- 
putation and such an authority, should 
yet have had but a salary of 100 
crowns, and refuse to accept of more ; 
and after living 55 years with the ut- 
most frugality, should leave but 300 
crowns to his heirs, including the valne 
of bis library, which sold very deat, is 
something so heroical, that one must 
liave lost' all deling not to fllddiire it« 
When Oalvla took bts leatse of the 
people of Strasbourg, to return to 
Geneva, tb^y wanted to continue to 
ImId (1m -privilege of « freem«in '^f their 
Iffwti, and the revenues of a prebend^ 
which had been assigned to him } the 
former he accepted, but absolutely re- 
lusM the other. He carried one of his 
brdihers with him to Geneva, but he 
never laboured to raise him to an ho- 
aoarable post^ i» any cither possess^ 

of his credit would have done. He took 
care, indeed, of the honour of his hro- 
ther*s'faraily, by getting him loosened 
from an adulteress, and obtaining leaye 
for him to marry again : but even his 
enemies relate, that he made him learn 
the trade of a boOk^Nnder, which ht 
followed all his life. 

Calvin, when he was about thirty, 
by the advice of his patron, Martiii 
Bucf r, married at Strasbonig, Idolel^i 
de Bure, widow of an anabaptist. 
Whom he had converted. She had 
some children by her first h^sbaridy 
and bore Calvin one son, who died 
soon after his birth. The mother 
died in 1549. Calvin appears by his 
letters, to have been extfemely a€> 
flioted for the loss of her, and never 
married a^ain. We are told by Beza, 
who wrote his life both in Latin taut 
French, that he knew men again,- after 
many years, whom he had seen bi|t 
once; and that when be was inlef^ 
nipted-for several ho«»rs whilst, he m^ 
dictating any thing, he would resunotf 
the thread of his discourse, with^t 
being told where he broke off; and never 
forgot what he bad once committed t^ 


it entered much into the writings of the eminent divines of 
that period ; in queen Elizabeth's time, although many of 
her divines were of the ^me sentiments, it was discouraged 
as far as it showed itself in a dislike of the ceremonies^ 
babits> &c. of the church. In the early part of Charles Ts 
time it was yet more discouraged, Arminianism being the 
favourite system of Laud ; but during the interregnum it 
revived in Ian uncommon degree, and was perhaps the per-* 
suasion of the majority of the divines of that period, all 
others having been silenced and thrown oi^t of their livings 
by the power of parliament. How far it now exists in the 
church of England, in her artiples and hooiilies, has re« 
cently.been the subject of a very long and perhaps unde-* 
cided controversy, into which it is not our inteution to « 
enter, nor could we, iudeed, make the attempt within any 
moderate compass. One excellent effect of this contro- 
versy has been to inform those of the real principles of Cal« 
vinism, who have frequently used that word to express a 
something which they did not understand. Perhaps it 
would be well if the word itself were less used, and the 
thing signified referred to the decision of more than human 
authority. It may be added, however, that the distin- 
guishing theological tenets ipf Calvinism, as the term is 
now generally applied, respect the doctrines of Predesti** 
nation, or particular Election and Reprobation, original 
Sin, particular Redemption, effectual, or, as some have 
called it, irresistible Grace in Regeneration, Justification 
by faith. Perseverance, and the Trinity. Besides the 
doctrinal part of Calvin's system, which, so far as it differs 
from that of other reformers of the same period, principally 
regarded the absolute decree of God, whereby the futurei 
and eternal condition of the human race was determined 
out of mere sovereign pleasure and free-will ; it extended 
likewise to the discipline and government of the Christian 
church, the nature of the Eucharist, and the qualification 
of those who were entitled to the participation of it. Cal- 
vin, considered every church as a separate and independent 
body, invested with the power of legislation for itself. He 
proposed that it should be governed by presbyteries and 
synods, composed of clergy and laity, without bishops, or 
any clerical subordination ; and maintained, that the pro* 
?ince of the civil magistrate extended only to its protec- 
tion and outward accommodation. In order to faciliiato 
an union with the Lutheran churchy he acknowledged a 


real, though spiritual, presence of Christ in the Eucfasritt ; 
that true Christians were united to the man Christ in this 
ordinance ; ' and that divine grace was conferred upon them, 
and sealed to them, in the celebration of it : and be con* 
fined the privilege of communion to pious and regenerate 
believers. In France the Calvinists are distinguished by 
the name of Huguenots ; and, among the commoti people, 
by that of Parpaillots, In Germany they are confounded 
with the Lutherans, under the general title Protestants ; 
only sometimes distinguished by the name Reformed, 

The best edition of Calvin's whole works is that of Am- 
sterdam, 1671, in 9 vols. fol. Most of his practical, and 
many of his controversial pieces, were translated into 
English, and much read here in the sixteenth century. * 

CALVISIUS (Sethus), a learned German chronologist, 
the son of a Lutheran peasant, was born at Gorschleben, 
a village of Thuringia, in 1556. Being very poor in his 
youth, he got his livelihood by his skill in music, which 
he learned very early, and was so liberally encouraged at 
Magdeburgh, that he was enabled to study for some time 
at die university of Helmstadt, where he made great pro- 
gress in the learned languages, and in chronology and 
astronomy. He died at Leipsic, where he held the office 
of chanter, in 1615. His "Opus Chronologicum". «ip- 
peared first in 1605, on the principles of Joseph Scaliger, 
for which he was not a little commended by Scaliger. 
Isaac Casaubon, also, a better judge in this case than Sca-% 
liger, as being under less temptation to be partial, has be^ 
stowed * high praises on Calvisius. In 1611, Calvisius 
published a work against the Gregorian calendar, under 
the title of " Elenchus calendarii a papa Gregorio XIIL 
eomprobati ;'* or, a *^ Confutation of the calendar, ap- 
proved and established by pope Gregory XIII." Vossius 
tells us, that he not only attempts in this work to shew the 
errors of the Gregorian calendar, but offers also a new and 
more concise, as well as truer method of reforming the ca-^ 
lendar. He was the author also of " Enodatio duaruna 
qoestionum, viz. circa annum Nativitatis et Tempus Mi- 
nisterii Christ,'' Erford, 1610, 4to. His "Chronology** 
was often reprinted. Of his muisical talents, he has left 
ample proofs to posterity in his short treatise called 
" MEAOnOIA, sive Melodioe condendae ratio, quam vulg6 

> Gen. Diet. — Life by Beza prefixed to hii Works*-— Saiui Onomsttt, 

C A L V I S I U S. 99 

musicam poetieam vocant, ex ^eris fundameniis extracta 
ct expiicata>'* 1592. This ingenious tract contains, though 
but a small duodecimo volume, all that was known at the 
time concerning harmonics and practical music ; as be has 
compressed into his lUtle book the science of most of the 
best writers on the subject ; to which he has added short 
compositions of bis own, to illustrate their doctrines and 
precepts. With respect to composition, be not only gives 
examples of concords and discords, and their use in combi- 
nation, but little canons and fugues of almost every kind 
then knbArn. He composed, in 1615, the iSOth psalm in 
twelve parts, for three choirs, as an Epithalamium on the 
nuptials of his friend Casper Ankelman, a merchant of 
Hamburgh, and published it in folio at Leipsic the same 
year. Several of his hymns and motets appear in a collec- 
tion of Luthet*an church music, published at Leipsic, 16 18, 
io eight volumes 4to, under the following title : ** Florile- 
giam portens CXV. selectissimas Cantiones, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 
voc. praestantissimorum Auctorum." Some of these whicb 
Dr. Burney had the curiosity to score, have the laws of 
harmony and fugue preserved inviolate. * 

CAMBRIDGE (Richard Owen), an ingenious English 
writer, was born in London, Feb. 14, 1717, of ancestors 
belonging to the county of Gloucester. His father, who 
was a younger brother, had been bred to business as a Tur- 
key merchant, and died in London not long after the birth 
of his son, the care of whom then devolved on his mother 
and his maternal uncle Thomas Owen, esq. who adopted 
him as his future representative. He was sent to Etoa 
school, where quickness of parts supplied the place of dili- 
gence ; yet although he was averse to the routine of stated 
tasks, he stored hi^ mind with classical knowledge, and 
amused it by an eager perusal of works addressed to the 
imagination. He became early attached to the best Eng-^ 
lish poets, and to those miscellaneous writers who delineate 
human life and character. A taste likewise for the beau- 
ties of rural nature began to display itself at this period^ 
which' he 'afte;rwards exemplified at his seat in Gloucester- 
shire, and that at Twickenham. In 1734, he entered as at 
gentleman commoner of St. John's college, Oxford, and, 
without wishing to be thought a laborious scholar, omitted 

1 Moreri. — Qoetzii Elogia prsBCocioin Eruditorum, 1722, Sro.— ^en. DicU"M> 
JBurQey and Hawkins's Hist* of Music. — Freheri TheaU-ttiii.-*SAxii OaomasU 

H 2 


no opportunity of improving his mind in such studies a^ 
were suitable to his age and future prospects. His first, 
or one of his first, poetical effusions was on the marriage of 
the prince of Wales, which was published with the other 
verses composed at Oxford on the same occasion. In 1737, 
be became a member of Lincoln^ s-inn, where he found many 
^nen of wit and congenial habits, but as he had declined 
taking a degree at Oxford, he had now as little inclination 
to pursue the steps that lead to the bar;^ and in 1741, in 
bis twenty-fourth year, he married Miss Trenchard, the 
second daughter of George Trenchard, esq. of Woolverton 
in Dorsetshire, a lady who contributed to his happiness for 
tipwards of half a century, and by whom he had a family 
equally amiable and affectionate. She died Sept. 5, 1806, 
having survived her husband four years. 

He now settled at his family seat of Whitminster in Glou- 
cestershire, for seven or eight years, where his life, though 
easy and independent, was never idle or useless. While 
he continued co cultivate polite literature, his more active 
hours were employed in heightening the beautieaof the 
scenery around his seat : for this purpose he made the little 
river Stroud navigable for some distance, and nat only 
constructed boats for pleasure or carriage, but introduced 
some ingenious improvements in that branch of naval archi-^ 
lecture, which were approved by the most competent 
judges. In one of these boats or barges he had the honour 
to receive the prince and princess of Wales and other dis-*- 
tinguished visitors, who were delighted with the elegance 
of bis taste, and the novelty and utility of his various plans. 
For the sports of the field he had little relish, not, how- 
ever, from a motive of tenderness, for he practised the bow 
and arrow, and we read, but with lio great pleasure, that 
V the head of a duck, swimming in the river, was a favourite 
mark, which he seldom missed." As, however, he ever 
endeavoured to unite knowledge with amusement, .he stu- 
died the history of archery, and became a connoisseur in 
its weapons as used by modern and ancient nations. The 
collection he formed while this pursuit occupied his s^tten-* 
tion, he afterwards sent to sir Ashton Lever's museum. 

During bis residence at Whitminster, he wrote his most 
celebrated poem, " The Scribleriad.*' The design he im- 
parted to some of his particular friends, and communicated 
bi^ progress from time to time. He had naturally a rich 
fund of humour, which he could restrain within the bounds 


tif delicacy, or expand to the burlesque, as his subject re- 
quired ; and the topics which he introduced had evidently 
been the result of a course of multifarious reading: But 
such was his diffidence in his own powers, or in the since- 
rity of his friends who praised his labours, that he laid his 
poem aside for many years after it was completed, until he 
could ascertain, by their impatience, that they consulted 
his reputation in advising him to publish it. 

In consequence of the death of his uncle (in 1748) to 
whom he was heir, he added the name of Owen to his own. 
He now took a house in London, but after about two years' 
residence, finding the air of London disagree with himself 
and with Mrs. Cambridge, he purchased a villa at Twicken- 
ham, immediately opposite Richmond-hill. He quitted at 
the same time his seat in Gloucestershire, and with it all de- 
sire of farther change, for he resided at Twickenham during 
the remainder of his very long life. How much he im- 
proved this villa cannot now be remembered by many : two 
generations have admired it only in its improved state.-** 
His mode of living has been affectionately, yet justly, de- 
scribed by his biographer. He was at once hospitable and 
economical, accessible and yet retired. By his knowledge 
and manners he was fitted to the highest company, yet 
although his circle was extensive, he soon learned to select 
his associates, and visiting became a pleasing relief, instead 
of a perpetual interruption. 

The same year in which he commenced his establishment 
at Twickenham, he became known to the public as the 
author of " The Scribleriad," which was published in 1751. 
Some of his lesser poems succeeded : *< The Dialogue be- 
tween a member of parliament and his servant,'' in 1752 ; 
the "Intruder,"* in 1754; and "The Fakeer," in 1756. 
About the same time be appeared as a writer in " The 
WoaLD,'' to which he contributed twenty-one papers, 
which are unquestionably among the best in that collection. 
Lord Chesterfield, who knew and respected him, drew the 
following character in one of his own excellent papers : 
*^ Cantabrigius drinks nothing but water, and rides more 
miles in a year than the keenest sportsman ; the former 
keeps his head clear, the latter his body in health : it is 
not from himself that he runs, but to his acquaintance, a 
synonimous term for his friends. Internally safe, he seeks 
no sanctuary from himself, no intoxication for his mind. 
His penetration makes him discover and divert himself with 

lop CAMS R I D G E. 

the follies of mankind^ which his wit enables him to eicpose 
with the truest ridicule, though always without personal 
offence. Cheerful abroad because happy at home, and 
thus happy because virtuous*." 

On the commencement of the war with France in 175^, 
in the events of which he appears to have taken a more 
lively interest than could have been expected from a man 
of his retired disposition, he was induced to undertake a 
history of the rise and progress of the British power in 
India, in order to enlighten the public mind in the nature 
and importance of that acquisition. At first he intended 
that this work should be on a very large scale, but as recent 
events demanded such information as could be iinmediatelj 
procured, and promised to be useful, he produced his 
*^ History of the War upon the Coast of Coromandel," 
which was published in 1761. He then resumed his ori*- 
ginal design, and obtained permission from the Edst India 
Company to inspect such of their papers as might be re- 
quisite. He had also a promise of Mr. Orme's papers, but 
that gentleman happening to return from India at this 
juncture, with an intention to publish himself the history 
which afterwards appeared, Mr. Cambridge considered 
that his own work would now be in a great measure super- 
fluous, and therefore relinquished the further prosecution 
6f his plan. What he had published, however, was consi- 
dered as an important memoir of the period it embraced^ 
smd as a fair and correct statement of the French proceed ^ 
iugs in India ; and it served to introduce him more into the 
study of India affairs, in whickhe ever afterwards delighted. 
It led him also to an intimate acquaintance with lordClive, 
general Carnac, Mr. Scrafton, majof Pearson, Mr. Varelst, 
general Calliaud, Mr. Hastings, and others, who had gained 
distinguished reputation by their sjervices in the East. 

Mr. Cambridge survived the publication of this work 
above forty years, but appeared no more before the public 
as an author. Many of the smaller pieces in his works 
were written as amusements for his friends, and circulated 
only in private. The long remainder of his life passed in 
the enjoyment of ail tliat elegant and polished society could 

* ** This character stands at Ihe example of oae, who did not reqiiirt 

close of a paper written to expose the the exhilarating aid of wine to eniiveii 

folly and ill effects of hard drinking : his wit, or increase his vivacity.*' Life 

and lord Cbesterfleid names diy father of Mr. Cambridge, by bis Son> iire<t 

who was a watcr-drinJi^eri as a living; fixed to bis works, p. 44* 


yield. Mopt of the friendships of his youth were those of 
his advanced age, and they were contracted with such mea 
as are not often found, within the reach of a stationary indi- 
Tidual. At Eton he became acquainted with Bryant, Gray^ 
West, Walpole, Dr. Barnard, and Dr. Cooke ; at Lincoln'^ 
Inn he found Mr. Henry Bathurst, afterwards lord chan- 
cellor, the lK>n. Charles Yorke, Mr. Wcay, and Mr. Edwards. 
To these he afterwards added lord Ansoii, Dr. Atwell, bi-^ 
shop Benson, sir Charles Williams, Mr. Henry Fox, Mr« 
William Whitehead, Villiers lord Clarendon, lord Gran- 
ville, lord Lyttelton, Mr. Grenville, lord Chesterfield, Mr, 
Pitt, lord Bath, lord Egremont, Soame Jenyns, lord Hard- 
wicke, admiral Boscawen, lord Barrington, James Harris, 
Andrew Stone, bishop Egerton, lord Camel ford, Welbore 
Ellis, lord North, Garrick, Dr. Johnson, Dr. Porteus, late 
bishop of London, and the illustrious navigators Byron^ 
Wallis, Carteret, Phipps, Cook, and Vancouver. In th^ 
company of these, some of whom were long his neighbours 
at Twickenham, be delighted to increase his knowledge 
by an interchange of sentiment on topics of literature and 
common life. His conversation was enriched by various 
reading, and embellished by wit of the most delicate and 
unobtrusive kind. His temper made him universally be** 
loved. It wals uniformly cheerful, mild, and benevolent. 

The conclusion of his life is thus related by bis biogra- 
pher : '' He was considerably advanced in his eighty-third 
year before he was sensible, to any considerable degree 
of the infirmities of age ; but a difficulty of hearing, which 
bad for some time gradually increased, now rendered con- 
versation troublesome^ and frequently disappointing to him. 
Agstinst this evil his books, for which his relish was not 
abated, bad hitherto furnished an easy and acceptable re- 
source ; but, unfortunately, his sight also became so im- 
perfect, that there were few books he could read with com- 
fort to himself. His general health, however, remained the 
same, and his natural good spirits and cheerfulness of tern-' 
per experienced no alteration. Having still the free use 
of his limbs, be C()ntinued to take his usual exercise, and 
to follow his customary habits of life, accepting of such 
amusement as conversation would afford, from those friends 
who bad the kindness to adapt their voices to his prevail- 
ing infirdiity ; and that he still retained a lively concern in 
all those great and interesting events, which were then 
taking place in Europe, may be seen in some of his latest 

10* C A M B R I D G E.' 


productions, fiut as his deafness increased, he felt himself 
grow daily more unfit for the society of any but his omi fa- 
mily, into whose care and protection he resigned himself 
with the mpst affectionate and endearing confidence, re- 
ceiving those attentions, which it was the first pleasure of 
his children to pay him, not as a debt due to a fond and 
indulgent parent, but as a free and voluntary tribute of 
their affection. In the contemplation of these tokens of 
esteem and love, he seemed to experience a constant and 
unabating pleasure, which supplied, in no small degree^ 
the want of other interesting ideas. 

" It is well known, that among the many painful and 
humiliating effects that attend the decline of life, and fol- 
low from a partial decay of the mental powers, we have 
often to lament the change it produces in the heart and 
affections ; but from e\^ry consequence of this sort my 
father was most happily exempt. This I allow myself to 
say upon the authority of the medical gentleman ^ of con- 
siderable eminence, by whose skill and friendly attentions 
he was assisted through the progressive stages of his slow 
decline ; and who has repeatedly assured me, that, in the 
whole course of his extensive practice, he had never seen 
a similar instance of equanimity and' undeviating sweetness 
of temper. 

^^ During this gradual increase of feebleness, and with 
the <liscouraging prospect of still greater suffering, which 
besaw before him, his exemplary patience, and constant 
care to spare the feelings of bis family, were eminently con- 
spicuous : nor did the distressing infirmities, inseparably 
attendant on extreme debility, ever produce a moroiur of 
eomplaint, or even a hasty or unguarded expression. It 
is somewhat singular, and may be regarded as a proof of 
an unusually strong frame, that no symptom of disease took 
place : all the organs of life continued to execute their 
respective functions, until nature b^ng wholly exhausted, 
he expired without a sigh, on the 17th of September, 1802, 
leaving a widow, ^wo sons, and a daughter.^' 

It appears from the whole of his Son's very interesting 
narrative, that few men have enjoyed a life of the same 
duration so little interrupted by vexation or calamity. His 
fortune, if not relatively great, was rendered ample by ju- 
dicious management, and as he had been highly favoured^ 

^ *' David Dun (lass, csc[. of Richmpnd." 

C A M B K I D G E. laf 

by Providence in bis person and in bis family, be felt tbe 
importance of these blessings with the gratitude of a Chrii- 
tian. Such information as the following, so honourable to 
the subject of it, and to bim who relates it, ought not to 
be suppressed. 

** At an early age be attentively examined tbe evidences 
of Christianity, and was fully satisfied of its truth. His 
was, in the truest sense, the religion of the heart, and be 
always felt that a constant conformity to its precepts was 
the strongest and best proof he could give of tbe sincerity 
of his faith. Of its prescribed forms and exterior duties 
he was no less a strict observer : whatever were his engage- 
ments, he constantly passed his Sundays at home with his 
family, at tbe head of whom he never failed to attend tbe 
public service of the day, until prevented by a bodily in- 
firmity, for -some years before his death : but he still con- 
tinued his practice of reading prayers to them every even- 
ing ; a usage of more than sixty years ; these were taken 
from our Liturgy, of which he was a great admirer. 
. '^ When no longer able to partake of the communion at 
church, he continued to receive it at home on the festivals 
and other suitable occasions, to the latest period, and his 
manner of joining in this service furnished an edifying ex- 
ample of the happy influence of a mind void of offence to- 
wards God and man. 

** His devotional exercises were always expressed in so 
solemn a manner, and with such unaffected piety, as 
shewed that his lips spoke the language of his heart ; but 
his impressive tone of voice, when offering prayer and 
thanksgiving, marked that to be tbe branch of worship 
most suited to his feelings ; and in conformity with this 
sentiment, he frequently remarked, that ' in our petitions 
we are liable to be misled both as to their object and mo- 
tive ; but in expressing our thanksgivings to the Deity we 
can never err, the least favoured among us having received 
sufficient tokens of tbe bounty -of Providence, to excite 
emotions of the sincerest gratitude.* 

'^ This principle of piety led him also to bear afflictions 
in the most exemplary manner. Whatever trials or depri- 
vations he experienced through life, be always met with 
fortitude, and his demeanour under the losses which be 
was ordained to suffer in bis own family, was such, that 
those only^ who saw him near, and knew bow sacred he 
held the duty of submission tp tbe divine wiU^ and the self- 


conaniand this produced| could form any idea liow poig- 
nantly they were felt." 

Of his literary character his Son has formed a just esti« 
mate, when he says that he is to be regarded rather as an 
elegant than a profound scholar. Yet, where he chose to 
apply, his knowledge was far from being superficial, and 
if he had not at an early period of life indulged the pro* 
spect of filling the station of a retired country gentleman, 
it is probable that he might have made a distinguished 
figure in any of the learned .professions. It is certain that 
the ablest works on every subject have been produced, 
With very few exceptions, by men who have been scholars 
by profession, to whom reputation was necessary as well as 
curnamental, and who could not expect to rise but in pro- 
portion, to the abilities they discovered. Mr. Cambridge, 
without being insensible to the value of fame, had yet none 
of the worst perils of authorship to encounter. As a writer 
be was better known to the world, but he could not have 
been more highly respected by bis friends. 

Abodt a year after his death, his son, the rev. George 
Owen Cambridge, published a splendid edition of all his 
works (except his History of the War) to which he prefixed 
an account of his hfe and writings. To this very interest- 
ing narrative, the present sketch is indebted for all that is 
valuable in it, but from what is here borrowed the reader 
can have but a feeble conception of a composition which 
does so much honour to the moral and literary reputation 
of the father, and to the filial piety and chastened affection 
of the son. 

The Scribleriad is one of those poems, that, with great 
merits, yet make their way very slowly in the world. It 
was received so coolly on the publication of the first two 
parts, that he found it necessary to write a preface to the 
second and complete edition, explaining his design. He 
had some reason to apprehend that it had been mistaken, 
and that the poem was in danger of being neglected. In 
this preface he lays down certain rules for the mock heroic, 
by which, if his own production be tried, it must be con- 
fessed he has executed all that he intended, with spirit 
and taste. As an imitator of the true heroic he is in ge- 
neral faithful, and his parodies on the ancients show that 
he had studied their writings with somewhat different from 
the ardour of an admirer of poetry, or the acuteness of 
a critical lip^uisu But it mav be doubted whether tb« 



rules he wishes to establish are sufficieotly comprehensive, 
whether he has not been too faithful to his models, and 
whethec a . greater and more original portion of the bur- 
lesque would not have conferred more popularity on his 
performance. His preference of Don Quixote, as a true 
mock heroic, is less a matter of dispute. In ail the attri- 
butes of that species of composition, it is unquestionably 
stiperior to any attempt ever made, and probably will ever 
remain without a rival, for what subject can the wit of man 
devise so happily adapted to the intention of the writer? 
Its great excellence too appears from its continuing to 
please every class of readers, although the folly ridiculed 
no longer exists, and can with some difficulty be supposed 
to have ever existed. But Cervantes is in nothing so su- 
perior,e as in the delineation of his hero, who throughout 
t^e whole narrative creates a powerful interest in his fa- 
vour, and who excites ridicule and compassion in such nice 
proportions as never to be undeserving of sympathy, or 
overpowered by contempt. 

Mr. Cambridge was not so fortunate in a hero. He was 
content to take up Scriblerus where Pope and Swift, or 
rather Arbuthuot, left him, a modey, ideal being, with^ 
out an exemplar, combining in one individual, all that is 
found ridiculous in forgotten volumes, or among the pre- 
tenders to science and the believers of absurdities. Mr. 
Cambridge's hero, therefore, without any qualities to se- 
cure pur esteem, is an antiquary, a pedant, an alchymist, 
and what seldom is found among such characters, a poet. 
In conducting him through a series of adventures, upon the 
plan sketched by. the triumvirate above mentioned, it is 
with great difficulty that he is able to avoid the error they 
fell into, either of inventing nonsense for the sake of laugh- 
ing at it, or of glancing their ridicule at the enthusiasm of 
useful research, and the ardour of real science and justi- 
fiable curiosity. The composition of the Scribleriad is in 
general so regular, spirited, and poetical, that we cannot 
but wish the author had chosen a subject of more perma^ 
nent interest. The versification is elegant, and the epi- 
thets ehosen with singular propriety. The events, al- 
though without much connection, all add something to 
the character of the hero, and the conversations, most 
gravely ironical, while they remind us of the serious 
epics, are never unnecessarily protracted. 

It is to be regretted, and perhaps it may be mentioned 


as another hindrance to the popularity of the Scribleriad, 
that the author determined tp avoid moral reflections, re* 
flections which he could have easily furnished. His pe« 
riodical papers exhibit a happy union of wit apd sentiment, 
and few men were better acquainted with local manners 
and the humours and whims of interest and passion. If 
such reflections arise naturally from the subject, they are 
surely not only useful, but lead to many of the most strik- 
ing beauties of imagery. The Scribleriad, however, will 
ever be considered by impartial judges, with whom popu- 
larity is not an indispensable qualification, as a poem that 
does honour to the taste and imagination of Mr. Cambridge^ 
and as deserving a place with the most favourite attempts 
of the satirical muse. ' 

CAMDEN (William), one of the most eminent Ewglish 
antiquaries, was born in the Old Bailey, London, May 2, 
1551. His father, Samson Camden, was a native of Lich* 
field, whence he was sent very young to London, where 
he practised painting, and settling in London, became a 
member of the company of Painter-stainers. The inscrip* 
tiou on the cup left by his son to., the company calls him 
jPictor LondinensiSy which may refer either to his profes^ 
sion or to. his company. His mother was of the ancient 
family of the Curwens of Workington in Cumberland* 
Their son received his first education at Christ's hospital, 
which was founded the year after his birth by king Edward 
VI. ; but the records of that house being destroyed in the 
fire of London, the date of his admission is lost. Bishop 
Gibson treats his admission at Christ's hospital as a fiction, 
because not mentioned by himself; but as it is by Wheare, 
who pronounced his funeral oration very soon after his 
death, it seems to have some foundation, especially if we 
consider the lowness of his circumstances, and his depen- 
dence on Dr. Thornton at Oxford. Dr. Smith (his biogva** 
pher) says, some infer from hence, that he had lost his f4-« 
ther, and was admitted as an orphan ; but it is certain 
Wheare does not give it that turn. Being seized with the 
plague i«i 1563, he was removed to Islington, or perhaps 
was sei/.ed with it there, " peste correptus Islingtoniae v^* 
but on his recovery, he completed his education at St. 
Paul's school ; where under Mr. Cook or Mr. Malin, he 

1 Life as above. — Johnson and Chalmers's English PqcIs^ 21 vols, ISlQ^rs* 
Shtish Essayists^ Preface to the World, 

C A M D £ ^NT. 109 

made such progrets in learoing as laid the foundation of 
his future fame. ^ 

From this school he was removed when about fifteen 
years old, in 1566, to Oxford, and entered as a servitor 
at Magdalen college ; and in the school belonging to that 
college perfected himself in grammar learning under Dr. 
Thomas Cooper, afterwards bishop of Lincoln and Win- 
chester; but being disappointed of a demi*s place, he re- 
moved to Broadgate-hali, now Pembroke college, by the 
invitation of Dr. Thomas Thornton, cahon of Christ churchy 
his patron and tutor, and who had the honour to be tutor 
both to Camden and to sir Philip Sidney. Camden left 
behind him in Broadgate-hall a signal mark of the respect 
paid him by his contemporaries in the short Latin graces 
composed by him, which were used many years after by 
the scholars of this society. Th^ee years after he ren^o%ed 
from hence to Christ church, on the promotion of Dr, 
Thprnton to a canonry there. This kind patron provided 
ioY him during the rest of his contiouance at the univer- 
sity, and he lived in his patron^s lodgings. At this time 
his acquaintance commenced with the two Carews, Richard 
and George; the latter of whom was by James I. created 
baron Ciopton, and by Charles L earl of Totness; and it 
has been supposed, as they were both antiquaries, their 
conversation might give Mr. Camden a turn to that study^ 
which he himself informs us he had strongly imbibed be* 
fore he left school, and improved at Oxford. He was 
also acquainted with John Packington, Stephen Powel, 
and Edward Lucy, knights. 

About this time by the encouragement of bis friends, he 
stood for a fellowship at All Souls, bat met with a repulse, 
through the interest of the Popish party, on account of his 
zeal for the church of England. He met with a second 
disappointment in his supplication to be admitted to the 
degree of bachelor of arts in 1570, and upon this he 
quitted Oxford, and came up to London the next year, 
being now about twenty. He pursued his studies under 
the patronage of Dr. Gabriel. Goodman and Dr. Godfrey 
Goodman his brother, who supplied him both with money 
and books. In 1573, he applied again for the same de-- 
gree, and seems to have taken it, but never completed it 
by determinations. In June 158S, we find him supplica- 
ting the convocation by the name of William Camden, B. A. 
pf Christ churchy '^ that whereas from the time he had 


taken the ilegree of bachelor, he had spent sixteen years 
in the study of philosophy and the liberal arts, he might he 
dispensed with far reading three solemn lectures, and be 
allowed to proceed.^' His supplication was granted on 
condition that he stood in the foilowing act, which it seems 
.his other engagements would riot permit; for Wood says, 
iiis name is noc in the registers. When he attended the 
funeral of sir Thomas Bodhey in 1613, his fame was so 
great, that the university, voluntarily offered him the de- 
gree of master of arts, but whether he accepted it does not 

Upon leaving the university, he seems to have made the 
tour of great part of England; and in 1575, by the in*- 
terest of his friend Dr. Giabriei Gpodman, dean of West* 
minster, be obtauned the place of second master of West- 
minster school. The little leisure he could sparfe from this 
important charge he devoted to his favau rite study. He 
was not content with pursuing it' in his ckxiei, 4>ut made 
excursions o¥er , the kingdom every yacatidn." In 1582, for 
example, he took a journey through Suffdk into York- 
shire, and returned by Lancaster. When 4it hom^ he 
searched into the .manuscript coUecUoifs of out own wri* 
ters, and the published writings of fore^ners respecting 
us. At this time too, he meditated bi^ great work, the 
^^ Britannia ;^' and as his reputation engaged him in an ex-^ 
tensive correspondence both at home and abroad, Orte- 
Jius, whom he terms the great restorer of geography, hap- 
pening to come over into England, applied himself to Mr* 
•Camden for information respecting this country. His so* 
liciutions, and the regard our author had for his native 
country, prevailed on him to improve and' digest the col- 
lections, which he seems to have made at first only for pri- 
vate satisfaction and curiosity. He entered upon this task 
with every difficulty and disadvantage. It was a new 
science, which was to amuse and inform an age which had 
just began to recover itself from the heat and perplexity of 
philosophy and school divinity. The study of geography 
bad been first attended to in Italy for the facilitating the 
reading of Roman hisjtory. The names of places there, and 
even in the rest of Europe, where the Romans had so long 
kept possession, were not greatly altered ;^but in Britain^ 
which they subdued so late, and held so precariously, a 
great degree of obscurity prevailed. The Roman ortho- 
graphy and. terminations bad obscured in some instances 

CAMDEN; 111 

the British names; but the Saxons, who succeeded the 
Romans here, as they gained a firmer possession, made an 
almost total change in these as in every thing else. Upon 
their expulsion by the Normans, their language ceased to 
be a living one, while that of the Britons was preserved in 
a corner of the island. Very soon after the conquest there 
were few who could read the Saxon characters. In tnicinisr 
the Roman geography of Britain, Mr. Camden might be 
assisted^ by Ptolemy, AiUoninus^s Itinerary, and the No« 
titia; but before he could become acquainted with the 
Saxon geography, it was necessary for him to make him- 
self master of a language which bad ceased for above 400 
years. The few written remains of it were almost divided 
between three collections; that of archbishop Parker, now 
at Bene't college, Cambridge.; that of archbishop Laud, 
now at Oxford ; and that of sir. Robert Cotton, now in the 
British Museum. 

After ten years^ labour Mr. Camden published his *^ Bri-« 
tannia'' in 1586, dedicated to William Cecil lord Burleigh, 
lord treasurer to queen Elizabeth. What a favourable re-* 
ception it met with appears from the number of editions it 
passed through ; for in the compass of four years there were 
three at London, one at Frankfort, 1590, one in Germany, 
and a fourth at London in 1594. The title which he re*^ 
tained in all -editions was *^ Britannia, sive florenttssimo^ 
rum regnorum Angliie, Scotiae, Hiberniee, et insularum 
adjacentium, ex intima antiquitate, chorographica descrip^ 
tio.*' The dedication is dated May 2, 1586, so that he 
finished this great work precisely at the age of thirty- five ; 
and yet, as he informs us himself, lie devoted to it only his 
spare hours and holidays, the duties of his ofBce ingrossing 
all the rest t)f his time. 

As each new edition recei\'ed large corrections and im^ 
provements from its author, he took a journey into Devon 
in 1589, and in June Ibtit year was, as he tells us in his 
diary, at Ilfracomb, which is a prebend of the church of 
Salisbury, and had been bestowed on him that year by 
Dr. John Piers, then bishop of that see and his intimate 
friend ; and he had been installed Lito it by proxy Feb. 6i 
This preferment he held till his death ; and when bishop 
Abbot held his general visitation at Whitsuntide in 1617, 
he excused himself from attending on account of his agei 
being then seventy, and was allowed to appear by proxy. 
The expence of this and other journies was defrayed by 

112 CAMDEN. 

his friend Mr. Godfrey- Goodman. In 1 590 he visited 
Wales in company with the famous Dr. Godwin, after-^ 
wards bishop of Landaff and Hereford. On Oct. 2j$, 1592/ 
he was attacked with a quartan ague, which, for a long 
while, baffled the help of physic, and brought him very, 
low. During this illness. Dr. Edward Grant, who had 
been head master of Westminster school upwards of twenty 
years with great reputation, worn out with fatigue, re- 
signed that place Feb. 1592-3; and in March following 
was succeeded by Camden. Mr. Wheare, Dr. Smith, and 
bishop Gibson, all assign this vacancy to the death of Dr* 
Grant; and Wood, though in two articles he expresses 
himself doubtfully, in another affirms that be resigned 
about February 1592, and was succeeded by William Cam-^ 
den. He adds, that Dr. Grant died in 1601, and wa& 
buried in Westminster abbey, where his epitaph, now de* 
faced, but preserved in Mr. Camden's account of this ab- 
bey-church, dates his death Aug. 3, 160K 

It was not till next year that Mr. Camden perfectly re* 
covered from bis ague; and soon after published the fourth 
edition of his Britannia, with great enlargements and im- 
provements by bis own care, and that of his friends. But 
all his attention could not defend him from the violent 
and indecent attack from Ralph Brooke (more properly, 
Brookesmouth), York Herald, exposing certain mistakes 
which be pretended to have discovered in the pedigrees of 
the earls of each county, and which he fancied might be 
attended with circumstances dishonourable to many of the 
most ancient and noble families in this kingdom. Brooke's 
book did not appear till many years after the fourth edition 
of the Britannia; but he had framed his materials soon 
after. Bishop Gibson ascribes this attack to envy of 
Mr. Camden's promotion to the place of Clarencieux king 
at arms, in 1597, which place Brooke expected for him- 
self. But though the piece is u^di^ted, it appears by the 
address to Maister Camden prefixed to it, that Camden 
was not then king at arms, and he was created Richmond 
herald but the day before. The truth is, that Mr. Camden 
in his first editions touched but lightly on. pedigrees, and 
mentioned but few families ; whereas in the fourth he en- 
larged so much upon them, that he has given a particular 
iqdex of JBaranes et illustriores familiar and recited near 
250 noble houses. This Brooke, with the mean jealousy 
of a man whose livelihood was connected with his place^ 

C A M P E N. Ill 

considered a$ an invasion on the rights of the college^ 
This put him on examining these pedigrees, and on wishing 
to have them corrected, as Mr. Camden appears to have 
been ever ready to have bis mistakes set right. Brooke 
tells ns, indeed^ that what he offered him for the fifth edi*' 
tion did not meet with that favourable reception he ex«> 
pected even before Camden professed himself an herald 
officially^ and that foreigners, misled by his former edilion% 
had blundered egregiousiy. He complains too, that b^ 
had been disturbed in writing,* and mvicfa more in printing 
it, by. Mr, Cainden's friendis. That thid was. rather owing 
to a jealousy of his profession than of his promotion, ap«> 
pears further from hence, that though Mr. Camden himself 
in his answer to Brooke does not indeed, take notice of his 
promotion, and the disgust it migbthave gixren him^ yet 
^is was after he had published his ^^ Discoverie,'^ and he 
shews throughout that di3dain of his: adversary's abtliti^^ 
which Brooke complains of, never once admitting him ta 
be right, or his corrections worth regarding} though in the 
fifth edition he wisely mad^ use of them;. and whoever 
peruses Brooke's book carefully will find, that what siamg 
him most was, that a schoolmaster shouU meddle with 
descents and families, and at ;the same time treat betaidi 
iritb so little respept. 

> As soon as Cankden found his health re^establishi^, h% 
made a journey to Salisbury and Wales, and xetamii^ b^ 
Oxford, spent some time in that city, taking notes in tb« 
churches and chdpels there, which Wood ^ys he had neen 
in the author's band-^writing ; and bishop Gibson ;speaks of 
fragments of them as^ still remainingv In 1591 he had d 
fresh illness^ from which b^ recovered by. tbe care of on# 
Mrs. Line, wife of Cuthbert Line, to whose house he re^ 
moved. This year he published his Greek gmmmar for 
the use of Westminster* school, entitled ^^ Grammaticet 
Grseooa institutio compendiaria in usum regis^ scholse West^ 
monasteriensis," London, Svo, which, when Dr. Smith 
published his life^ in 1691, had run through forty impress 
sions. Dr. Crrant had eon>posed one before, bot Mr. 
Camden thought it deficient and inconvenient Wood says 
he contracted it, 

At this time be probably entertained no thoughts of 
quitting a post in which: he was universally esteemed and 
riespected* He refused the place of master of requests^ . 
offered him probably by lord treasurer Burleigh. B«t 

Vol. VIIL I 

11* CAMDEN. 

before the end of the year he quitted it for one in the He- 
ralds' college. Richard Leigh, Clarencieux king at arms, 
dying Sept. 23, sir Fuik Greville, Camden's intimate 
friend, solicited that office for him, which was immedi- 
ately granted. But, because it was not usual for a person 
to rise to that dignity without having iirst been a herald, 
he was Oct. 22, created Richmond herald, and the next 
day Clarencieux. Bishop Gibson remarks, that lord Bar-* 
leigh was offended with Camden for obtaining this prefer- 
ment by any other interest than his ; but, on Mr. Camden's 
representing it to be the free thought of sir Fulk Greville, 
he was reconciled to him, and continued his patronage 
during the remainder of his life. 

Being now more at liberty, he travelled in 1600 as faf 
as Carlisle, with his intimate friend Mr. (afterwards sir) 
Robert Cotton, and having surveyed the northern counties, 
returned to London in December. Thi« year he published 
his account of the monuments in Westminster abbey, 
'^ Reges, ReginsB, Nobiles, et alii in ecclesia collegiata 
B. Petri Westmonasterii sepulti, usque ad annum reparatas 
salutis 1600," 4to; which, though no more than a 'collec- 
tion of epitaphs, has preserved many that have been sined 
destroyed or effaced. He reprinted it with enlargeVnentis 
in 1603, anii 1606. This year also, c^me out a fifth 
(edition of his Britannia, to which he added ^^ An apology 
to the reader," in answer to what Rfilph Brooke had pub- 
lished to the prejudice of bis work. The original difier- 
43nce related only to some niistakes which Brooke imagined 
he had discovered. But when he fancied himself under 
the necessity of appealing to the world and to the earl of 
Essex, then earl marshal, and his patron, he brought in 
other oiatter, foreign to his purpose, charging Camden 
with errors in the pedigrees of noble fafe^ilies, with not ac- 
iLuowledgiug the assistance he derived from Glover's papers 
in lord Burleigh'^ libraiy, and from' Leland, whom he pre^^ 
tends be had pillaged largely. Camden, in answer, ac-^ 
knoiwledges himself to have beien misled by one of his 
predecessors, Robert Cook, clarencieux ; that he had in- 
deed borrowed from Leiandy but not Without citing him, 
and that where he says the same things on bis own know^ 
ledge, that Leland had mentioned on his^ he did not think 
himself obliged to him ; and xhat whereas Leland had spent 
five years in this pursuit, he had ^pent thirty in consulting 
author^ both foreign and doiii^<^i<;, living and dead. Ht^ 

CAMDEN. lis 

.concludes with rallying his antagonist, as utterly ignorant 
of. his own profession, incapable of translating or under- 
standing the Britannia, and offers to submit the disputed 
points to the earl marshal, the college of heralds, the so- 
ciety of antiquaries, or four persons learned in these stiji- 
dies. This did not prevent Brooke from writing *' A Se- 
cond Discoverie of Errors," in which he sets down the 
passages from Camden, with his objections to it in his first 
book ; then Camden's reply, and last of all, his own an- 
swer : and in the appendix in two columns, the objection- 
able passages in the edition of 1594, and the same as they 
stood in that of 1600. This was not printed till about 100 
years after the death of its author, by Mr. Austis, in 1723, 
4to. The story which Mr. Camden, in his Annals, and Pr, 
Smith tell.of Brooke's dirty treatment of sir William Segar, 
another officer in the college, whom he had a pique against, 
in 161u>, will justify us in believing hioj capable of any 
thing* . ' .  • 

In 1602, jWr. Camden was again visited by a fever, from 
which he was recovered by the care of bis friend Mr. 
Heather, afterwards the founder of the music lecture at 
Oxford. He escaped the plague in 1,603, by returning to 
his friend Cotton's seat at. Connington ; and this year a 
collection of .our historians, Asser, Walsingham, De la 
More, Gul. Gemeticensis, Gir. Cambrensis, &c. inade by 
him, part of which had been incorrectly published before, 
was printed at Frankfort, in folio. In the dedication to 
sir Fulk Greville, he apologizes for this publication, as 
having laid aside the design he had once formed, of writing 
an history of England, Mr. Gough here remarks that 
great stress has been laid on a supposed insertion by Cani»- 
den, of a passage in Asser, ascribing the foundation of the 
university pf Oxford to Alfred, and Mr. Gough seems in- 
clined to acquit Camden of the crime of inserting what was 
not in the original. We are of the same opinion, yet, 
after perusing what Mr. Whitaker has advanced on this 
subject, in his life of St. Neot, it seems utterly impossible 
to deny that the passage is a forgery. 

Camden's next publication is entitled "Remainesof a 
greater work concerning Britain, the inhabitants thereof, 
their language, names, surnames, empresses, wise speeches, 
poesies, and epitaphs," London, 1605, 4to. In his dedi- 
cation to sir Robert Cotton, dated 1603, and signed only 
Iby his initials^ he calls it '^ the outcast rubbish pf a greater 


116 CAMDEN. 

and more serious work ;*' so that Dr. Sinith mistakes wheii 
he dates its publication 1604, contrary to the express note 
of its author in his Diary. The number of the editions it 
has run through (not less than seven), and the additions 
made to it in 1636, or earlier, by sir John Philipbt, Somer- 
set herald, and W. D. gent are proofs of its value, not- 
withstanding the slight put upon it by bishop Nicolson. 
It is a kind of common place from his Britannia, and ha3 
preserved a number of curious things. Many other of hia 
lesser essays have been printed by Hearne in bis " Collec- 
tion of cunous discourses,*' and more were added tQ,the se- 
cond edition of that work in 177 1 ; which may be considered 
as the earliest transactions of the Society of Antiquaries, of 
which Mr. Camden was a distinguished member. 

In 1606, Mr. Camden began a correspondence with the 
celebrated president De Thou, which was continued till 
the death of the latter. Five of the president's letters, end- 
ing 1615, are printed by Dr. Smith among Camden's Epis- 
tles, 54, 59j 71, 99, 111, acknowledging the information 
he received from him relative to the affairs of this island. 

Upon the discovery of the powder-plot, the king think- 
ing it proper to put the reformed churches abroad on their 
guard against the enemies of their religion, as well as to 
satisfy foreign princes of all religions of the justice of bis 
proceedings, made choice of Mr. Camden to translate the 
whole account of the trial of the conspirators into Latin, 
which he performed with great accuracy, elegance, and 
spirit It was published in 1607, 4to, by John Norton the 
king's printer, under the title of ** Actio iu Henricum 
Garnetum societatis Jesuiticae in Anglia superiorem et 
cseteros qui proditione longe immanissima sereniss. Brit. 
Mag. regem et regni Anglise ordines e medio toUere coiia- 
bantur," &c. and presently was put into the list of books 
prohibited by the inquisition. 

Mr. Camden being confined many months in conse- 
quence of a hurt in his leg by a fall from his horse, Sept 7, 
1607, employed himself in putting the last hand to the 
complete edition of bis Britannia in folio, considerably 
augmented, adorned with maps, and applauded by a variety 
of poetical compliments from his friends both at home and 
abroad. He did not to the last give up thoughts of re- 
vising and enlarging it, for in 1621^ we find him at Sand- 
hurst in Kent, searching without success for a camp of 
Alexander Severus^ who was, without any foundation, 

CAMDEN. 117 

supposed to hare been killed there instead of at Sisila or 
Sicila in Gaul. Dr. Smith gave Mr. Hearnei who left it' 
to the Bodleian library, a copy of the last edition of the 
Britannia, with notes and emendations by Mr. Camden 
himself, in the margin and on little pieces of paper fixed 
in their proper places ; and from this copy Heame onoe 
had thoughts of publishing a new edition of the Britannia 
in the original language. Before Camden undertook this 
elaborate and finished work, he had formed a design for 
writing a general history of this nation in Latin, of which 
the account of the conquest inserted in the Britannia, ar« 
tide Normans, is a part: but foreseeing that the bate 
collecting materials would take up a man's life, he con^ 
tented himself with publishing the volume of original histo- 
rians before mentioned, 

. Not, however, to neglect the leisure he now enjoyed, he 
began in 1608 to digest the matter which- he had been 
years collecting towards a history of the reign of queea 
Elizabeth, to which he had been first incited by his old 
patron the lord treasurer in 1597, ten years before, and 
solicited by other great personages. But the death of 
Burleigh next year, the queen's decease soon after, and 
the difficulty of the task, obliged him to defer it While he 
was meditating this great work, he was seized on his birth* 
day, 1609, with a dangerous illness, and the plague breaki* 
ing out in bis neighbourhood, he was removed to his friend 
Heather's house, and by the care of his physician Dr. Gif« 
fsrd, be, though slowly, recovered bis health, retired to 
Cbiselhurst Aug. 15 of that year, and returned Oct. 23. 
This year upon the passing of the act to erect a college at 
Chelsea, for a certain number of learned men, who were 
to be employed in writing against popery, on a plan pro* 
posed by Dr. SutclifFe, dean of Westminster, consistuig of 
a dean or provost, seventeen fellows and two historians^ 
Mr. Camden was appointed one of the latter. But this 
design failing, as we have more than once had occasion to 
notice, he received from it only the honour of being 
thought qualified to fill such a department. From this time 
his history of Elizabeth employed his whole aittention, and 
when the first part was ready, which reached to the year 
1589^ he obtained the king's warrant to sir Robert Cotton 
and himself to print and publish it. It was accordingly 
pubiiafaed iu 1615, folio, uiidef the title oi ^'Annalei 



rerum Anglicarum et Hibernicarum regnante Elizabeth& ad 
aun. salutis 1589/' Loud. 

His impartiality has been attacked on seTeral parts of 
this work. He has been charged with being influenced in 
his account of the queen of Scots by complaisance for her 
son, and with contradictions in the information given by 
him to M. deThouy and his own account of the same parti ^ 
culars. It is not to be wondered if James made his own 
corrections on the MS. which his warrant sets forth he had 
perused before he permitted it to be published. It was no 
easy matter to speak the truth in that reign of flattery in 
points where filial piety and mean ambition divided the 
mind of the reigning monarch. An English historian in 
such a reign could not indulge the same freedom as Thua- 
nus. The calumnies cast upon him for his detail of Irish 
affairs were thought by him beneath the notice his friends 
wanted to take of them. But though he declined adding 
his own justification to that which the government of Ire- 
land thought proper to publish of their own conduct, we 
have the letters he wrote on the subject to archbishop Usher 
and others ; and it had this effect on him, that he declined 
publishing in his life-time the second part of his history, 
which he completed in 1617. He kept the original by him, 
which was preserved in the Cottonian library, and sent an 
exact copy of it to his friend Mr. Dupuy, who had given, 
him the strongest assurances that he would punctually per^ 
form the duty of this important trust, and faithfully kept 
bis word. It was first printed at Leyden, 1625, 8vo, again 
London, 1627, folio, Leyden, 1639, 8vo, &c. But the 
most correct edition of the whole is that by Hearne.from 
Dr. Smith's copy corrected by Mr. Camden's . own hand, 
collated with another- MS. in Mr.Rawlinson's library. Both 
parts were translated into French by M. Paul de Belligent, 
^ advocate in the parliament of Paris ; and from thence into 
English with many errors, by one Abraham D'Arcy, who 
did not understand English. The materials whence Cam- 
den compiled this history are. most of them to be. found in 
the Cottonian library. We learn from a MS letter of Dr. 
Goodman's, that he desired them as a legacy, but re- 
ceived for answer, that they had been . promised to 
archbishop Bancroft, upon whose death he transferred 
them to his successor Abbot, and archbishop Laud said 
tbey were deposited in the palace at Lambeth^ but where" 

CAMDEN. 119 

ever they were archbishop Sancroft could not find one of 

From this time he seems to have lived in retirement at 
Chiselhurst, declining the solicitations of his friend Saville, 
to make his house at Eton his own, and to have amused 
himself with entering memoranda of events as they hap- 
pened, which have been printed at the end of his epistles 
by Dr. Smith, and called " Apparatus annalium regis Ja- 
cobi L" These are called by Wood ** A skeleton of a his- 
tory of James L or bare touches to put the author in mind 
of greater matters," or rather memoranda for private use. 
He adds, bishop Hacket stole, and Dugdale borrowed and 
transcribed them, as did sir Henry St. George, Clarencieux, 
both incorrectly. The original is in Trinity coHege, Cam* 
bridge, and Dr. Smith printed these and parts of an Eng* 
lish Diary. 

On Feb. 10, 1619, he was seized with a vomiting of blood, 
which brought on a deliquium, and continued at intervals 
till August following. In June this year, he had a dispute 
with his brother kings Garter and Norroy, about the ap- 
pointment of his deputies to visit for him, which, though 
founded partly on a mistake, did not prevent their com- 
plaining to the commissioners for executing the office of 
earl marshal. He vindicated himself in his answer to the 
earl of Arundel, and the matter seems to have ended hereii 
In the beginning of 1621, he was consulted by lord chan* 
cellor Bacon on the ceremonies requisite for creating him 
viscount St. Alban's, which was performed Jan. 27 follow- 
ing. In June that year, he Assisted in Westminster-hall, 
at the execution of a very extraordinary sentence of de- 
gradation passed in parliament on sir Francis Mitchell, knt. 
for the monopolies which had oppressed the inn-holders: 
his spurs were broken in pieces, and thrown away by the 
servants of the esurl marshal, his sword broken over his 
head, and himself declared an arrant knave, as sir Andrew 
Harcla had formerly been treated. The king at arms sat 
at the feet of the lord- commissioners during the whole pro- 

On the last day of August the same year, he was seized 
with a return of his old disorder, but happily recovered. 
This, added to his advanced age, determined him to putig; 
execution hiis intention of founding an history lecture at 
Oxford. Accordingly in May 1622, he sent down his deed 
of gifi by the bands of bis friend Mr. William Heather^ 

120 CAMDEN- 

dated March 5, 1 621-2. On May 1 7, Dr. Piers, dean of Pe- 
terborough, and vice-chancellor of the university, declared 
the foundation in full convocation, and its endowment with 
the manor of Bexley in Kent, which be had bought of sir 
Henry Spilman, jeweller to James I. ; the rents and pro- 
fits of which, valued at about 4002. per annum, were to be 
enjoyed by Mr. Heather, his heirs and executors, for 
ninety-nine years from the death of Mr. Camden, the said 
Mr. Heather paying the professor of this new foundation 
140/. per annum ; and at the expiration of the said term 
the whole to be vested in the university. They expressed 
their acknowledgments in a letter of thanks, and conferred 
the degree of doctor of music on Mr. Heather, organist of 
the chapel royal, and on Mr. Orlando Gibbons, another of 
Mr. Camdeu^s intimate acquaintance. In return for this 
compliment, Mr. Heather founded a music lecture at Ox- 
ford, and endowed it with the annual revenue of 16/. 6s. Sd. 
Mr. Camden himself, at the recommendation of his friend 
Thomas Allen, appointed his first professor Degory Wheare, 
A. M. fellow of Exeter college, assigned him 20/. for the 
first year, 40/. for the second, and after the third he was to 
enjoy the full stipend. Thus Camden fulfilled the vow 
with which he closes his Britannia, to dedicate some votive 
tablet to God and antiquity. 

On August 18, 1623, as Mr. Camden was atting thought- 
fully in his chair, he suddenly lost the use of his hands and 
feet, and fell down on the floor, but presently recovered 
his strength, and got up again without receiving any hurt 
This accident was followed by a severe fit of illness, which 
ended in his death, Nov. 9, 1623, at his house at Chisel- 
hurst, in the seventy-third year of his age. 

In his last testament, after a devout introduction, and be- 
queathing eight pounds to the poor of the parish in which 
he should happen to die, he bequeaths to sir Fulke Grevile, 
lord Brooke, who preferred him gratis to his office, a piece 
of plate of ten pounds ; to the company of painter stainers 
of London, he gave sixteen pounds to buy them a piece of 
plate, upon which he directed this inscription, ** GuL Cam- 
denus Clareneeux fifins Saropsonis, Pictoris Londinensis, 
dono dedit ;'* he bestowed the sum of twelve pounds on the 
•ompany of cordwainers, or shoemakers of London, to 
purchase them a piece of plate, on which the came inscrip* 
tion was to be »)graved. Then follow the legacies to his 
private firiends. As to hb books and papery lie directi 

V» • ■"T' ••■ '"• 



that sir Hphert Cotton of Coaingtoo, should tftke out sucb^ 
as be had borrowed of him, and then he bequeaths to him 
all his printed books and manuscripts, excepting such a$ 
concern arms and heraldry, which, with his ancient seals^ 
he bequeaths to his successor in the of&ce of Clarenceux, 
provided, because they cost him a considerable sum of 
money, he gave to his cousin John Wyat, what the kings 
at, arms Garter and Norroy for the time being should 
think fit, and agreed also to leave them to his successor* 
But notwithstanding this disposition of his books and papers^ 
Dr. John Williams, then dean of Westminster, and bishop 
of Lincoln, afterwards archbishop of York, procured, all 
the printed books for the new library erected in the church 
of ^Vestminster. It is understood, that his collections in 
support, of his History, with respect to civil affairs^ were, 
before this time deposited in the Cotton library ; for as to 
those that related to ecclesiastical matters, when asked for 
them by Dr. Goodman, son to his great benefactor, he de- 
clared he stood engaged to Dr. Bancroft, archbishop of Can- 
terbury. They came afterwardi'to archbishop Laud, and are 
supposed to have been destroyed when his papers fell into the 
hands of Mr. Prynne, Mr. Scot, and Hugh Peter$ ; for upon 
a diligent search made by Dr. Sancroft, soon after his pro- 
motion to that see, there was not a line of them to be found,, 
as we have already mentioned. His body was removed to 
his house in London, and on the 19th of November, carried 
in g^eat pomp to Westminster abbey, and after a sermon 
preached by Dr. Christopher Sutton, was deposited in the 
south aile, near the learned Casaubon, and over against 
.Chaucer. Near the spot was erected a handsome monu-^ 
ment of white marble, with an inscription, erroneous as to 
his age, which is stated to be seventy-four, whereas h^ 
wanted almost six months of seventy -three. At Oxford^ 
Zouch Townley, of Christ Church, who was esteemed a 
perfect master of the Latin tongue in all its purity and ele-- 
gance, was appointed to pronounce his funeral oration in 
public, which is printed by Dr. Smith. The verses written 
on his death were collected and pripted in a thiq quarto^ 
entitled ^Insignia Camdeni," Ox. 1624, and his name 
was enrolled in the list of public benefactors. 

Camden's personal character is drawn by lusbop Gibson 
in few words : that he was ^^ easy md innooent in his oon-^ 
versation^ and in his whole life even and e:s^eiiiplary.*' W^ 

122 CAMDEN. 

bave seen him unruffled by the attacks of envy^ which his me^ 
rit and good fortune drew upon him. He seems to have stu- 
died that tranquillity of temper which tlie love of letters ge- 
nerally superinduces, and to which one may, perhaps, ra- 
tionally ascribe his extended life. The point of view in 
which we are to set him, is as a writer ; and here he stands 
foremost among -British antiquaries. Varro, Strabo, and 
Pausanias, among the ancients, fall short in the compari- 
son ; and however we may be obliged to the two latter for 
their descriptions of the world, or a small portion of it, Cam- 
den's description of Britain must be allowed the pre-emi- 
nence, even though we should admit that Leland marked 
out the pl^n, of which he filled up the outlines. A crowd 
of contemporaries, all admirable judges of literary merit, 
and his correspondents, bear testimony to his merit. Among 
these may be reckoned Ortelius, Lipsius, Scaliger, Ca- 
saubon, Merula, De Thou, Du Chesne, Peiresc, Bignon, 
Jaque Godefre, Gruter, Hottoman, Du Laet, ChytraBus, 
Gevartius, Lindenbrogius, Mercator, Pontanus, Du Puy, 
Rutgersius, Schottus, Sweertius, Limier, with many others 
of inferior note. Among his countrymen, dean Goodman 
and his brother, lord Burleigh, sir Robert Cotton, Dr. 
(afterwards archbishop) Usher, sir Philip Sidney, and arch- 
bishop PsCrker, were the patrons of his literary pursuits, as 
the Arst two had befriended him in earliest life : and if 
to these we add the names of Allen, Carleton, Savllle, 
Stradling, Carew, Johnston, Lambarde, Mathews, Spel- 
man, Twyne, Wheare, Owen, Spenser, Stowe, Thomas ' 
James, Henry Parry, afterwards bishop of Worcester, 
Miles Smith, afterwards bishop of Gloucester, Richard 
Hackluyt, Henry Cuff, Albericus Gentilis, John Hanmer, 
sir William Beecher, Dr. Budden, Dr. Case» sir Christo- 
pher Heydon, bishop Godwin, Richard Parker, Thomas 
Ryves, besides others whose assistance he acknowledges 
in the course of his Britannia, we shall find no inconsi- 
derable bede-roU of associates, every one of them more or 
less eminent in the very study in which they assisted Mn 
Camden, or were assisted by him. 

Mr. Camden possessed no contemptible vein of poetry^ 
as may be seen by his Latin poem, entitled ^ Sylva,'' in 
praise of Roger Ascham, written in compliment to his 
fi4end Dr. Grant, and prefixed to his edition of Ascham's 
Letters i)i Latin^ 1(90, 12mo9 another entitled << Hiber- 

, CAMDEN. 123 

nia : an hexastich prefixed to Haklnyt's Voyages ; another 
to sir Clement Edmondes' translation of Caesar's Commen- 
taries ; another to Thomas Rogers's *' Anatomy of the hu- 
man mind," 1576, 12mo. He wrote also ten epitaphs^ 
the most remarkable of .which is that for the queen of 
Scots. The marriage of the Tame and Isis, of which he 
more than half confesses himself the author, does honour 
to his fancy, style, and numbers. 

The first edition of his Britannia was in 1586, 8vo, and 
not 4to, as Mr. Gough, probably by a slip of the pen, hasf 
noted ; and the sixth and last was in 1607, fol. This was 
the first with maps. There were also several editions 
printed abroad. The first translation of it was in 1610, by 
Philemon Holland, who was thought to have consulted 
Mr. Camden himself, and therefot'e great regard has beeii 
paid by subsequent editors to his additions and explana- 
tions. Mr. Camden's MS supplement to this edition of 
1610, in the Bodleian library, expressly cautions the rea- 
der to hold only his " Latin copy for autentiq,'* but this* 
bishop Gibson denies ; but in a later edition of his transla* 
tion, 1637, fol. Holland has taken unwarrantable liberties. 
Mr. Wanley supposes this second edition was published 
after Holland's death in 1636, the title being like a book- 
seller's ; and that he made the translation without consult- 
ing Camden. 

The Britannia was translated in 1694 by bishop Gibson, 
and published in folio, with large additions at the end of 
, each county ; others are inserted in the body of the book, 
distinguished from the original, and Holland's most mate- 
rial notes placed at the bottom of each page. As this was 
grown scarce, and many improvements were communicated 
to the editor, he published a new edition 1722, 2 vols. fol. 
and additions, greatly enlarged, incorporated with the 
text, distinguished by hooks. This edition was repririted 
1753, 2 vols. fol. and again in 1772, . 'with a few correc- 
tions and improvements from his lordship's MS. in his own 
copy, by his son-in-law, George Scot, esq. of Wolston- 
hall, near Chigwell, Essex, who died .1780. A first vo- 
lume of a translation, by W. O. (William Oldys), esq. was 
printed in 4to, but, as Mr. Gough thinks, was never 
finished or dated. A manuscript most erroneous transla- 
tion of it, without acknowledgment, l3y Richard Butcher, 
author of the '^ Antiquities of Stamford,'* is in St John's 

124 CAMDEN. 

college hbraiyi Cambridge, with a few immaterial addi^. 
tions. The last and most complete translation of the Bri* 
tannia, by such an antiquary as Camden would have chosen^ 
the late learned and excellent Richard Gougbi esq. wa{| 
published in 1789, 3 vols. fol. of which we shall speak 
more at large in his article. Some years afterwards he had 
made preparations for a new edition, of which he super- 
*intended only the first volume, and announced that fact ii^ 
a public advertisement, which did not, however, prevent 
an attempt to pass off the whole of a recent edition as his. 
Of Mr. Gough's Life of Camden we have here availed 
ourselves, as far preferable to the ill-digested cpmpilation 
in the Biog. Britannica. 

It only remains to be mentioned that Camden^s house at 
Chiselhurst passed, tt\rough the hands of several possesr 
sors, to the late lord Camden, who purchased it in 1765, 
and enlarged and improved the mansion and grounds. V 

CAMEkARIUS (Joachim), one of the most learned 
writers of his age, was born at Bamberg April 12, 1500. 
The ancient family name was Leibh^rd, but it was afters- 
wards changed into that of Cammermeister, in Latin Car 
merarius, or Chamberlain, from one of his ancestors hav- 
ing held that ofHce at court. He was sent to a school at 
Leipsic when he was 13 years of age, and soon, distin- 
guished himself by his application to Greek and Latin au- 
thors, which be read without ceasing. When Leipsic, od 
one occasion, was in a tumult, Camerarius shewed no con- 
cern about any thing but an Aldus's Herodotus, which 
he carried under his arm '; and which indeed to a scholar 
at that time was of some consequence, when printing was 
in its infancy, and Greek books not easily procured. It is 
yet more to his praise that his Greek pirofessor, when 
obliged to be absent, entrusted him to read his lecture^i 
although at that time be was but sixteen yea^rs old. In 
1517 he studied philosophy under Mosellanus; and this 
was the year, when the indulgences were preached, which 
gave oeca&ion to the reformation. Camerarius was at St. 
Paul's church in Leipsic with Heltu% who was bis master 
in Gr^eek and Latin literature, when these indulgences 
were exposed from the pulpit; but Heltus was ^o offended 
with the impudence of the Dominican who obtruded tbem^ 


1 Lif« in Gouffh'ii Camden.— Bio^. Brit.«-Life by SmiOi* 1691, 4to,—AUi, 

Ox. YOl. I. <IC. 

C A M E R A R I U S. 125 

that he went ont of the charch in the middle of the sermoni 
and ordered Camerarius to follow him. When he had 
itaid at Leipsic five years, he went to Erford ; and three 
years after to Wittemberg, where Luther and Melanctbon 
were maintaining and propagating the reformation. He 
knew Melancthon before; lived afterwards in the utmost 
intimacy with him ; and, after Melancthon^s death/ wrote 
a very copious and accurate life of him. He was also 
ioon after introduced to Erasmus, and his uncommon abi« 
lities and industry made him known to all the eminent 
men of his tttne. 

In 1525, when there was an insurrection among the 
common people through all Germany, commonly called 
the war of the peasants, Camerarius went into Prussia, but 
he retiirned very soon, and was made professor of the 
belles lettres in an university which th^ senate of Nurem- 
berg had just founded under the direction and superiiiten- 
dency of Melancthon. In 1526, when the diet of Spires 
was held, Albert earl of Mansfelt was appointed ambassa* 
dor to Charles' V. of Spain, and Camerarius to attend him 
as his Latin interpreter ; but this embassy being suspended, 
Camerarius went no farther than Eslingen, whence he re- 
turned home, and was married the year after to Anne 
Truchses, a lady of an ancient and noble family, with 
whom he lived forty-six years very happily, and had four 
daughters and five sons by her, who all did honour to their 
family. In 1530, the Senate of Nuremberg sent him with 
some other persons to the diet of Augsburgh, and four 
years after offered him the place of secretary; but, pre- 
ferring the ease and freedom of a studious life to all ad- 
vantages of a pecuniary nature, he refused it. In 1538, 
Ulric princiB of Wittemberg sent him to Tubingen, to re- 
store the discipline and credit of that university ; and in 
i54l, Henry, duke of Saxony, and afterwards Maurice his 
son, invited him to Leipsic, to direct and assist in found- 
ing an university there. 

When Luther w4s dead^ and Germany at war, Came- 
rarius experienced very great hardships, Leipsic being 
besieged by the elector of Saxony, on which account he 
tembved all his effects with his Tamily to Nuremberg, not 
hiiWever without considerable loss, and did not return till tha 
war was at an end. In 1556 he went with Melancthon to 
the diet of Nuremberg ; arid attended him the year after to 
that of Ratisbon. After spending a life of literary labour 

126 C A M E R A R I U 8. 

and fame, be died at Leipsic^ April 17, 1575, surviving 
bis wife not quite a year ; and Melcbior Adam, relates, that 
he never recovered this shock. Among his friends were 
Jerome Baumgartner, Carlovitcb, Melanctbou, Petrug 
Victorius, Turnebus, Hieronymus Wolfius, apd in short, 
almost all the great men of his time. He is said to have 
been to Melanctbon, what Atticus was to Cicero, an ad- 
viser, Counsellor, assistant, and friend upon all occasions ; 
SiuSi that, when Melanctbon* s wife died during bis absence 
at the diet of Worms, Camerarius quitted all bis concerns 
at home, however necessary and requiring his presence, 
and immediately set off on purpose to comfort him. 

Bis labours in the li|terary republic were prodigious. 
He wrote a vast number of book^, among which are the 
lives of Melanctbon and Hessius, and ^^ Commentaries on 
the New Testament, grammatical and critical,'* printed with 
Beza's Greek Testament, Cambridge, 1642, fol. He like- 
wise published a catalogue of the bishops of the principal 
sees ; Greek epistles ; itineraries in Latin verse ; epigrams 
of the ancient Greek poets ; a commentary oh Plautus, 
&c. But he was perhaps a greater benefactor to the stu* 
dents of his time by the translations be made from many of 
the anci^eht authors. Greek was but little understood, and 
to facilitate the learning of that language, he translated 
Herodotus, Demosthenes, Xenophon, Euclid, Homer, 
Theocritus, Sophocles, Lucian,. Theodoret, Nicepborus, 
&c. Melcbior Adam says, that " be studied incessantly, 
within doors and without, up and in bed, on a journey, and 
in hours even of recreation ; that he learned French and 
Italian when he was old ; that be had but a smattering of 
Hebrew ; that he understood Greek well ; and that in Latin 
he was inferior to none." Turnebus, Henry Stephens, 
Lipsius, Beza, Scaliger, Thuanus, and Vossius, all speak 
of him in the highest terms. . Erasmus only said he owed 
more to industry than to nature, which might, however, 
apply to the uncommon care he took in remedying her 
defects; but this opinion does not correspond with that 
of any of his contemporaries. In private character he was a 
man of great goodness of disposition, great humanity, can* 
dour, and sincerity in his searches after truth. ^ 

CAMERARIUS (Joachim), son of the preceding, was 
born at Nuremberg, in 1534, and there first educated. 

^ Gen* Dict.-^NiceroD> who gives a catalogue of bis works. — Saxi? Onomast. 

C A M E R A R I U S. 127 

As bis mind was early turned to the study of botany and 
medicine, wttb tbe view of improying himself he visited 
the principal seminaries in Germany, and thence went to 
Padua, and afterwards to Bologna, where he took the degree 
of doctor in 1 562. Two years after he returned to Nu- 
lemberg, and by his superior skill and ability, seemed the 
legitimate inheritor of his father's fame. In 1592, be 
founded a medical college, of which he was appointed dean 
or president, and continued to direct its affairs for tbe re« 
mainder of his life. He formed an extensive garden, stored 
with tbe choicest plants, the cultivation of which be su^ 
perintended with great assiduity, and assisted the land* 
grave of Hesse in forming. a botanical garden ; and with:a 
view of disseminating the knowledge of plants, he pur* 
chased the collections of Gesner and Wolfe, which he 
methodised) and corrected, and with considerable addi^ 
tions frpm his own stores, together with the works of 
Matthiolus, he published them in 1586, under the title of 
^^ De Plantis Epitome utilissima Petri Andreas Mattbioli 
noyis Iconibus et Descriptionibus plurimis diligenter 
aucta,'' 4to. << Hortus Medicus et Philosopbicus, in quo 
plurimarum Stirpium braves* Descriptiones, novee Icones 
non paucas, continentur," 1^88, 4to. " Opercula de Re 
Rustioa^ quibus, pcseter alia, Catalogus Rei BotanicsD et 
Rustics^ Scriptorum veterum et recentiorum insertu^ est,*' 
1577, 4to. Also ^* De recta et necessaria Ratione presort 
vandi a Pestis Contagion e," 1583, with other small tracts 
on the same subject, and three centuries, of emblems. On 
his death, which happened October 11, 1598, he was suc- 
ceeded by his son Joachim in his practice, and in tbe ho« 
nour of being dean of the college.— Euas Rodolphus Ca.- 
MEHARiifs, and bis son of the same names, appear likewise 
to have been of the same femily, and were physicians of 
considerable fame, although their works are now in little 

CAMERON (John), one of the most famous divines of 
the -seventeenth century, among the French Protestants^ 
was born at Glasgow, ia Scotland, about the year 1530, 
and educated at the university of his native city. After 
reading lectures on the Greek language for a year, he be* 
gan his travels in 1 600, and at Bourdeaux evinced so much 

^ Gen. Diet.— Niceron. <-tedi Onomast.— Halldr Bibl. Botan.-**R0es'fl Cf- 


ability and erudition, that the ministers of thab city ap- 
pointed him master of a college which they bad established 
at Bergerac, fov teaching Greek and. Latin ; and from this 
the duke de Bouillon removed him to the philosophical 
professorship at Sedan, where he remained for two years. 
He then went to Paris, and from Paris to Bourdeausr, 
where he arrived in 1604, and began his divinity stu- 
dies, and in 1608 was appointed one of the ministerit 
of Bourdeanx, and officiated there with snch increasing 
r^utation, that the university of Saumur judged him wor-. 
thy to succeed Gomarus in the divinity chair. Having 
accepted this offer, he gave his lectures until 1 620, when 
the university was almost dispersed by the civil war* He 
now came over to England with his family, and was re- 
commended to king James, who appointed him professor 
of divinity at Glasgow, in the room of Robert Boyd, of 
Trochrig, (whom Bayle and his translators call Trochore- 
gius)y because he was supposed to be more attached to the 
episcopal forni of church government. This situation, 
however^ not suiting his taste, be returned to Saumur in 
less than a year ; but even there he met with opposition, 
and the court having prohibited bis public teaching, he wa$ 
obliged to read leetnres in private. After a year passed in 
this precarious state of toleration, he went in 1624 to Mon- 
tanban, where he was chosen professor of divinity, but 
having declared himself too openly against the party which 
preached up the civil war, he created many enemies, and 
among the rest an unknown miscreant who assaulted him 
in the street, and wounded him so desperately as to occa- 
sion his death, which took place^ after he bad knguished a 
considerable time, in 1625. Bayle says, he was a man of 
a great deal of wit and judgment, had a happy memory, 
was very learne<l, a good philosopher, of a cfaearfnl temper, 
and ready to communicate not only his knowledge, but 
even his money : he was a great talker, a long preacher; 
little acquainted with the wOrks of the fathers, obstinate 
in his opinions, and somew^t troublesome^ He frankly 
owned to his friends, that he found several things stil! to 
reform in the refofmed chtrrcbes. He took a delight in 
publishing particular opinions, and in going out of tb<$ 
beaten road ; and he gave instances of this when he wa« a 
youth, in his theses " De Tribus Foederibus," which he 
published and maintained at Heidelberg, although yet 
but a proposant, or candidate for the ministry. He also 

C A M E Jl O N. 129 

torixed some novelties in all the theological questions 
which he examined ; and when in explaining some pas- 
sages of the holy scripture, he met with great difficulties, 
he took all opportunities to contradict the other divines, 
and especially Beza; for he pretended that they had not 
penetrated into the very marrow of that science. It was 
irom him that monsieur Amyraut adopted the doctrine of 
universal grace, which occasioned so many disputes in 
France, and will always be found, at least upon Amyraut's 
principles, to be too inconsistent for general belief. Ca- 
meron's works are his " Theological Lectures," Saumur, 
1 626-— 1628, 3 vols. 4to, published by Lewis Capellus, 
with a life of the author, and afterwards at Geneva in one 
vol. folio, with additions, by Frederick Spanheim. Ca« 
pellus also published, in 1632, Cameron's ^' Myrothecium 


CAMOENS (Luis de, or Lewis), a very celebrated 
Portuguese poet, and from his much-admired poem the 
** Lusiadas," called the Virgil of Portugal, was descended 
from an illustrious, and originally, Spanish family, and was 
born at Lisbon about the year 1524. His father Simon 
Vaz de Camoens is said to have perished by shipwreck in 
the year which gave being to his son, although this is some- 
what doubtful. It appears, however, that our poet was 
sent to the university of Coimbra, and maintained there 
by his surviving parent. On his arrival in Lisbon, he be- 
came enamoured of Donna Catarina de Ataide, whom he 
addressed with all the romantic ardour of youth and poetry, 
but according to the prescribed reserve, or prudery of the 
age, obtained no higher mark of her favour, after many 
months of adoration, than one of the silken fillets which 
encircled her head. His impatience, however, hurried him 
into some breaches of decorum, while pursuing his coy 
mistress, who was one of the queen^s ladies, and her pa- 
rents took this opportunity to terminate an intercourse 
which worldly considerations rendered, on her part, of the 
highest imprudence. This interference produced its usual 
effect. Camoens was banished^ the court, and on the 
morning of his departure, Catarina confessed to him the 
secret of her long-concealed affection. Thus comforted, hm 
removed to Santarem, the place of his banishment, but if 

I Geoi Dict,«-Mosbeim'8 Eccl. Hisii 

Vol. VIII. . K 

no G A M O E N S. 

si^id to have speedily retarned to LisboDi where be was 
agaiQ detected, and again sent into exile. 

He now sougbt and obtained permission to accompany 
king John III. in an expedition concerted against the Moori 
in Africa. His conduct in this campaign was so heroicy 
that he obtained permission to return booiey where he found 
that his mistress was dead. To aggravate his sorrows, he 
obtaioed no reward for his services, after much application ^ 
and stung with the ingratitude of his country, he deter* 
mined to leave it. Mr. Mickle, but without quoting his^ 
authority, attributes this event to the discovery of an in-* 
trieue which he carried on with the wife of a Portuguese 
^opleman, a circumstance not very improbable, as all his 
biographers allow that be was not very correct in bis morals. 
He sailed^ bowever, for India, ^nd ppntributed, in no small 
measure, to the success of an expedition against the Pi-- 
menta Isles, carried on by the king of Cochin and his allies 
1)he Portuguese. In the following ^year (1555), Manuel de 
Vasconcelos conducted an armament to the Red Sea. Our 
poet accompanied him,, and with the intrepid curiosity of 
genius, explored the wild regions of Africa by which Mount 
Felix is surrounded. Here his mind was stored with 
^ketches of scenery, which afterwards formed some of th^ 
most finished pictures in his Lusiad, and in his other com-* 

The mal-administratipn of affairs in India was at thia 
time notorious ; and Camoens, with more justice than pru-^ 
dence, took an opportunity of expressing his disgust in a 
satirical account of some amusements exhibited before the 
governor of Goa, in consequence of which he was banished 
to China. His adventures, while in China, are amply de- 
tailed by Mr. Mickle. After an absence of sixteen years, 
be returned to Portugal, poor and friendless as when ho 
departed*. His Lusiad, after being delayed for sosne time 
by the raging of the plague in Lisbon, was published in the 
summer of 1572. From this display of uncommon genius, 
the author derived much honour, but little emoluments 
King Sebastian, it is said, rewarded him with a pension of 
375 reis, a sum so small (for 20 reis make only one penny )y 
that we know not how to reconcile it. with the lowest com* 
putation of maintenan<^e, yet even this be lost on Sebas>*> 

*Id hitf'passage homeward, hewaa he if laid to have held wiUi his left 
shipwrecked by a storm, aod lost all ImimI, while he swam with his righU 
his effectiy except his Lasiadi which 

C A M O E N a ISl 

tian's death, and his latter years present a mouriifal picture. 
Dot merely of individual calamity, but uf national ingrati<» 
tude* '' He," says lord Strangtord, '^ whose best years 
bad been devoted to the service of his country, he, who 
bad taught her literary fame to rival the proudest efforts of 
Italy itself, and who aeemed born to revive the remem* 
brance of ancient gentility and Lusian heroism, was corn** 
pelled in age to wander through the streets, a wretched 
dependent on casual contribution. One friend alone re<^ 
Hudned to soiooth his downward path, and guide his steps 
to the grave with gentleness and consolation. It was An-* 
tonio, his slave, a native of Java, who had accompanied Ca* 
moens to Europe, after having rescued him from the waves^ 
when shipwrecked at the mouth of the Mecon. This faiths 
fol attendant was wont to seek alms throughout Lisbon, and 
at night shared the produce of the day with his poor and 
broken-hearted master. But his friendship was employed 
in vain cCamoens/Sunk beneath the pressure of penury and 
disease, and died in an almshouse early in 11^79, and was 
boried in the church of St. Anne of the Franciscans. Over 
bis grat^e, Oon9i^ Coutinho placed the following inscrip- 
tion, wltich, for comprehensive simplicity, the translator 
ventorea lo prefer to almo&t every production of a similai 

Here ues Luis de Camoens : 

He excelled all the Poets op his time. 

He uved poor and miserable ; 

And he died so, 

Some years afterwards, Don Gonf9alves Camera caused a 
l»iig aiid pompous epitaph to be engraved on the same 
tomb* But tbis posthumous panegyric only added deeper 
disgrace to the ficts recorded in the former inscription. 

Camoens wrote a variety of poetical compositions, some 
of which have been lately very elegantly translated into 
Engiish by lord viscount Strangford, who has also prefixed 
a life of the author, from which we have extracted some 
femarfcs. According to the researches his lordship has 
■mde into the character of Camoens, he appears to have 
possessed a lofty and independent .spirit, with a disposi^ 
laon to gallantry which may probably have involved him in 
difficaities. His genius, however, appears principally in 
the ^' Lusiad," the subject of which is the first discovery of 
the East Indies by Vasco de Gsuna : the poem is conducted 

^ K2 

13t C A M O E N S. 

according to the epic plan : both the subject and the in« 
cidents are magnificent, but the machinery is perfettly 
extravagant Not only, says Blair, is it formed of a sin- 
gular mixture of Christian ideas and pagan mythology, 
but it is so conducted, that the pagan gods appear to be 
the true deities, and Christ and the blessed Virgin, to be 
«ubordinate agents. One great scope of the Portuguese 
expedition, our author informs us, is to propagate the 
Christian faith, and to extirpate Mahometanism. In this 
religious undertaking, the great protector of the Portu-* 
guese is Venus, and their great adversary is Bacchus, 
whose displeasure is excited by Vasco's attempting to rivaA 
his fame in the Indies. Councils of the gods are held, in 
"which Jupiter is introduced, as foretelling the downfall of 
Mahometanism, and the propagation of the gospel. Vasco, 
in a great distress from a storm, prays most seriously to 
God ; implores the aid of Christ and the Virgin ; and begs 
for such assistance as was given to the Israelites, when they 
were passing through the Red Sea; and to the apostle 
Paul, when he was in hazard of' shipwreck. In return to 
this prayer, Venus appears, who, discerning the storm to 
be the work of Bacchus, complains to Jupiter, ctnd pro** 
cures the winds to be calmed. Such strange and prepos- 
terous machinery, shews how much authors have heea 
misled by the absurd opinion, that there could be no epic 
poetry without the gods of Homer. Towards the end of 
the work, indeed, the author gives us an awkward salvo for 
his whole mythology : making the goddess Thetis inform 
Vasco, that she, and the rest of the heathen deities, are no 
more than names to describe the operations of Providence. 
There is, however, says the same judicious critic, some 
fine machinery of a different kind in the Lusiad^ The ge- 
nius of the river Gauges, appearing to Emanuel king of 
Portugal, in a dream, inviting that prince to discover his 
sepret springs, and acquainting him that he was the de- 
stined monarch for whom the treasures of the East were 
reserved, is a happy idea. But the noblest conception of 
this sort is in the fifth canto, where Vasco is recounting to 
the king of M^iinda all the wonders which he met with in 
bis navigation, He tells him, that when the fleet arrived 
at the Cape of Good Hope, which never before had been 
doubled by any navigator, there appeared to them on a 
sudden, a huge and monstrous phantom rising out of the 
tea^ in the midst oi tempests and thunders^ with i^ head 

C A M O £ N S. 133 


ti^at reached the cloQds^ and a countenance that filled them; 
with terror. This was the genius, or guardian, of that 
liitherto unknown ocean. It spoke to them with a voice 
like thunder : menaced them for invading those seas which 
he had so long possessed undisturbed, and for daring to 
explore those secrets of the deep, which never had been 
revealed to the eye of mortals ; required them to proceed 
no farther : if they should proceed, foretold all the sue** 
cessive calamities that were to befall them t and then, with 
a mighty noise, disappeared^ This is one of the most so- 
lemn and striking pieces of machinery that ever was em« 
ployed, and is sufficient to show that Camoens is a poet^ 
though of an irregular, yet of a bold and lofty imagination. 
The critical student will find a more severe censure of Ca-* 
moens in Rapin, Dryden) and Voltaire. But the Lusiad 
has generally been considered as a poem of very superior 
merit, and has been often reprinted and translated into 
several languages, once into French, twice into Italian, 
four times into Spanish ; and lately, with uncommon ex- 
cellence, into English, by Mr. Mickle ; but it had been 
translated in the 17th century by sir Richard Fanshaw. 
Mickle's translation will be considered in his life. It was 
translated into Latin by Thomas de Faria, bishop of Targa 
in Africa ; who, concealing his name, and saying nothing 
of its being a translation, made some believe that the Lu- 
Biadas was originally in Latin. Lafge commentaries have 
been written upon the Lusiadas ; the most considerable of 
which are those bf Emanuel Faria de Sousa, in 2 vols, folio, 
Madrid, 1639. These commentaries were followed the 
year after with the publication of another volume in folio, 
written. to defend them ; besides eight volumes of observa- 
tions upon the miscellaneous poems of Camoens, which 
this commentator left behind him in manuscript. ^ 

CAMP AN ELLA (Thomas), a celebrated Italian philo- 
sopher, was born at Stilo, a small village in Calabria, Sept. 
5, 1568. At thirteen he understood the ancient orators 
and poets, and wrote discpurses and verses on various sub- 
jects ; and the year after, his father purposed to send him 
to Naples to study law : but young Campanella, having 
othe\ views, entered himself into the order of the Domi- 
nicans. Whilst he was studying philosophy at San Giorgio, 

. 1 Mickle*! Lusiad. — Lord Strangford ubi supra.— 43#ii. JOicft.— Moreii'-* 
Blair's l«e«tttrt>.-^Antonio Bibl. Hispf 

134 C A M P A N E L L A. 

bis professor was invited to dispute upon some theses which 
were to be maintained by the Franpiscans; but findinj^ 
himself indisposed, he sent Cainpanella in his rooni| who 
argued with so much subtilty and force, as to charm his> 
auditory. When his course of philosophy was finished, he 
was sent to Cosen^a^ to sti;vdy divinity : but his inclination 
led him to philosophy. Having conceived a notion that 
the truth was not to be found in the peripatetic phiioso-^ 
phy> he anxiously examined aU the Greek, Latin, and 
Arabian commentators upon Aristotle, and began to hesi- 
tate more and more with regard to the doctrines of that 
sect. His doubts still remaining, he' determined to peruse 
the writings of Plato, Pliny, Galen, the Stoics, the foU 
lowers of Democritus, and especially those of Telesius ; 
and he found the doctrine of his masters to be false in so 
many points, that he be^an to doubt even of uncontro-' 
verted matters of fact At the age of twenty-two he be-, 
gan to commit his new system to writing, and in 1590 be 
went to Naples to get it printed. Some time after he was 
present at a disputation in divinity, and took occasion to 
commend what wa^ spoken by an ancient professor of hitf 
order, as very judicious ; but the old man, jealous, per- 
haps, of the gliory which Campanella had gained, bade 
him, in a very contemptuous manner, be silent, since it 
did not belong to a young man, as he was, to. interpose in 
questions of divinity. Campanella fired at this, andsaid^ 
that, young as he was, he was able to teach him ; and im- 
mediately confuted what the professor had advanced, to 
the satisfaction of the audience. The professor conceived 
a mortal hatred to him on this account, and accused hioir 
to the inquisition, as if he had gained by magic that vast 
extent of learning which he had acquired without a master.. 
His writings now made ^ great noise in the world, and the 
novelty of his opinions birring up many enemies against 
him at Naples, he removed to Rome; but not meeting with 
H better reception in that city, he proceeded to Florence^ 
and presented some of his works to the grand duke, Fer« 
dinan4 L the patron' of learned, men. After a short stay 
there, as be was passing through Bologna, in his way 
to Padua, his writings were seized, and carried to th^ ia- 
quisition at Rome, which, however, gave him little distur- 
bance, and he continued his journey. At Padua, he was 
employed in instructing some young Venetians in his doc- 
trines, and composing some pieces. Returning afterward^. 


to Rome, he ixiet with a better reception than before, and 
was honoured with the friendship of several cardinals. la 
159S he went to Naples, where be staid but a short time^ 
then visited his own country. Some expressions which he 
dropped, with regard to the government of the Spaniards^ 
and the project of an insurrection, being reported to the 
Spaniards, be was seized and carried to Naples in 1599^ as 
a criminal against the state, and put seven times to the 
rack, and afterwards condemned to perpetual imprison* 
ment. At first he was not permitted to see any person, 
and denied the use of pen, ink, and paper j but, being ilf* 
terwards indulged with these implements, he wrote several 
of his pieces in prison ; some of which Tobias Adamus of 
Saxony procured from hita, and published in Germany. 
Pope Urban VIII. who knew him from his writings, having 
obtained his liberty from Philip IV. of Spain in May 1626, 
Campanella went immediately to Rome, where he con- 
tinued some years in the prisons of the inquisition^ but w^ 
a prisoner only in name. In 1629 he was discharged, but 
the resentment of tbd Spaniards was not abated. The 
friendship inhewn him by the pope, who settled a consi* 
derable pension, and conferred many other favours on him, 
excited their jesilodsy; and bis correspondence with some 
of the French nation, gave them new suspicions of him. 
Being informed of their designs against him, he Went odt 
of Rome, disguised like a minim, in tlie French ambassii* 
dor^s coach, and, embarking for France, landed at Mar« 
seilles in 1634. Mr. Peireso, being informed 6t his arrival, 
sent a letter to bring him to Aix, where be entertained him 
some months. The year following he went td Paris, and 
was graciotisly received by Lewis XIII. and cardinal Ridhe* 
lied ; the latter procured him a pension of 2000 livres, and 
often consulted him on thd affairs of Italy. He passed th^ 
remainder of his days in a monastery df the Doniinicans af 
Paris, and died March 21, 1639. 

Campanella, says Bfticker, wsts oonfefis^Iy a man of 
genius, but his itnaginsliiob predominated over his jtidg« 
ment. Innumerable proofs of this may be found in hi^ 
astrological writings, in his book '^ De sensu ref um/* and 
in many other parts of his Works. There seeihs indeed much 
reason to think that his mind iiiras not sound, although he had 
his lucid intervals, in which he could reason soberly. He is 
chiefly worthy of praise for ^e freedom with which he ex- 
posed the futility of thff Aristotj^lian pbilosopbyi and for th« 


pains which lie took to deduce natural science from obsefta^' 
tion and experience. Of the numerous writings which hit 
fertile imagination produced, the most celebrated are, 
!• •* Prodomus Philosophise Instaurandse,'' Francfort, i6l7, 
4to. 2. " Atheismus triumphatus." 3. " De Gentilismo 
non retinendo," Paris, 1636, 4to. 4. " A^trologica," Ley- 
den, 1629, 4to. 5. " Philosophia rationalist' 6. *« Civl- 
tas soils," Utrecht, 1643, 12mo. 7. " Universalis Philo- 
Sophia." 8^, ".De libris propriis," et " De recta ratione 
studendi," Paris, 1642, 8vo. 9. " Apologia pro Galileo/* 
Franc. 1622, 4to. 10. ** De sensu rerum et magia," ibid* 
1620, 4to. Jl. " De reformatione scientiarum," Venice, 
1633, 4to. 12. " De Monarchia Hispanica," Harderv. 
tran^ated into English, Lond. 1654, 4to. 13. " Poetica 
idea Reipublicee Philosophic^," Utrecht, 1643, 12mo; 
Brucker has given, we doubt not, a very accurate, but not 
perhaps, in our times, a very interesting sketch of Campa- 
nella's opinions ; and concludes with remarking that as far 
as any idea can be formed from the confused mass of opi- 
nions, so diffusely, but obscurely expressed in his volumi* 
nous writings, we must conclude that notwithstanding the 
censures which have often been passed upon him for im- 
piety, he is rather to be ranked among enthusiasts than 
atheists ; and that, as in his other undertakings, so also in 
his attempts to reform philosophy, he was unsuccessful. * 

. CAMPANUS (John Anthony), an Italian poet and 
prelate, was born in 1427 at Cavelli, a village of Campa- 
nia, of parents so obscure that he bore no name but that of 
his country, and was employed in his early years as a 
shepherd, in which situation an ecclesiastic discovering 
«ome promise of talents in him, sent him to Naples, where 
he studied under Laurentius Valla. He went afterwards 
to Perugia, where he rose to be professor of eloquence, 
and filled that chair with so much reputation, that wheji, 
in 1459, pope Pius II. happened to pass through Perugia 
in his way to the council of Mantua, he bestowed his pa- 
tronage on him, and made him bishop of Crotona, and se- 
condly of Teramo. Enjoying the same favour under pope 
Paul II. this pontiff sent him to the congress of Ratisbon, 
which assembled for the purpose of consulting on a leagne 
of the Christian princes against the Turks. Sixtus IV. who 

» Gen. Diet— Morcri.— Brucker.— Life by Era. Sal. Cyprian, Amst 172i^ 
12mo. See Bibl. Anc. et Moderne, vol. XVlII.— Erytbnei Tiwco^btetugm 
BWunt'g Ceasurii.— Baillet /u|;eiBeDs.*-^3di OilomiU 

C A M P A N U & iS7 

had been one of his scholars at Perugia, made him sacf 
cessively governor of Todi, of Foligno, and of Citta di 
,CasteIlq ; but the pope having thought proper to beslega 
this last named city, because the inhabitants made some 
scruple about receiving his troops, Campano, touched 
with the hardships they were likely to suffer, wrote to the 
pope with so much freedom and spirit as to enrage his ho^ 
liness, and provoke him to deprive him of his government, 
and banish him from the ecclesiastical states. Campano 
on this went to Ns^ples, but not finding the reception he 
expected, he retired to his bishopric at Teramo, where 
lie died July 15, 1477, of chagrin and disappointment. 
His works, which were first printed at Rome in 1495, fol. 
consist of several treatises on moral philosophy, dis-, 
courses, and funeral orations, and nine books of letters, in 
; which tbeire is some curious information with respect both 
to the political and literary history of hb times. This vo« 
lume contains likewise, the life of pope Pius II. and of. 
Braccio of Perugia, a famous military character, and lastly, 
of eight book of elegies and ^igrams, some of which are 
rather of too licentious a nature to accord with the gravity 
of his profession. These, or part of them, were reprinted 
at Leipsic in 1707, and in 1734. Campano was at one 
time a corrector of the press to Udalric, called Gallus, the 
first printer of Rome, and wrote prefaces to Livy, Justin, 
Plutarch, and some other of the works which issued from 
that press. ' 

CAMPBELL (G£ORO£), a very learned divine of the 
church of Scotland, and principal and professor of divinity 
of the Marischal college, Aberdeen, was born in that city 
Dec. 25, 1719. His father, the rev. Colin Campbell, who 
was one of the ministers of Aberdeen, and a man of pri* 
mitive piety and worth, died in 1728. George, the sub- 
ject of this article, who was his youngest son, was edu* 
cated in the grammar-school of his native city, and after-^ 
wards in Marischal college, but appears to have originally 
intended to follow the profession of the law, and for that 
purpose served an apprenticeship to a writer of the sig- 
net in Edinburgh. By what inducements he was made to 
alter his purpose we are not told ; but in 1741 he began to 
study divinity at the university of Edinburgh, and con* 
(inued the same pursuit both in King's college and M^- 

l Otn. Diet.— Moreri.— QJBgtt«n4 Hift. Litt. datolit .-»rrtb«ri Thtatruni, 


rischal coUegei Aberdeen ; and here he delivered, with 
great approbation^ those discourses, whi^h are usually pre- 
jMsribed to students of divinity in the Seotch universities; 
After studying the usual number of years at the divinity 
hMj be was, according to the practice of the Scotch 
church, proposed €o the Synod; and having undergone^ 
the ordinary trials before the presbytery of Aberdeen, was 
licensed as a probationer, or preacher of the gospel, on 
the 11th of June, 1746. In Ibis rank h^ remained two 
years, before he obtained a settlement in the church of 
Scotland, but at the end of that period was pNresented tor 
the church of Banchory Ternan, about seventeen miles 
west from Aberdeen, and was ordaihed June 2, 1748. 

While be held' this charge,- the powers of his mind be- 
ganmore fully to unfold themc^lves, and his character rose 
in the opinion of men of learnings Here he prosecuted 
the study of the holy scriptures^ and instructed others mAi 
great success. In the church of Scotland^ it is the ptzc^ 
tice to explain a chapter, or large poition of scripture, 
every Lord's day, oi" at lea^t every other Sui^day. Mr. 
Campbell paid so much aiteiitioi^ to this, and was so mticfar 
master of it, that bis character as a* scripture critic, and 
lecturer of- holy writ, was deservedly very high. It was 
while explaining thd New Testament to his parishidtiefs, 
that he first fortned a plan of translating that part of it, 
vis. tbe four gospelsy which he afterwards published. And 
it was in this country parish, long before any attention was 
paid, in the porth of Scotland, to the niceties of grammar, 
that he composed a paft of the philosophy of rhetoric. 

After reltiaining nine years ii> this country parish, he 
was chosen oneof the miinisiers of Aberdeen in June, 1757, 
where his various and extensive talents were appreciated 
by those who knew best their worth, and where bis fame 
was most likely to be rewarded. Accordingly in 1759", he 
was presented by his majesty to^ the office of principal of 
Mariscbal college, afid soon made it appear that he was 
worthy of this digrtity. Home hlid recently published hia 
<< Essay on Miracles,^ and despiseci his opponents until 
priimptA Camfpbell poblisbed his celebrated << I>isserta<* 
tion on Miracles," whteb deservedly raised bis character is- 
an< acute metaphysician and an tMe polemical writer. Tbi^ 
^^ Dissertation" was origina^Hy drawn up in the form of a 
sermon, which he preached before the provinc^ial synod of 
Abcfrdeen, Oct. 9, 1760, and whicb, Dn their requesting 


htm to publish ity be afterwards enlarged into its present^ 
form. Some circumstances attended the publication which 
are rather singular^ and which we shall relate in the words 
of his biographer. '^ Before it was pubHshed, be sent a 
copy of his manuscript to Dr. Blair of Kdinburgh, with a 
request that„ after perusing it, he would communicate th<t 
performance to Mr. Hume. The learned and judiciotm 
Blair read the dissertation both as a friend, and as a critic^ 
then showed it to his opponent, and afterwards wrote to 
Mr. Campbell both wlmt had occurred to himself, and 
what Mr. Hume chose at first to write on the subject. It 
•oon appeared, that this sceptical philosopher, with all his* 
affected equanimity, felt very senisiibiy, on reading so 
acute, so learned, and so complete an answer to his essay 
en miracles. He complained of some harsh expressions, 
and stated a few objections to what Mr. Campbell had ad- 
vanced, shewing, in some cases, where his meaning had 
been misunderstood. Instead of being displeased, his ge- 
D^rou^s adversary instantly expunged, or softened, every 
expression that either was severe, or was only supposed to 
be offensive, removed every objection that bad been made 
to his arguments, and availed himself of the remarks both 
of his friend, and of his opponent, in rendering his disser^ 
tation a complete and unanswerable performance. Thtis^ 
corrected and improved, it was put to the press, and a 
copy of it sent to Mr. Hara& That philosopher wair 
charmed with the gentlemanly conduct of Mr. Campbell, 
confessed that he felt a great desire to answer the disserta* 
tion, and declared that he would have attempted to dor 
something in this way, if he had not laid it down as a rule, 
in early life, never to rcturii am answer to any of his op-* 
ponents. Thus principal Campbell, from a manly and 
well-bred treatment of his adversary, rendered his own 
work more correct, gained the esteem of his opponent, 
and left an example worthy to be imiizated by alt polemicat 
writers." How far such an example i« worthy to be igii« 
tated, may surely be questioned ; in Mr. Campbells con* 
duct we see somewfaeit of timidity and irresolution, nor 
does he seem to have been aware of the impropriety o£ 
gratifying Hume by personal vespect ; and after all no 
good was produced^ for Hume reprinted his essay again 
and again without any notice of Campbell or any other of 
his. opponents> a decisive proo£ that in this respect he had 
BO titlje to the character of ptulosopber. . 


: The '^ Dissertation on Miracles'V was published in 176^/ 
previously to which the authcnr received the degree of D.D. 
from King's college. Old Aberdeen. The sale of the work 
was in proportion to its merit, most extensive in Great 
Britain, and being translated into the French, Dutch, and 
German languages, the name of Dr. Campbell was from 
this time always mentioned with the highest respect among 
the learned men of Europe. 

Dr. Campbell continued for twelve years to discharge! 
the oflSices of principal of Marischal college^ and of one of 
the ministers of Aberdeen. In the former capacity he was 
equally esteemed by the professors and students; as he 
united great learning to a conduct strictly virtuous, and to 
manners equally gentle aiid pleasant. In the latter office 
he lived in the greatest harmony with his colleagues, over- 
whom he affected no superiority ; and by all his hearers 
was esteemed as a worthy man, a good preacher, and one 
of the best lecturers they had ever heard. In lecturing^ 
indeed, he excelled, while he rarely composed ser- 
mons, but preached from a few, and sometimes without 
any notes. Yet his , discourses on particular occasions^ 
were such as maintained his reputation. In June 1771, 
he was, on a vacancy by resignation, elected professor of 
divinity in Marischal college. This appointment was at- 
tended with the resignation of his pastoral charge, as one 
of the ministers of Aberdeen; but as minister of Gray 
Friars, an office conjoined to the professorship, he had to 
preach once every Sunday in one of the churches, and 
besides this, had the offices both of principal and profes-^ 
sor of divinity to discharge. In the latter office he in- 
creased the times of instructing his pupils, so that they 
heard nearly double the number of lectures which were 
Vsual with his predecessors, and he so arranged his sub* 
jects, that every student who.chose to attend regularly 
during the shortest period prescribed by the Idws of the' 
^hurcb, might hear a complete course of lectures on ^the- 
ology, embracing, under the theoretical part, every thing 
that the student of divinity should know ; and under the 
practical branch, every thing that he should do, as a 
reader of sacred or church history, a biblical critic, a po- 
lemic divine, a pulpit orator, a minister of a parish, and a. 
member of the church courts on the Scotch establishment. 
Some idea may be formed of the value of his labours, by 
the canons of scripture criticism, and a few other prelect 

>3 A M P B ELL. Ul 

tions on the same subject, which are included in prelimi- 
nary dissertations,tprinted along with his <* Translation of the 
Gospels^" and by the *< Lectures" published after his death; 
• In 1776 Dr. Campbell published his <^ Philosophy of 
Rhetoric," which established his reputation as an excellent 
grammarian, an accurate and judicious critic, a scholar of 
delicate imagination and taste, and a philosopher of great 
acuteness and deep penetration. Our author also pub- 
lished a few occasional sermons, which were much ad- 
mired, but not equally. That ^ On the Spirit of the Gospel," 
vl771, placed him at variance with many members of his 
own church, who adhered more closely to the Calvinistic 
creed than the doctor. That in 1776, a Fast Sermon on 
account of the American war, inculcating the duty of alle- 
giance, was circulated in an edition of six thousand, in 
America, but it had no effect, at that period of irritation 
among the colonies, in persuading the Americans that they 
had no right to throw off their allegiance. In 1779, when 
a considerable alarm, followed by riots in Scotland, took 
place in consequence of a bill introduced into parliament 
for the relief of the Roman catholics. Dr. Campbell pub- 
lished an address well calculated to quiet the public mind, 
at the same time that he took occasion to express hig ab- 
horrence of the tenets of Popery. The same year he pub- 
lished a sermon en the happy influences of religion on civil 
society. It has already been noticed that he did not often 
write sermons, but the few which he did compose, were in 
general highly finished. 

The last work which he lived to publish, was his ^ Trans- 
lation of the Gospels,", with preliminary dissertations and 
explanatory notes, 2 vols. 4to. It is, we believe, univer- 
sally acknowledged that this work places him vei^ high in 
the rank of biblical critics, and is that which will probably 
hand down his name to a late posterity. 

In his seventy-second year, he was seized with a severe 
illness, from which he unexpectedly recovered, and though 
his bodily strength was impaired, resumed his former voc- 
cupations. Some years before his death, he made a dis« 
interested and unsolicited offer of resigning his professor- 
ship of divinity, provided that anyone of three gentlemen named, and to whom he applied for their consent, 
should succeed him ; but this^ offer not being accepted by 
the patrons of the professorship, he continued to hold his 
office, lest an improper person should in his life-time be 
x^hoaen as his suecessor. But afterwards application was made 

tia ' CAMP BELL. 

to him, and Ant to tbe patrontf of the professonhipy in behalf 
<»f Dr. William Laurence Brown^late minister of the English 
church, and professor of moral philosophy, &c. in the uni« 
tersity of Utrecht, This gentleman had been driven from 
these offices by the French invasion of Holland, on account 
4»f bis attachment to the house of Orange, and his native 
country; and because, in some of his writings, be had 
opposed the progress of jf rench principles, and maintained 
the cause of religion. Dr. Campbell, knowing tbe excel- 
lence of bis character, instantly resigned the offices of 
professor of divinity, and minister of Gfay Friars church, 
which wei^ worth 160/. a jwar, and scoo after hisrr^igna^ 
tion, government,, desirous of testifying in a public man* 
ner, the high respect so justly entertained of bis abilities 
sind services, offered him, on condition of resigning the 
principalship of Marischal college, a pensioiB of 300^ a 
yewc. Dr> Campbell accepted this token of his majesty's 
munificence, and was succeeded in the office of principal 
also by Dr. Brown. This - pension, however, be did not 
long live to enjoy, though be continued writing till within 
a week of his death ; an event which he expected with 
great tranquillity and composure. On the 31st of Maxvfa, 
1796, aftec some previous symptoms of uneasiness, he wa« 
struck with the palsy, which deprived him of speech, and 
under which be languished for a few days till he jdied. 
He bad long accustomed himself to prepare fot death ; and 
in a former illn^s he had given the testimony of a dying 
man in favour of religion. A funeral sermon was preached 
on occasion of his death, by Dr. Brown, in which he has 
given a sketch of his character as a pubhc teacher, as the 
head of , a public seminary of learning, and as a priva)» 
Christian.' His character is thois summed up in a few sen« 
tenees by lus btograpber. Dr. Keith : f^ His imagination 
was lively and fertile-— his understanding equally acute and 
vigorous — and his erudition was at onoe very deep and 
wonderfully diversified; His piety was unfeigned — his 
morals unimpeached — his temper cfaearfQl'«--aud his man-» 
ners gentle and unassuming. His love of truth was even 
more remarkable than the uncommon success with which 
he sought after it* Where intuitive fitculties could be of 
service to any man, be saw at once if he saw at all. But 
bis deep perspicacity was not satisfied with a superficial 
view of any thing ; his piercing eye darted to the bottom 
of eveiy subject to which disoernment couki be applied; ^ 
Where study and reflection were necessary, be could be« 


turn as mucb dme on putient thinking^ as tf be had been 
possessed of no genius at all, and had acquired only a 
small share of erudition. And when once he began to ex-^ 
aoiine any subject, be was never satisfied till hehad viewed 
it in every light in which it could be seen. He always 
sought for truth in the love of truth, but be could not bear 
to he suspected of deviating from it ; for he neither courted 
those who might support, nor feared those who did oppose 
bim. The tone of bis mind was high, and he would not 
let it down from the elevation of truth and of virtue. Whe- 
ther engaged in conversation, or employed in study, he 
<;ould pa3S easily from the lightest subject to the most se* 
rious one. And the reach of his mind was so great, as to 
comprehend a great variety of subjects. He could explore 
the causes of that pleasure which arises iti the mind from 
dramatic entertainment^, and lay down the rules of Scrip** 
ture criticism. He could iUustrato the whole theory of 
evidence, or detect the fal«e reasonings of Mr. Hume. He 
could explain the spirit of the Gospel, marking the ex<- 
tremes of superstition and enthusiasm ; and both as a phi* 
losopher and a divine, declare the nature, extent, and 
importance of the duty of allegiance. While he zealously 
contended for the faith, he could warn the Christian against 
imbibing a persecuting spirit, and yet shew the influence 
of religion upon civil society, warning bis countrymen 
against inGdelity, befoi^e they had seen its dreadful effects. 
He could with manly eloquence describe the success of the 
fishermen of Galilee, while preacbii^ the doctrine of the 
cross to. prejudiced Jews, learned Greeks, and ambitious 
Romans; and at the same time, with well >ap plied enidi^ 
ttoo, be could delineate the characters of the pretended 
successors of the apostles, and trace the progress of the 
l^ierarcby through all the dark and middle ages, until the 
reformation of religion. As the principal of a college, a 
professor of divinity, or a minister of the Gospel,-— as m 
true patriot, a good man, and a. sincere Christian^ quanda 
uttum invenies pareMP^ 

Tbis character may be seen enlai^ed, with many in- 
teresting and instructive partieulars of the private. and 
public Me of Dr. Campbell^ in an excellent acoount of him 
written by the rev. Dr. George Skene Keith, and prefixed 
to Dr« Campbell's ^^ Lectures on Ecclesiastical History,'^ 
published in 1800, 2 vols. 9vo. These lectures have since 
been the subject of much ingenious criticism, particularly 


in the British Critic, vol. XX. As their object is to give 
a preference to the church government of Scotland, it wa^ 
thought necessary by the advocates for the church of 
England to bestow particular notice on an attack on the 
latter coming from a man of so high talents and literary 
fame. In Scotland Dr. Campbell's opinions were opposed 
by Dr. Skinner, a prelate of the Scotch episcopal church, 
in a volume entitled " Primitive Truth and Order vindi- 
cated," and in England, by archdeacon Danbeny, in his 
•* Eight Discourses," &c. Dr. Campbeirs " Lectures on 
Systematic Theology," and on " The Pastoral character," 
have also been recently published, which, if inferior 'in 
popularity, are yet worthy of the pen which produced the 
^ Essay on Miracles," the " Philosophy of Rhetoric," and 
the " Translation of the Gospels."* 

CAMPBELL (John), second duke of Argyle, and duke 
of Greenwich and baron of Chatham, grandson to the un-» 
fortunate earl of Argyle, was born on the IQth of October, 
1678. He was son to Archibald, duke of Argyle, by Eli- 
zabeth, daughter of sir Lionel Talmash, of Helmingham^ 
in the county of Suffolk. He very early gave signs of spi- 
rit and capacity, and at the age of fifteen^ made consider- 
able progress in classical learning, and in some branches of 
philosophy, under the tuition of Mr. Walter Campbell, 
afterwards minister, of Dunoon, in Argyleshire. . It soon, 
however, appeared, that his disposition was towards a mili-> 
tary life ; and being introduced at the court of king Wil- 
liam, under the title of Lord Lorn, he wzs preferred by 
that prince to the command of a regiment of foot ifi 1694^ 
when he was not quite seventeen years of age ; and in that 
station he gave signal proofs of courage and military 
capacity during the remainder of king William's reign^ 
and till the death of his father, the first duke of Argyle, 
28th of September, 1703, whom he succeeded in his ho-^ 
nours and estate ; and was soon after sworn of queen Anne's 
privy council, appointed captain of the Scotch horse- 
guards, and one of the extraordinary lords of session. He 
was likewise made one of the knights of the order of the 
thistle the following year, on the restoration of that order. 

In 1705, he was nominated her majesty's lord high com« 
missioner to the Scottish parliament, though he was then 
only twenty<othree years of age, an appointment which gave 

1 Xiife by Dr. Keith, ubi fuprft. 


much satisfaction to that nation, where, on his arrival, he 
was received with unusual ceremony. On the 28th of 
June, his grace opened the parliament by a speech, and 
was so well convinced of the advantages which w6uld re- 
sult to both kingdoms from an union between England and 
Scotland, that he employed his whole interest in the pro** 
motion of that measure ; for which, on his arrival in Eng- 
land, her majesty created him a peer of England, by the 
.title of Baron of Chatham, and Earl of Greenwich. In 
1706, he made a campaign under the duke of Marlborough; . 
and greatly distinguished himself by his courage and con- 
duct in the battle of Ramillies, in which he acted as a bri- 
gadier-general ; and also at the siege of Ostend, and in the 
attack of Menin, of which his grace took possession on the 
25th of August. After that event, he returned to Scot- 
land, in order to be present in the parliament of that king*-, 
dom, when the treaty for the union was agitated ; and was, 
as before, very active in the promotion of it, though he 
declined being one of the commissioners. When a riotous 
multitude came to the parliament-close, demanding, with 
loud clamours, ^^ That the treaty of union should be re- 
jected,*' his grace went out of the house, and appeased the 
people who were assembled, by the calmuess and streiigth 
of reason with which he addressed them; but his zeal in. 
this affair diminished his popularity, though even his ene- 
mies did justice to the rectitude of his intentions. In 
1708, he commanded twenty battalions afr the battle of 
Oudenarde ; and the tropps under his command were the 
first of the infantry that engaged the enemy, and they 
maintained their post against unequal numbers. He Uke-> 
wise assisted at the siege of Lisle; and commanded as 
major-general at the siege of Ghent, taking possession of 
the town and citadel on the 3d of January, 1708-9. He 
was afterwards raised to the rank of lieutenant-general, and 
commanded in chief under general Schuylemberg, at die 
attack of Tournay. He had also a considerable share, on 
the 11th of September, 1709, in the victory at Malpla^ 
quet, where he was much exposed, and gained great ho- 
nour. On the 20th of December, 1710, he was installed a 
knight of the garter; and about this timetpok some part 
in the debates in paiiiament, relative to the inquiry wbioh 
was set on foot concerning the management of affcurs in 
Spain^ when he spoke and voted with the tones, fuid joine4 
Vol. VIIL L ' 


in the censure that was passed on the conduct of the late 
whig ministry. 

On the l8th of January, 1710-1 1, he was appointed am- 
hasssdor extraordinary and plenipotentiary to Charles the 
Third, king of Spain, and commander in chief of her 
majt;sty*s forces in that kingdom. Dr. Smollett observes^ 
that his grace ^^ had long been at variance with the duke of 
Marlborough, a circumstance which recommended him the 
more strongly to the ministry .'' But it is intimated, that 
some of his friends were averse to his acceptance of these 
employments, being sensible, from the state of our affairs 
in Spain, how extremely difficult it would be for him to 
gain any ground in that kingdom. However, be set out 
for Barcelona, and in his way thither arrived at the Hague 
on the 4th of April. He made a visit to the grand pen- 
^onary, and another to lord Townshend, the British pleni- 
potentiary at the Hague : but though the duke of Marl* 
borough was there at that time, he did not visit him. 
When he arrived at Barcelona, on the 29th of May, he 
found the troops in so wretched a condition, and the affairs 
of the allies at so low an ebb, by the losses sustained the 
preceding yesiv at the battle of' Almanza, and in otlier 
actions,' that he was not able to undertake any thing of con- 
sequence. The British troops wer.e in the utmost distress 
for want of subsistence, though the ministry had promised 
to supply him liberally, and the parliament had granted 
1,500,000/. for that service. The duke of Argyle wrote 
presaiDg letters to the ministry, and loudly complained 
that he was altogether unsupported : but no remittances 
arrived, and he was obliged to raise money on his own 
credit, to defray part of the subsistence of the troops. He 
had the misfortuQe also to be seized with a violent fever, 
which rendered it necessary for him to quit the camp, and 
iretire to the town of Barcelona ; but his health being re* 
^ established^ he quitted Spain, without having been able 
to attempt any enterprise of importance. Before his re- 
turn to England, he went to Minorca, of which he had 
been appointed governor ; but made no long stay there. 
, In June 1712, the queen appointed him general. find 
eommander in chief of all the land forces in Scotlan^l, and- 
captain of the company of foot in Edinburgh castle« But 
he did not long continue upon good terms with the minia^ 
try 9 and spoke a]gainst a bill which was bcougbt inhj^ thi^ 


lidmifiistration, appointing commissioners to examine the 
value of all the grants of crown lands made since the revo* 
lution, by which a general resumption was intended to 
have been made. In 17 14^ when it Was debated in thq 
house of peers, whether it should be resolved, that the 
ppotestant succession was in danger under the then adofii- 
nistration, the duke of Argyle maintained the affirmative y 
and also declared his disapprobation of the proceedings of 
the ministry, relative to the peace of Utrecht. His grace 
likewise zealously opposed the extension of the malt-tax to 
Scotland ; and was appointed with the earl of Mar, and 
two Scotch members of the house' of commons, to attend 
the queen, and make a remonstrance to her majesty on this 
subject. He also supported the motion that was made by 
the earl of Seafield, for leave to bring in a bill for dissolv- 
ing the union. In his speech in parliament upon this sub- 
ject, he admitted, ^^ that he had a great hand in making 
the union, and that the chief reason that 'moved him to it 
was the securing the protestant succession; but that he 
was satisfied that might be done as well now> if the union 
were dissolved.'* He added, " that he believed in his con-.- 
science, it was as much for the interest of England, as of 
Scotland, to have it dissolved : and if it were not, he did 
not expect long to have either property* left in Scotland, 
or liberty in England.'' This conduct, which was certainly 
not very consistent, having given great offence to the 
ministry, he was about this time deprived of all the em- 
ployments he held under the crown ; and continued to op-f 
pose the administration to the end of this reigu. But wheii 
queen Anne's life was despaired of^ he attended the 
council -chamber at Kensingtons without being summoned ; 
and bis attendance on - this occasion, was considered as 
highly serviceable to the interests of the house of Hanover. 
On the demise of the queen, the duke of Argyle was^ 
appointed one of the lords justices for the government of 
the kingdom, till George I. should arrive in England, and 
on the 27th of September, 1714, he was again constituted 
general and commander in chief of the forces In Scotland ; 
and, on the 1st of October following, he was sworn a mem* 
ber of tlie new privy council. On the ^th of the same 
month, be was appointed governor of Minorca; and oh 
the i5th of June, 1715, made colonel of the royal regi* 
ment of hocse^guards in England. He was also one of thd 
t:ommissioaers for establishing the household of the prinM 

L 2 


find princess of Wales^ and was made groom of the stole 
to the prince. 

When the rebellion of 1715 was raised in Scotland in 
favour of the pretender, the duke of Argyle was sent to 
take the command of the forces there, and on the 13th of 
November he engaged the rebel army, commanded by the 
earl of Mar, at Dumblain. The duke's troops did not con- 
sist of more than three thousand five hundred, while those 
of the earl of Mar ambunted to nine thousand. Notwith- 
standing this inequality of numbers, the rebels were worsted, 
though the victory was not complete, and was, indeed, 
claimed by both sides. His grace behaved in the action 
with great gallantry ; and was congratulated, on account of 
the -advantage that he had obtained, in a letter from the 
town-couneit of Edinburgh. Soon after, the duke was 
joined by some dragoons from England, and by six thou- 
sand Dutch troops under general Cadogan ; and being 
thus reinforced, he compelled the rebels to abandon Perth, 
on the 30th of January, 1716 ; and the pretender was soon 
afterwards obliged to retire to France with the utmost pre- 
cipitation. The duke of Argyle now repaired to Edin- 
burgh, where he arrived on the 'J7tb of February, and 
after being magnificently^entertained by the magistrates of 
Edinburgh, in gratitude for the signal services he had 
rendered to that city and kingdom in the suppression of 
the rebellion, set out for England, and arrived on the 
6th of March in London, where he was very graciously 
received by his majesty. 

On the 10th and 16th of April he spoke in the house of 
peers in defence of the bill for repealing the triennial act, 
and rendering parliaments septennial. But soon after this 
his grace seems to have conceived some disgust against the 
court, or some dislike was taken at his conduct there, for 
in June following he resigned all his places. The parti- 
cular grounds of his dissatisfaction, or of his being removed 
from his offices, are not mentioned ; but we now find him 
in several instances voting against the ministr}^ In Fe- 
bruary 1717-18, he spoke against the mutiny-bill, arid 
endeavoured to shew, by several instances drawn from the 
history of Great Britain, that ^* a standing army, in the 
time of peace, was ever fatal, either to the prince or the 
fjation." Bui on the 6th of February 1718-19, he was 
made lord-steward of the household ; and, after that events 
tr^ again find his lordship voting with administration ; 


which he generally continued to do for many years after- 
wards. On the 30th of April, 1718, he was advanced to 
the dignity of a duke of Great Britain, by the title of duke 
of Greenwich. His grace opposed, in 1722, the bill "fojr 
securing tlie Freedom of election of Members to serve for 
the Commons in Parliament :" and promoted the resolu- 
tion of the house for expunging the reasons that were 
urged by some of the lords in their protest against the re- 
jection of the bill. He also supported a motion made by 
$he earl of Sunderland, for limiting the time for entering 
protests : and he spoke in favour of the bill for suspending 
the habeas corpus act for a year, on occasion of the disco- 
very of Layer^s plot ; as he did likewise, with great zeal 
and warmth, for the bill of pains and penalties against 
bishop Atterbury. In 1724, he defended the mutiny-bill ^ 
and, it appears, that his grace had not the same fears of a 
standing army now, as when he was out of place a few ' 
years before. 

On resigning his place of lord>« steward of his majesty ^s 
household, he was constituted master-general of the ord- 
nance ; and by' king George U. he was appointed colonel 
of her majesty's own regiment of horse, and governor and 
captain of the town and isle of Portsmouth, and of South- 
Sea castle* He spoke against the bill for disabling pen- 
sioners from sitting in the house of commons ; and on the 
first of Mayi 1731, against lord Bathurst's motion for an 
address to the king to discharge the Hessian troops in the 

Eay of Great Britain. In 1733 he made a long and elab- 
orate speech against any reduction of the army ; and en- 
deavoured to prove, in direct contradiction to the senti*- 
ments he had formerly advanced, *^ that a standing army 
never had in any country the chief hand in destroying the 
liberties of their country ;*' and that it could not be sup- 
*posed they ever would. He also opposed the efforts tbat 
were made by some of the minority lords to prevent the 
influence of the crown in the election of the sixteen peers 
for Scotland, And on the 14th of January, 1735-6, he 
was constituted field-marshal of all his majesty's forces. 

. When the case of the city of Edinburgh, relative to the 
a^air of Porteus, came to be agitated in parliament in 
1737, the duke of Argyle exerted himself vigorously in 
favour of that city; and in 1739, from whatever cause it 
proceeded, he repeatedly, voted against administration. He 
spoke against the Spanish convention with great spirit, a^d 


against the tnotidn made by the duke of Newcastle, for atf 
/iinlimited vote of credit. About ^ this time he was removed 
from all his places, and engaged vigorously in the oppo-f 
sitioh against sir Robert Walpole. After the removal of 
that minister in 1741, he was again made master-general of 
the ordnance, colonel of his majesty^s royal regiment of 
horse-guards, and fteld marshal and commander in chief of 
all the forces in England. But in less than a month he 
resigned his employments for the last time, beings probably, 
dissatisfied with some of the political arrangements that 
took place after the removal of Walpole. ' About this time 
he is' said to have received a letter from the pretender, 
which some of his enemies are supposed to have procured 
to be written to him, with a view of injuring hiin ; but he 
prevented any ill effects from it, by immediately commu^ 
nicating it to his majesty's ministers. He had been for 
some years afflicted with a paralytic disorder, which tiow 
bejgan to increase ; and towards the close of his life he was 
somewhat melancholy and reserved. He died on the 3d 
of September, 4743, ' and was interred in Westminster-ab« 
"bey, lyhere one of the finest- monuments in that place, by 
Roubilliac, was afterwards erected to his memory. The 
titles of duke and earl of Greenwich, and baron of Chat* 
ham, became extinct at his death ; but in his other titles 
he was succeeded by his brother Archibald earl of Ila. 

His biographer, Dr. Campbell, says of him, that he was 
f^ a nobleman of great political abilities, an eloquent and 
distinguished senator, of high spirit, undaunted courage, 
and eminent military talents. But he has been accused 
of being much actuated by motives of avarice and ambition ; 
and, indeed, the uniformity with which he supported alt 
' the measures of government at one period, and opposed 
them at another, cannot be reconciled to principlesof real 
patriotism. He had, however, the honour to be celebrated 
in very high terms both by Pope and Thomson. In private 
life his conduct is said to have been very respectable. He 
was an affectionate husband, and an indulgent master. He 
seldom parted with his servants till age had rendered them 
incapable of their employments ; and then he made pro- 
vision for their subsistence. He lyas liberal to the pooi^, 
and particularly to persons of merit in distress : but though 
he was ready to patronize deserving persons, he was ex- 
tremely cautious not to deceive any by lavish promises, or 
leading them io form vain expectations. He wa^ a strict 


tsconoxmst, and paid his tradesmen punctually every month; 
^nd though he maintained the dignity of his rank, he took 
care that no part of his income should be wasted in empty ' 
pomp, or unnecessary expences.^' Mr. Macpherson's cha- 
racter of him, as a public character, is less favourable, but 
the reader, may consult, with more confidence, the judi- 
cious and impartial sketches in Coxe's Life of Walpole. ^ 

CAMPBELL (John), an eminent historical, biographi- 
cal, and political writer, was born at Edinburgh, March 8, 
170S. His father was Robert Campbell, of Glenlyon, esq. 
end captain of horse in a regiment commanded by the then 
earl of Hyndford ; and his mother, Elizabeth, the daughter 

of r- Smith, esq. of Windsor, in Berkshire, had the 

honour of claiming a descent from the poet Waller. Our 
antbor was their fourth sou ; and at the age of five yearsy 
was brought to Windsor from Scotland, which country he 
never saw afterwards. At a proper age he was placed out 
as clerk to an attorney, being intended for the law; but 
whether it was that his genius could not be confined to that 
dry study, or to whatever causes besides it might be owiug, 
it is certain that he did not pursue his original desfgnation : 
neither did be engage in any other profession, unless that 
of an author, in which he did not spend his time in idleness 
and dissipation, but in such a close application to the ac- 
quisition of knowledge of vajrious kinds, as soon enabled 
him to appear with great advantage in the literary world. 
What smaller pieces might be written by Mr. Campbell in 
the early part of his life, we are not capable of ascertaining, 
but, in 1736, before he had completed* his thirtieth year^ 
be gave to the publick, in 2 vols, folio, " The military 
history of prince Eugene, and the duke of Marlborough ; 
compreheoding the history of both those illustrioos per- 
sons to the time of their decease." ^ This performance was 
enriched with maps, plans, and cuts, by the best hands^ ^ 
.;and particularly by the ingenious Claude de Bosc. The 
reputation hence acquired by our author, occasioned him 
9oon after to be solicited to take a part in the '^Ancient 
Universal History.'' In this work Dr. Kippis saj's he wrote 
on the Cosmogony ; but Dr. Johnson assigns him the his- 
tory of the Persians, and of the Constantinopolitan empire. 
Whilst employed in this capital work, Mr. Campbell found 
)^isure tq entertain the world with other productions. In 

I Biog. Brit 

Us , C A M IP B K L L. 

llrS9 be pnblithed die ^* Travels and adventures of Edv 
ward BrowB^ esq/' dvo. In the same year appeared his 
** Memoirs of the bashaw duke de Ripperda,*' Svo^ re- 
printed, with improvements, in 1740. These memoin» 
were followed, in 1741, by the ** Concise history of Spa- 
nish America,'' 8vo. In 1742 he was the author of *^ A 
letter to a friend in the country, on the publication of 
Thurloe's State papers ;" giving an account of their dis« 
covery, importance, and utility. The same year was dis^ 
ttnguished by the appearance of the 1st and 2d volumes of 
his <' Lives of the English Admirals, and other eminent 
British seamen." The two remaining volumes were com« 
pleted in 1744; and the whole, not long after, was trans- 
lated into German. This, we believe, was the first of Mr* 
Campbell's works to which he prefixed his name ; and it ^ 
a performance of great and acknowledged merit The 
good reception it met with was evidenced in its passing 
through three editions* in his own life-time ; and a fourth 
was afterwards given to the public, under the inspection of 
Dr. Berkenhout. In 1743 he published ** Hermippus Re- 
vived ;" a second edition of which, much improved and 
enlarged, came out in 1749, under the following title t 
^* Hermippus Redivivus ; or, the sage's triumph over old 
age and the grave. Wherein a method is laid down foif 
prolonging the life and vigour of man. Including a com*^ 
mentary upon an ancient inscription, in which this great 
secret* is revealed ; supported by numerous authorities. 
The whole interspersed with a great variety of remarkable 
and well-attested relations." This extraordinary tract had 
its origin in a foreign publication, under the title of " Her* 
xnippus Redivivus," Coblentz, 1743, but it was much 
improved by our author, and is a singular mixture of gra- 
vity and irony. The " great secret" is no other than 
inhaling the breath of young females, by which, we learn 
from an inscription in Reinesius's Supplement to Gruter, 
one Hermippus prolonged his life to the age of 115. Mn 
Campbell, in 1744, gave to the public in 2 vols. foL his 
** Voyages and Travels," on Dr. Harris's plan, being a 

*. When our antbor had'flnisbed the cost me a great deal of trouble ; and 
third edition, which is more correct I can with great veracity affirm that 
and complete than the former ones, they contain nothing but my real sen- 
be thus wrote to his ingenious and timents, arising from as strict an in- 
worthy friend, the rev. Mr. Hall : ** I quiry into the matterij which they re- 
am certain the lA\es of the Admirals late, as was in my power.*' 


very dislingui^ed improvement of that collection, wbich 
had appeared in 1705. The wor|f: contains all the circTrnt- 
navigators from the time of Columbus to lord Anson ; a 
complete history of the East Indies ; historical details of 
the several attempts made for the discovery of the north- 
east and north-west passages ; the coo^mercial history of 
Gorea and Japan ; the Russian discoveries by land and 
sea; a distnct account of the Spanish, Portuguese^ 
British, French, Dutch, and Danish settlements in Ame- 
rica; with other pieces not to be found in any former 
collection. The whole was^ conducted with eminent skill 
and judgment, and the preface is acknowledged to be a 
master-piece of composition and information. The time 
and care employed by Mr. Campbell in this important un- 
dertaking did not prevent his engaging iiv another great 
work, the Biographia Britannica, which~hegan to be pub<- 
lished in weekly numbers in 1745, and the first volume 
of which was completed in 1746, as was the second in 

When the late Mn Dodsley formed the design of ^' The 
Preceptor,'^ which appeared in 1748, IVlr. Campbell was 
requested to assist in the undertaking, and the parts writ^ 
ten by him were, the Introduction to chronology, and the 
Discourse on trade and commerce, both of which displayed 
an eictensive fund of knowledge upon these subjects. In 
1750 he published the first separate edition of his ^^ Present 
state df £urope ;" a work which had been originally begun 
in 1746, in the ^' Museum," a very valuable periodical per* 
formance, printed for Dodsley. There is no production 
of our author's that has met with a better reception. It 
has gone through six editions, and fully deserved this en^ 
couragement. The next great undertaking which called 


* '* By one of thote revolutions *to to assert, that bis articles constitat* 
vhich the best designs are subject, the the prime merit of the four voluqoies 
pnblic attention to the Biographia /throagh which they extend. He was 
seemed toflag when about two volumes not satisfied with giving a cold nanra* 
had been printed ', but this attention tion of the personal circumstances rer 
was soon revived by the very high en- lative to the eminent men whose lives 
eomium that was passed upon it by be drew up, but was ambitious of en- 
Mr. Gilbert West, at the close of his tering into such a copious and critical 
poem on Education; from which time discussion of their actions or writings, 
the undertaking was carried on with as should render the Biographia Bri* 
inereasing reputation and success* tannica a most valuable repository of 
We need not say, that its reputatiDn historical and literary knowledge. This 
and success were greatly owing to our end h'e has admirably accomplished, 
author. It is no disparagement to the^ and herein has left an excellent ex*, 
abilities and learning of his coadjutori ample to his successors." Dr. Kirm^ 



for the exertion of oar author^s abilities and learning, waa 
** The modern Universal History." This extensive work 
• was published from time to time in detached parts, till it 
amounted to 16 vols. fol. and a 2d edition of it in Svo, 
began to make its appearance in 1759. The parts of it 
written by Campbell, were the histories of the Portuguese, 
Dutch, Spanish, French, Swedish, Danish, and Osteiid 
settlements in the East Indies ; and the histories of the 
kingdoms of Spain, Portugal, Algarve, Navarre, and that 
of France, from Clovis to 1656. As our author had thus 
distinguished himself in the literary world, the degree of 
LL. D. was very properly and honourably conferred upon 
bim, June 18, 1754, by the university of Glasgow. With 
regard to his smaller publications, tiaere are several. Dr. 
Kippis apprehends, that have eluded his most diligent in- 
quiry; but the following account, we believe, is tolerably 
accurate : — In early life, he wrote : 1 . '* A Discourse on 
Providence,'' 8vo, the third edition of which was printed 
in 174a. In 1742 he published 2, "The Case of the Op- 
position impartially stated,'' 8vo. Mr. Reed had a copy 
of this pamphlet, with various corrections and additions in 
Dr. Campbell's own hand, evidently written with a view to 
a second impression. He published in 1746, 3. ^^ The 
Sentiments of a Dutch patriot; being the speech of Mr^ 
y. H*^^n, in an august assembly, on the present .stale 
of affairs, and the resolution necessary at this juncture to 
be taken for the safety of the republic," 8vo. The history 
of this little tract, the design of which was to expose the 
temporising policy of the states of Holland, is somewhat 
amusing. His amanuensis, when he was going to write 
the pamphlet, having disappointed him, he requested, afte^ 
tea in the afternoon, that Mrs. Campbell, when she had 
ordered a good fire to be made, would retire to bed as 
soon as possible, with the servailts ; and, at the same time, 
l^ave him four ounces of coffee. This was done, and he 
wrote till 12 o'clock at night, when, finding his spirits flag, 

be took two ounces. With this assistance he went on till 

. '- < . . 

six in the morning, when again beginning to grow weary^ 
he drank the remainder of the coffee. Hence he was en- 
abled to proceed with fresh vigour till nine or ten o'clock 
in the morning, when he finished the pamphlet, which had 
a great run, and was productive of considerable profit. 
Mr. Campbell having succeeded so tvell in a performance 
hastily written^ expected much greater success fnm aqo- 


ther work) about which be had taken extraordinaty pains^ 
and which had cost him a long time in composing, fiut 
when it came to be published, it scarcely paid the expeiice 
of advertising. Some years afterwards, a book in French 
was brought to him that bad been translated from the Grer-^ 
man ; and he was asked whether a translation of it into 
English would not be likely to be acceptable, ' Upon ex** 
amining it, he found that it was bis own neglected work, 
which had made its way into Germany, and had there been 
translated and published, without any acknowledgement 
of the obligation due to the original writer. But it is ra- 
ther singular that his biographers have not told us what 
work this was. 


In 1749, he printed, 4. *^ Occasional thoughts on moral, 
serious, and religious subjects,'* 8vo. In 1754, he waa^ 
the author of a wdrk, entitled, 5. ^' The Rational Amuse- 
ment/ comprehending a collection of letters on a great va- 
riety of subjects, interspersed with essays, and some little 
pieces of humour,'* 8vo. 6. " An exact and authentic 
l^ccount of the greatest white-herriog-iishery in Scotland, 
<iarried on yearly in the island of Zetland, by the Dutch 
pnly," 1750, 8vo. 7. "The Highland Gentleman's Ma^ 
gazine, for Jan. 1751," 8vo. 8. "A Letter from, the 
Prince of the infernal legions, to a spiritual lord on this 
$ide the great gulph, in answer to a late invective epistle 
levelled at his highness," 1751, 8vo. 9. ** The naturali- 
sation bill confuted, as most pernicious to these united 
kingdoms,^' 1751, 8vq. 10. " His royal highness Frede- 
rick late prince of Wales deciphered : or a full and parti«- 
cular description of his character, from his juvenile years 
tmtil his death/' 1751, 8vo. 11. " A Vade Mecum: or 
tsompanion for the unmarried ladies: wherein are laid 
down some examples whereby to direct them in the choice 
of husbands," 1752, 8vo. « 12. " A particular but melan- 
choly account pf the great hardships, difficulties, and mi- 
series, that those unhappy and much to be pitied crea- 
tures, the common women of the town, are plunged into 
at this juncture,'' 1752, 8vo. 13.. " A full and particular 
description of the Highlands of Scotland," 1752, Svow 
14. '^ The case of the publicans, both in town and coun- 
try, laid open," 1752, 8vo. 15. " The Shepherd of Ban- 
bury's rules," a favourite pamphlet with the common peo-* 
pie ; and " The history of the war in the East-Indies," 
which appeared in 1758 or 1759, under the name of Mr. 



Wattsh, are slipposed to have been of Mr« Campbell's com"* 
position. Upon the conclusion of the peace of Paris, oinr 
author was requested by lord Bute to take some share in 
the vindication of that peace. Accordingly, he wrote '^ A 
description and history of the new Sugar Islands in the 
West^Indies/' Svo, the design of which was to shew the 
value and importance of the neutral islands that had been 
ceded to us by the French. The only remaining publica-». 
tion of Dr. Campbell's, that has hitherto come to our 
knowledge, is, " A Treatise upon the Trade of Great-Bri- 
,tain to America," 1772, 4to. His last grand work was 
^ A political survey of Britain : being a series of reflec- 
tions on the situation, lands, inhabitants, revenues, colo* 
nies, and commerce of this island. Intended to shew that 
they have not as yet approached near the summit of im- 
provement, but that it will afford employment to many 
generations, before they push to their utmost extent the 
natural advantages of Great Britain." This work, which 
was published in 1774, iti 2 vols, royal 4 to, cost Dr.^Camp- 
bell many years of attention, study, and labour. As it 
was his last, so it seeniks to have been bis favourite produc- 
tion^ upon which he intended to erect a durable monu** 
ment of his sincere and ardent loVe to hiS' country, but in 
the success of it, he is said to have been greatly disap- 
pointed ; yet a more truly patriotic publication never ap«> 
peared in the English language. The variety off informa*^ 
tion it contains is prodigious ; and there is no book that 
better deserves the close and constant study of the politic- 
ioian, the senator, the gentleman, the merchant, the ma« 
Bufaeturer ; in short, of every one who has it in any de«> 
gree in bis power to promote the interest and welfare of 
Great-Britain ; and this praise it may be allowed to de* 
serve, although the accuracy of many of his facts may be 
disputed, and much of his reasoning appear ilUfoundedi 
Among other encomiums produced by Dr. Kippis on the 
literary merit of his predecessor, that of Mr. Burke, the 
nuthor of the ^^ Account of the European settlements in 
America," is perhaps the most honourable *. Dr. Camp-f 

* ** Having gpokexi, perhaps^ a Ut- 
il« too hardly of my materials, I must 
except the assistance I have had from 
(be judicious collection called Harris's 
Voyages, There are not many finer 
pieces than the history of Brazil in 
Vtiat coliectk>a. The light in which the 

author sets the events in that history is 
fine a ad instructive ; an uncommon 
spirit prevails through it ; and his re- 
marks are every where striking and 
deep. 1'he little sketch I have given 
in the pait of Portuguese Amertca« if 
it has any merit, is entirely due to dmt 



belPs reputation was not confined to his own country, but 
extended to the remotest parts of Europe. As a striking 
instance of this, we may mention, that in the spring of 
1774, the empress of Russia was pleased to honour him 
with the present of her picture, drawn in the robes worn 
in that country in the days of Ivan Vussillievitcb, grand 
duke of, Russia, who was contemporary with queen Eliza- 
beth. To manifest the doctor^s sense of her imperial ma- 
jesty's goodness, a set of the " Political survey of Britain,'^ 
bound in Morocco, highly ornamented, and accompanied 
with a letter descriptive of the triumphs and felicities of 
her reign, was forwarded to St. Petersburg, and conveyed* 
into the hands of that great princess, by prince Gregory 
OrlofF, who had resided some months in this kingdom. 
The empress's picture, sinc^ the death of our author, has 
been presented by his widow to lord Macartney! 

Let us now advert a little to Dr. Campbell's personal 
history. May 23, 1736, he married Elizabeth, daughter 
of Benjamin Vobe, of Leominster, in the county of Here- 
ford, gentleman, with which lady he lived nearly forty 
years in the greatest conjugal harmony and happiness. So 
wholly did he dedicate his time to books, that he seldom 
went abroad : but to relieve himself, as much as possible^ 
from the inconveniencies incident to a sedentary life, it 
was his custom, when the weather would admit, to walk in 
his garden ; or, otherwise, in some room of his house, by 
way of exercise. By this method, united with the strictest 
temperance in eating, and an equal abstemiousness in 
drinking, he enjoyed a good state of health, though his 
constitution was delicate. His domestic manner of living 
did not preclude him from a very extensive and honour*- 
able acquaintance. His house, especially on a Sunday 
' evening, was the resort o{ the most distinguished persons 
of all ranks, and particularly of such as had rendered them* 
selves eminent by their knowledge, or love of literature. 
He received foreigners, who were fond of learning, with 
an affability and kindness, which excited in them* the 
highest respect and veneration ; and his instructive and 
cheerful conversation made him the delight of his friends 
in general. Oh March 5, 1765, Dr. Campbell was ap- 

original.— .Where I dfffer from bim in every where, with so mnch good sense 

any respect, it is with deference to the and eloquence, to rouse that spirit of 

jhdgment of a writer, to whom this na- generous enterpriee, that can alone 

ii»b is much oblta;ed, for endeavouring make anjp nation pewerfnl or iploriotn.*' 



pointed his maj^ty's agent for the province of Georgia, id 
North America, which employment he held till his de- 
His last illneHB was a decline, the consequence of 


a life devoted to severe study, and which resisted every 
attempt for his relief that the most skilful in the medical 
science could devise. By this illness he was carried off, 
at his house in Queen-square, Ormond-street, on Dec. 28, 
1775, when he had nearly completed the 6Sth year of his 
ftge. His end was tranquil and easy, and he preserved the 
full use of all his faculties to the latest moment of his life. 
On Jan. 4th following his decease, he was interred in the 
new burying-^ ground, behind the Foundling-hospital, be** 
longing to St. George the Martyr, where a monument, 
with a plain and modest inscription, has been erected to 
his memory. Dr. Campbell had by his lady seven chil- 
dren, one of whom only survived him, but is $ince dead. 
Dr. Campbells literary knowledge was by no means con- 
fined to. the subjects on which he more particularly treated * 
as an author. He was well acquainted with the mathema- 
tics, and had read much in medicine. It has been with 
great reason believed, that, if he had dedicated his studies 
to the last science, he would have made a very conspicuous 
figure in the physical profession. He was eminently versed 
in the different parts of sacred literature ; and his ac- 
quaintance with the languages extended not only to the 
Hebrew, Greek, and Latin among the ancient, §.nd to the 
French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese,' and Dutch, among 
the modern ; but, likewise, to the oriental tongues. He 
was particularly fond of the Greek language. His attaiur 
ment of such a variety of knowledge was exceedingly as- 
sisted by a memory surprisingly retentive, and which, in« 
deed, astonished every person with whom he was conver- 
sant. A striking distance of this has been given by the 
honourable Mr. Daines Barrington, in his tract, entitled, 
** The probability of reaching the north pole discussed *.'* 

* The instaDce mentioned by Mr. 
"Barrington regards the accuracy where- 
with Dr. Campbell, at the distanee of 
^0 years, remembered the facts related 
to him by a Dr. Daillie, coneerniag a 
voyage towards the north pole^ in 
which the navigators, among whom was 
J)r. Daillie himself, went so far as to 
ike 88th degree of north latitude ; and 
might easily have proceeded farther, 
had not the captain thought hiotfelf 

obliged by his duty in other respects, 
to return. In Mr. Harrington's curi* 
Dtts collection of papers relative to the 
probability of reaching to the north 
pole, is a tract which he received from 
a learned friend, who permitted him to 
print it, though not to inform the pub- 
lie to whom they«were iadebted for the 
communication. It is entitled, Thoughtii 
on the probability, . expediency, and 
utility of discor^ring a passage by^^ie 

C A M P B E L L. 159 


In communicating bis ideas, our author bad an uncommon 
readiness and facility ; and the style oi* his works, whicii 
had been formed upon the model of that of the celebrated 
bishop Sprat, was perspicuous, easy, flowing, and harmo- 
nious. Should it be thought that it is sometimes rather 
too diffusive, it will, notwithstanding, indubitably be al- 
lowed, that it is, in general, elegant. 

To all these accomplishments of the understanding, Dr/ 
Campbell joined the more important virtues of a moral and. 
pious character. His disposition was gentle and humane, 
and his manners kind and obliging. He was the tenderest 
/pf husbands, a most indulgent, parent, a kind master,a 
firm and sincere friend. To his great Creator he paid the 
constant and ardent tribute of devotion, duty, and rever- 
ence ; and in his correspondences he shewed, that a sense 
of piety was always nearest his heart. It was our author's 
custom every day, to read one or more portions of scrip- 
ture, in the original, with the ancient versions, and the 
best commentators before him ; and in this way, as appears 
from his own occasional notes and remarks, he went through 
the sacred writings a number of times, with great tliank- 
fulness and advantage. ^ 

CAMPEGIO, or COMPEGIO (Lawrence), an emi- 
nent cardinal of the Romish church, and an English bishop, 
was a native of Bologna, the son of John Campegio, a learned 
lawyer, and was himself professor of law at Padua. After 
the death of his wife,, he went into the church, and in 
1510 became auditor of the Rota, and in 1512 bishop of 
Feltria. Being afterwards, in 1517, created cardinal, he 
was sent as pope'& legate into England in the following 
year. His chief business at the English court was to per- 
suade Henry VIII. to join the confederation of Christian 
princes against the Turks. He was very favourably re- 
ceived on this occasion, and had several spiritualities be- 
stowed upon bioQ, among which was the bishoprick of Sa* 
lisbury, but not having be^ able to accomplish the busi-. 
ness of his mission, he returned to Rome. When the con- 
troversy respecting Henry's divorce began, in 1527, car- 
dinal Campe^gio was sent a second time, into England, to. 


north pole. We are now permitted by of this iogenious essay was Dr. Oamp« 
3Sr. BarhngtOD to sAy, that the writer bell. 

1 Biog. Brit.— >Nichol8*s Bowyer.— Some curious remarks on his character and 
talents, ;iot exactly corresponding with tka account in the Biog. Brit may bo 
Man iu Botwsirs Towr to the Hi brides, and his Idh of Or.-Jobnsoa. 

160 C A M P E G I O. 

call a legantine court, where he and his colleague cardinal' 
Wols^ Were to sit as judges. Having arrived in London 
Oct. 1528, the first session began at Blackfriars, May 31, 
' 1529, and the trial lasted until July 23, when the qu'een 
Catherine appealing to the pope, the court was adjourned 
until Sept. 28, and was then dissolved. Afterwards Cain- 
pegio was recalled to Rome, the king making him con- 
, siderable presents upon his departure ; but a rumour being 
spread, that be carried along with him a treasure belong- 
ing to cardinal Wolsey, whose downfall was at this time 
contrived, and who, it was suspected, intended to follow 
him to Rome, he was pursued by the king's orders, and 
overtaken at Calais. His baggage was searched, but no- 
thing being found of the kind suspected, he complained 
Ibudly of this violation of his sacred character. ' In this, 
however, he obtained no redress, and when king Henry 
understood that the see of Rome was not disposed to fa,vour 
him with a divorce from his queen, he deprived Campegio 
of his see of Salisbury. He died at Rome in August 1539, 
leaving the character of a man of learning, and a patron of 
learned men, and much esteemed by Erasmus, Sadoiet, 
and other eminent men of that time. His letters only re- 
main, which contain many historical particulars, and were 
published in ** Epistolarum miscellanearum, libri decem," 
Basil, 1550, fol. Hume represents his conduct, in the 
matter of the divorce, as prudent and temperate, although 
somewhat ambiguous. '' 

CAMPER (Peter), an eminent physician and surgeon, 
the son' of Florence Camper, a minister of the reformed 
church, was born at Leyden May 11, 1722, and was first 
taught design and painting, which enabled him in his fu- 
ture studies to draw his anatomical preparations. He 
afterwards studied medicine under Boerhaave, and the 
other eminent professors of Leyden, and in 1746 took his 
degree of M. D. In 1748, he attended the hospitals and 
anatomical lectures in London, and afterwards at Paris. 
In 1749, he was appointed professor of philosophy, medi- 
cine, and surgery at Franeker ; and in 1755 taught these 
sciences at Amsterdam, which he quitted in 1761. After 
two years' residence at his country -jhouse in Friesland, he 
was appointed professor of medicine^ surgery, anatomy, 

> Moreri.:— Docld's £ccl. tiist.«— HttBie's History.— »Fidde3 and Grore's Uves 
>f Cardinal Wolsey. 



«nd botany at Grpotngen, whete he resided until June 
1773, when be settled at Franeker, in order to superin^- 
tend the educatioa of his. sons. la 1762, he bad been 
appointed a representative in the assembly of the province 
of Friesland; but in 17S7» he was noimoated one of the 
council of state, and was therefore obliged to reside at the 
Hague, where he died i» April 1789,! in the sixty^seventh 
year of his age. The immediate cause of his death was a 
pleurisy, but his eulogist seems to attribute it remotely to 
bis patriotic exertions, and the grief which oppressed him 
when he saw the independence of his country attacked. 
Whichever account be^ true, be nyaif. lamented as a learned 
and ingenious propaoter .of science, and an ornament to 
his country. He wa^ at the time of bis death a member 
of the royal socieiy of London, and of the academies of 
Peter$burgh, Berlin, Edinburgh (the college of physicians), 
Gottiogen, Manchester, Haerlem, Rotterdam, &c. and other 
learned societies in various parts of Europe. 

His works, if not numerous, are highly valuable, and 
contain many imp9rtant facts, and successful experunents 
and improvements. He published, K. '^ DemoDstrationnnpi 
Anatomico-Pathologicarum liber primufi, continens brachii 
humani fabricam et morbos, in folio maximo, cum quatuor 
figuris,^' Ainst. 1760* 2. *^ Liber secundus, continens peU 
vis human® fabricam et morbos," 1762. 2. '^ An account 
of a method of performing the opetation of Lithotomy at 
'two different times,'' pubUsbed in a Dutch journal. The 
operation is performed at twice, that is, on < the first day 
the surgeon makes the incision into the bladder ; the pa- 
tient, is then to be put to bed, and the extraction of the 
stone deferred until the second, third, or fourth day ; but 
this method has not been attended with the advantages ex- 
pected from it. Camper's other wOrks were published by 
his son : 3. '^ A Dissertation on the fracture of the patella 
and olecranon," 1789, 4to. . 4. *' ATreatise on the natural 
difference of features, , &c." which was translated by Dr. 
Cogan, and published at London in 1794, under the title 
" The Works of the late professor Camper, on the con- 
nection between the science of ana^niy and the arts of 
drawing, painting, statuary, &c. &c. in 2 books ; con- 
taining a treatise on tb^ natural diiFerence of features in 
persons of different countries and periods of life ; and on 
beauty, as exhibited in ancient sculpture, &c." This is 
unquestionably a work of great curiosity and importance ^ 

vot.vm. M 

162 C A M P £ A. 

to artists^ and is one of the best translated seientific books 
in our language. In 1903, a collection of Camper's works 
was published at Paris, in 3 vols. 8to. with a folio atlafs 
of piatesy containing his various dissertations on natural 
history, physiology, and comparatire- anatomy. To diese 
is prefixed an account of his life by his son. Camper was 
not less amiable in private life, than celebrated in his pub« 
lie character. ^ 

CAMPIAN (Edmund), an ingenious Roman catholio 
writer, was bom in London in 1540, and educated at 
Christ's hospital. Being a boy of great parts^ he was se- 
lected while at school, to make an oration before queen 
Mary at her accession to the crown; and from thence 
elected scholar of St. John's college in Oxford by Thomas 
White, the founder of it, in 1553. He took his degrees 
of B. and M. A. regularly, and afterwards went into orders. 
In 1566, when queen Elizabeth was entertained at Ox- 
ford, he made an oration before her, and- also kept an act 
in St. Mary's ch9rcb, with very great applause from that 
learned queen. In 1 568, he went into Ireland, where he 
wrote a history of that country in two books ; but being 
then discovered to have embraced the popish rdigion, and 
to labour for proselytes, he was seised and detained for 
some time. He escaped soon after into England ; but in 
1571 transported himself into the Low Countries, and set- 
tled in the English college of Jesuits at Doway, where h^ 
openly renounced the protestant religion, and had the de- 
gree of B. D. conferred upon him. From thence he went 
to Rome, where he was admitted into the society of Je- 
taitsin 1573; and afterwards sent by the general, of his 
order into Germany^ He lived for some time in Brune, 
and then at Vienna; where he composed a tragedy, called 
^^ Nectar and Ambrosia," which was acted before the em^ 
peror with great applause. Soon after he settled at Prague 
in Bohemia, and taught rhetoric and philosophy for about 
six years in a college of Jesuits, which had been newly 
erected there. At length being called to Rome, he was 
sent by the command of pope Gregory .XIII. into England, 
where he arrived in June 1580. Here he performed all 
the offices of a zealous provincial, and was diligent in pro<^ 
pagating his religion by all the arts of conversation and 
writing. He seems to have challenged the English clergy 

ShgmiM Aeddaakimui, vol. V.— Rcet'j CydopaeaU. 

C A M P I A N. I6S 

ta a disputation, by a piece entitled ^* Rationes decern ob* 
lati certaminb in canaa iidei^ reddittt academicis Angliae^** 
which was printed at a prirate press in 1581 ; and many 
copies of which, as Wood tells ns, were dispersed that 
yeir in St. Mary's church aH Oxford, during the time of 
an act. It was afterwards printed in English, and ably 
refuted by the English divinei. In short, Campian, though 
nobody knew where he was, was yet so active as to fall 
under the cognizance of'Walsingham, secretary of state; 
aad Walsiagham employed a person to find him out He 
was at last diacoirered in disguise at the house of a private 
gentleman in Berks, from whence he was conveyed iii 
great procession to the Tower of London, with a pap^r 
fiuitened to his bat, on which was written ^* Edmund Cam*^ 
piauj a most pernicious Jesuit.** Afterwards, having been 
fottnt4 gnilty of high treason in adhering to the bishop of 
Rome, the queen's enemy, and in coming to Enghind to 
disturb the peace and quiet of the realm, he was hanged 
and quartered, widi other Romirii priests, at Tyburn, De- 
cember 1, 1581. 

AU parties allow him to have been a most extraordinary 
man ; of adarirable parts, an eloquent orator, a subtile 
pUlosopher and skilful ^sputant, an exact preacher both 
in ijatin and English, and a man of good temper ftnd ad- 
dress. Besides the works already mentioned, he wrote, 
1. ^^^ NiMf Articles directed to the lords of the privy-coun- 
cil," 1581. 3. *< The History of Ireland,** noticed above, 
published by sir James Ware, Dublin, 1633, fbl. Thef 
original MS. n in the British Museum. 9. ** Chronologia 
universalis.** 4. *^ Conferences in the Tower,^V published 
by the English divines, 1583, 4to. 5. ^'Narratio de Di- 
vortio,** Antwerp, 163^1. 6. " Orationes,** ibid. 1631. 
7. <<£pisi»lflB tarisfe,^* ibid. 1631. 8. «< De Imitatione 
Rbetorica,** ibid. 16^1. His life, iHrritteii by Paul Bom- 
bino, a Jesuit, is very scait;e ; the best edition is that of 
Mantua, 1620, 8vo.^ 

CAMPISTRON {JoHvr Oalbeut), was bom at Toulouse 
in 16S6, and shewed an ^arly taste for poetry, which was * 
improved by a good education, and when he came to 
Paris, he tMk Racine for' his guide in the dramatic career. 
But,^ though it may-be' allowed that Campistron approacihed 

« Atb. Ox. vol. I.-^^trype's Parker, p. 375.— Strype'i Orindal, p. 256, #nd 
Annals. See Index.— Archieologia^ toI. Xni.««»I>odd'f Churcli HUt. vol. II.— 
Alegambe BiU. Soc. Script Jefu. 


1«4 C A M P 1 S T R O N. 

Ilis merit in the condact of his pieces, yet he could never 
equal him in the beauties of composition, nor in his en- 
chanting versification. Too feeble to avoid the defects of 
Racinei and uni^le like him to atone for them by beauti^ 
ful strokes of the sublime^ he copied him in his soft man* 
per of ddineating the love of his heroes, of whom, it must 
be confessed, he sometimes made inamoratos fitter for the 
most comic scenes than for tragedy, in which passion 
ought always to assume an elevated style. Racine, whila 
he was forming Campistron for the drama, was not inat* 
tentive to promote the fortune of the youn^ poet. Having 
proposed him to the duke de Vend6me for the compositioD 
of the heroic pastoral of '^ Acis and Galatea," which he de* 
signed should be represented at his chateau of Anet, that 

{irince, well satisfied both with his character and his. ta«* 
ents, first made him secretary of his orders, and then se« 
cretary general of the gallies. He afterwards got him 
made knight of the military order of St. James in Spain, 
commandant of Cbimene, and nmrquis of Penange in Italy. 
The poet, now become necessary to 'the prince^ by tb^ 
cheerfulness of his temper and the vivacity of his imagina- 
tion, attended him on his travels into various countries. 
Campistron, some time after his return, retired to his owi> 
country; where he married mademoiselle de Maniban,^ 
lister of the first president of Toulouse, and of the bishop 
of Mirepoix, afterwards archbisbop of Bourdeaux; and 
there he died May 11, ]723, of an apoplexy, at the age 
of 67. This stroke was brought on by a fit of pa3sion ex* 
cited by two chairmen who refused to carry him on ac- 
count of his great weight Campistron kept good com- 
pany, loved good cheer, and had all the indolence of 9^ 
man of pleasure. While secretary ^ to the duke de.Ven- 
d6me, he found it a more expeditious way to burn th^ let- 
ters that were .written to that prince than to answer them. 
Accordingly, the duke, seeing him one day before a large 
fire, in which he was easting a heap of papers : ^^ There 
•its Campistron,'' said he» ^ employed^ in answering my 
^correspondents." He followed the duke even to the field 
of battle. At the battle of Steinkerque, the duke seeing 
him always beside him, said, >< What do you do here, 
Campistron ?" *^ Monseigneur," answered he, '^ I am 
limiting to go back with you." This sedateness of mind in 
^ a moment of so much danger was highly pleasing to the 

hero. Uis plajs, 1750^ 3 vols. 12mo. have been pearl^ 

C A M P I S T R O N. 161 

fts often printed as those of Comeilley Racine, Crebillon; 
and Voltaire. The most popular of them are. his ** An*- 
dronicus/' "Alcibiadesj" **Acis and Galatea j'* **Phocion/' 
« Adrian,'' « Tiridatos/' " Phraates," and " Jaloux De- 
«abas£/' * 

CAMPS (FRjkNcis de), was born at Amiens Jan. 3|, 
1643, of very poor parents. Serroni, bishop of Mende, 
took him from the Dominican convent of the fttuxbourg St. 
Germain, in Paris, provided for his education, and made 
him his sectetary . This prelate also gave him the priory at 
Flore, obtained for him the abbey of St. Marcel, the co^ 
adjutorship of Gland^ves, and lastly the bishopric of Pa- 
niiers. But not able to obtain his bulls from Rome, on 
account of his bad conduct, he had by way of compensa- 
tion the abbey of Signy. He is the author of several dis- 
sertations on medals, on the history ofTrance, on the title 
of Most Christian given to the kings of France, on the 
guard of these monarchs, on the daughters of the house of 
I'rance given in marriage to heretical or pagan princes, on 
the nobility of the royal race, on the heredity of the grand 
fiefs, on the origin of ensigns armorial, ort the hereditary 
dignities attached to titled estates, &c. all which were 
pubhshed in the Paris Mercuries for 1719, 1720, 1722, 
and 1723. His cabinet was rich in medals ; the celebrated 
Vaillant published the most curious of them acconppanied 
with explications. Abb^ de Camps died at Paris in 1723, 
aged 81. He was learned and laborious, and his investi- 
gations ha,ve been of great use to the historians that bav^ 
came after him. * 

CAMUS (Antony lb), a French physician, was born 
at Paris in 1722, and died in the same city in 1772, at 50 
years of age. He practised medicine there with great suc- 
cess^ and wrote, 1. "Medicine de Pesprit," Paris, 1753, 
2^ vols. 12mo, in which his reasonings are not always- just; 
but his conjectures are in general very ingenious, and may 
he of great service. 2. ^* Abdeker,'' or the art of preserv- 
ing beauty, 1756, 4 vols, small twelves; a romance in 
which the author introduces a variety of receipts and pre- 
cepts for the benefit of the ladies. The true cosmetics are 
exercise and temperance. A translation of part of this ap- 
peared in English, but before the above date, 1754, in 
one vol. l2mo. 3. " Memoires sur divers jsujets de medi- 

' Moreri.— 'Diet. Hist— See art ALUtom in vol, I.—Niceron* 
9 Moreri^Dict. Hiit. 

I6i , . C A M U S. 

cine/' 1760, 8vo. 4. '^ Meihoire 8(!ir Tetat actuel de H 
Pharmacie/' 1765, 12aio. 5. " Projet d'aneauiirla Petite- 
verole,*' 1767, 12mo, 6. ** Medicine pratique," 3 vols. 
12mo, and 1 vol. 4to. 7. ** Ampbitbeatrum poeticum,'' 
a poem, 1745, 4to. He also was editor of the '^' Journal 
Economique,'' from 1753 to 1765, and exhibited in all 
his works various talents, and considerable powers of fancy 
as well as of science. One of bis brothers, Nicolas Camus 
DE M£Zi£H£S, was a skilful architect, and published some 
works on that subject; particularly ^^Dissertations sur le 
boisde charpente," Paris, 1763, 12mo. " Le Genie d' Ar- 
chitecture," ibid. 1780, 8vo; "Traill de la force de 
bois," 1782, 8vo; and " Le guide de ceux quL veulent 
batir," 2 vols. 8vo. He died July 24, 1779. Another 
brother, Armand Gaston Camus, who died in 1 804, was 
a very active agent in all the revolutionary measures of the 
diiferent French assemblies, and being sent to arrest Du- 
mourier in 1793, was delivered by bim to the Austrians, 
and afterwards exchanged for the daughter of Louis XVL 
His political conduct belongs to the history of those turbu- 
lent periods* In ISOO be was commissioned to inspect the 
libraries and collections of the united departments, and 
particularly examined the library of Brussels, which is rich 
in MSS. He was a man of some learning, and extensive 
knowledge of books; and published, 1. *^ Observations sur 
la distribution et le classement des livres d'une biblio- 
thcque." 2. *' Memoire sur un livre AUemand," the famous 
Tewrdannckhs. 3. "Memoire sur Phistoire et les pro- 
c^d^s du Polytypage et de la Stereotype." 4. ** Rapport 
sur la continuation de la collection des Historiens de la 
France, et de celle des Chartres et Dipilomes." 5. " No- 
tice d'un livre imprim6 a Bamberg in 1462,'* a very curi- 
ous memoir of a book, first described in the Magasin Hist 
Litt. Bib^iog. 1792. 6. << Memoire sur la collection des 
grands et petits voyages,'' 1802, 4to. In the "Notices 
des MSS. de la Bibl. Nationale," vol. VI. is an interesting 
memoir by him, relating to two. ancient manuscript bibles, 
in 2 vols. fol. adorned with 5152 pictures, each of them 
having a Latin and French verse beautifully written and 
illuminated beneath. ^ ' , 

CAMUS (Charles Stephen Lewis), a celebrated 
French mathematician, examiner of the royal schools of 

1 Diet. Hist— Biog* MQdtenu3.-^Dibdiii'f BibUongftaia, p< «8. - 

CAMUS. 167 

axtillery and engineersi secretary and professor of the royal 
academy of architecture, honorary member of that of the 
marine, and fellow of the royal society of London, w^ 
born at Cressy en Brie, August 25, 1699. His early in* 
genuity in mechanics and his own intreaties induced bis 
parents to send him to study at a college in Paris, at ten 
years of age; where in the space of two years his progress 
was so great, that he was able to give lessons in mathe* 
matics, and thus to defray his own expences at the college 
without any farther charge to his parents. By the assist* 
ance of the celebrated Varignon, young Camus soon ran 
through the course of the higher mathematics, and acquired 
a name among the learned. He made himself more particu<<' 
larly known to the academy of sciences in 1727 by his me* 
moir upon the subject of the prize which they had proposed 
tor that year, viz. ^^ To determine the most advantageoua 
way of masting ships ;** in consequence of which he waa 
named that year adjoint mechanician to the academy ; and 
in 1730 he was appointed professor of architecture. In jiesa 
than three years after, he was honoured with the secretary-*- 
ship of the same; and the 18th of April 1733, he obtained 
the degree of associate in the academy, where he distin- 
guished himself by his memoirs upon living forces, or bo- 
dies in motion acted upon by forces, on the figure of the 
teeth of wheels and pinions, on pump work, and several 
other ingenious memoirs. 

In 1736 he was sent, in company with messieurs Clairaut^ 
Haupertuisy and Monnier, upon the celebrated expedition 
to measure a degree at the north polar circle ; in which he 
rendered himself highly useful, not only as a mathema^. 
tician, . but also as a ^mechanician and an .artist, branches 
for which be had a remarkable talent. In 1741 Camus had 
the honour to be appointed pensioner geometrician in the 
academy ; and the same year he invented a gauging-rod 
and sliding-rule proper at once to gauge all sorts of casks, 
and to calculate their contents. Aloiout the year 1747 he 
was named examiner of the schools of artillery and en- 
gineers; and, in 1756, one of the eight . ndathematicians 
appointed to examine by a new measiii^^ent, the base 
which had formerly been measured by Picard, between 
yillejuive aud Juvisi; an operation ^n which bis ingenuity 
and exactness were of great utility. In 1765 M. Camus 
was eleot^ a fellow of the royal society of London ; aiid 
died the 4th of May i763t, in the sixty -ninth year of his 

16S' A MV d; 

age.; being succ^ded by the celebrated d'Alemb^rt in bis 
office of geometrician in^tbe French academy ; and leaving 
behi:)d him a great number of manuscript treatises on va- 
rious branches of the mathematics; The works published 
by M. Camus are, 1. " Course of Mathematics for the use 
of "the Engineers,'* 4 vols. 8vo. 2. " Elements of Me- 
chanics." 3. " Elements of Arithmetic.** And his me- 
moirs printed in the volumes of the academy are, 1. ** Of 
accelerated motions by living forces," vol. for 1716. 2. 
** Solution of a geometrical problem of M. Cramer,'* 1732. 
8." On the figure of the teeth and pinions in Clocks,**" 
17^3. 4. " On the action of a musket-ball, piercing a 
prfetty thick piece of wood, without communicating any 
considerable velocity to it," 1738. 5. **.On the best man- 
lier of employing Buckets for raising Water," 1739. 6. 
« A problem in Statics,*' 1740. 7. " On an Instrument for 

tanging of vessels," 1741. 8. " On the Standard of the 
11 measure," 1746. 9. ** On the Tangents of points com- 
ttton to several branches of the same curve," 1747. 10. 
^^•On the operations in measuring the distance between 
the centres of the pyramidis of Villejuive and Juvisi, to 
discover the best measure of the degree about Paris," 1754. 
11 . « On the Masting of Ships ;** Prize Tom. II. 12. " The 
Manner of working Oars ;*' Mach. tom. II. 13. ** A Machine 
for moving many Colters at once;" Mach. tom. II. ^ 

CAMUS (John Peter), an exemplary French prelate, 
n^as born at Paris in 1582, and on account of bis excellent 
character and talents, was nominated to the bishopric of 
B«llay by Henry IV. in 1600, before he was of age, but 
having obtained the pope*s dispensation, he was consecrated 
on Dec, 30th of the same year. From 'this time h^ ap- 
pears to have devoted his time and talents to the edification 
of his flock, and of 4iie people at large, by frequent prelach- 
ingi, and more frequent publicatioh of numerous works cal- 
culated to divert their attention to this conciernsbf an im- 
mortallife. In his time romances began to'be'thefa^urite 
books with all who would be thought readers 6f taste; and 
Camus, considering that it would not be eitsy to^petsuade 
them to leave off such books without supplyinjg them with 
some kind of substitute, pubiishied several works of prac- 
tical i^ety with a mixture of romantic nai'rative, by Which 

' * » • 

1 Diet, Hist— Hutton't Math, Pi^on«ryf«*-L« Necnologe id«i Ji»Hmki^Qiy^ 
1»re6 di^ Prance, 17S9, ISmo, . < . 

CAM us; 16a 

he hoped to attract and amuse the attention of romance- 
readers, and draw them on insensibly to matters of religious^ 
importance. He contrived, therefore, that the lovers, in 
these novels, while they encounterc^d the usual perplexities; 
should be led to see the vanity and perishable nature of all 
human enjoyments, and to form resolutions of tenouncing 
worldly delights, and embracing a religious life. Among 
these works we find enumerated, 1. ** Doroth^e, ou recit 
de la pitoyable issue d'une volont^ violentfie," Paris, ,1621. 
2. " Alexis,'' 1622, 3 vols. 8vo. 3. L'Hyacinte, histoire 
Catalane," ibid. 1627, Svo. 4. ^^ Alcime, relation fiilieste^' 
&c.'' ibid. 12mo, 1625, &c. But the principal objedt of 
his reforming spirit was the conduct of the monk:^, or men- 
dicant fiiars, against whom he wrote vafibiis severe re- 
monstrances, and preached against thiem ivrith a mixture 
of religious fervour and satirical humour. Among the 
works he published against them are, 1.'^' Le Directeur 
desintcress^," Paris, 1632, i2mo. 2. " Desappropriationr 
claustrale,'' Besan^on, 1634. 3. '^ Le Rabat-joye du tri- 
omphe mona5al." 4. " L'anti-'Moine bien prepare," 1632, 
&c. &c. These monks teazed the cardinal Richelieu to 
silence him, and the cardinal told him, ^< I really find no 
other fault with yon but this horrible bitterness against 
the monks; were it not for that, I would canonize you.'* 
** I wish that may come to pass,'* said the bishop, " for 
then we should both have our wish ; you would be pope, 
and I a saint." Many of 'his bons-mots were long in 
circulation, and show that he had the courage to reprove 
vices and absurdities amoitg the highest classes. In 1620 
he established in the city of Bellay a convent of capuchins, 
and in 1622 one for the nuns of the visitation, instituted 
by St Francis de Sales. In 1629 he resigned his bishopric' 
that he might pass the remainder of his day% in retirement, 
in the abbey of Cluny in Normandy, but the atrdhbishop bf 
Rouen, unwiUing that sb active a member' of the church 
should not bfe employed in public services, associated him 
in his episcopal -cares, by appbihting him his grand Vicatv 
At lengl^ he finaHy retired to' the hospital' of incurables in 
Parts, where he died April 26*, 1652. Morerihas enu- 
merated a large catalogue of "his works, the princi]balof 
which,! besides what Vire baVe 'enumeratfed, are, ** L'Esprit 
de S. Francois de Sales," 6 vols. Svo, reduced to one by a 
doctor of the Sorbonne ; and " L' Avoisinement des Pro- 
testans avec I'Eglise Romaine/' republished iu 1703 by 

170 CAM US/ 

Richard Simon, under the title of '< Moyens de reunir les 
Procestaus avec TEglise Romaine." Simon asserted, that 
Bossuet's exposition of the catholic faith was no more than 
this work in a new dress. ^ 

CAMUSAT (Nicholas)^ > French historian, was bora 
at 'Trpyes in 1575, In his eighteenth year he was pro- 
moted to a canojiry in the cathedral of his native city, but 
appears to have devoted himself chiefly to the study of his- 
tory and antiquities. He died Jan. 20, 1655, in the 
eightieth year of his age, after publishing^ 1. <^ Chronolo- 
gia ab origine orbis, usque adanx). 1200, auctore anonymo, 
9ed ccenobii ^. Mariani apud Altissiodorum (Auxerre) re- 
gulss Prsmonstratensis monacho," with an appendix to th^ 
year 1223 i Trecis. (Troyes) 1608, 4to, 2. " Promptuarium 
sacrarum antiquitatum Tricassine dioBcesis, &c.'' 1610, Svo, 
a work of great utility to those who have tfaie curiosity to 
study the history of ecclesiastical discipline. 3. <^ Historia 
Albigensium, &a auctore Petro, ccenobii Vallis-Sarn^nsia 
ordinis Cisterciensis in dioDcesi Parisiensi monacho,^^ Tre« 
cis, 1618, 8vo. This history^ which Camusat first published 
from the original MS. was translated into French by Arnaud 
Sorbin, Paris, 1615. 4. ** Melanges historiques, ou recueil 
de plusieurs actes, trait^s, et lettres missives^ depuis Tan 
1390 jusqu'a Tan 1580," ibid. 1619, 8vo. Some of hi& 
historical communications are in Duchesne's collection of 
French historians, and in othpr collections.' 

CAMUSAT (Francis Deni^is), grand nephew of the 
preceding, was born at Besan^on, where his father was an 
advocate, in 1697, and died at Amsterdam in 1732. In 
this city he was employed in the journals, to relieve the 
distress he brought upon himself by quitting the post of 
secretary and librarian to marechal d'Estre^s, and marry- 
ing without any fortune. He left ^^ Hist Critiques dea 
Journaux qui sUmpriment en France," 9 vols. 12mo ; *^ 3ib- 
liotheque des Livres nouveaux," of. which only 2 vols, haye 
appeared. The first four volumes of the *^ Bibliotheqiie 
Fraufoise,** which consists of 34 vols. 4ta; << Melange^.de 
liitteniture,'* taken from manuscijpt letters of Chapelai(»|t 
&c. 1 2mo. He appears to have been of au unsteady te^-* 
per, never studying but to relieve his necessities, and 
shifting from one pursuit to another witliout ^ompietiQg 

any-! ^ 

* Moreri. — ^Dict Hist— -Femult Let HomnHes tllttstres.— 'Fnshen TheaCruin. 
^Biof . Gattica, vol. I. ? liwwri. . . ^ * IW. 

CANAL. 171 

CANAL, or CANALETTO (Antonio), an tminent 
painter of Venice, was born in 1697, the son of one Ber«» 
nardo a scene-painter. He followed the profession of his 
father, and acquired a wildness of conception and a readi«- 
ness of band which afterwards supplied him with ideas and 
dispatch for his nearly numberless smaller works. Tired 
of the theatre, he went young to Rome, and with great 
fissiduity applied himself to paint views from nature and 
the ruins of antiquity. On his return to Venice he con- 
tinued the same studies from the prospects of that city 
which the combination of nature and art has rendered ohe 
of the most magnificent and the most novel of Europe. 
Numbers of these are exact copies of the spots they re- 
present, and hence highly interesting to those whose cu*- 
riosity has not been gratified by residence in the metropolis 
of the Adriatic. Numbers are the compound of bis own 
invention, graceful mixtures of modern and antique, of 
fancied and real beauties : such he painted for Algarotti. 
The most instructive and the most novel of these appears 
to be that view of the grand canal, in which he adopted the 
idea of Palladio, by substituting the Rialto for its present 
bridge, with the basilica of Vicenza rising in the centre, 
the palace Chericato and other fabrics of that great archi- 
tect rounding the whole. Canaletto made use of the ca« 
mera to obtain precision, but corrected its defects in the 
air-tints ; he was the first who shewed to artists its real use 
and limits. He produced great effects somewhat in the 
manner of Tiepolo, who sometimes made his figures, and 
impressed a character of vigour on every object he touched i 
we see them in their most striking aspect. He takes pic« 
turesque liberties without extravagance, and combines bis 
objects so congenially, that the common spectator finds 
nature, and the man of knowledge the art. 

Lord Orford informs us that he came to England in 1746^ 
when he was about the i^ of fifty, by persuasion of his 
countryman Amiconi, and encouraged by the multitude of 
pictures lie had sold to, or sent over to the English. He was 
then in good circumstances, and it was said came oyer to 
vest his money in our stocks. Lord Orford thinks he did not 
stay above two years. At Strawberry hill i$ a perspective 
by him of the inside of King's college chapel, Cambridge ; 
and at Buckingham-bouse are several large pieces far su- 
perior to his coaunoQ views of Venice. They had belong^ 
to Smythi the English oonsul at Venice, who early en- 

172 CANAL. 

gaged Canaletto to work for him for a long teitin of years 
at low rates, but retailed the pictures to travelling English 
at higher prices. Canaletto died in 1768, aged seventy- 
one, Mr. Fuseli adds, that Francesco Guardi, his scholar, 
has been of late considered as the rival of his fame, and 
his views of Venice have excited in Italy and on this side 
of the Alps, the admiration of those whom the brilliancy 
of his effect and the taste of his method prevented from 
perceiving how much he wants of the precision and soli- 
dity of the master. He died 1793, aged eighty-one. * 

CANANUS (John Baptist), one of the restorers and 
improvers of anatomy, was born at Ferrara, in Italy, iu 
1515, where he acquired so much reputation for his skill in 
medicine, that he was invited to Rome by pope Julius III. 
who made him archiator, and his principal physician. On 
the death of the pope he returned to Ferrara, and pursued 
his anatomical researches. He first discovered the valves of 
the veins, which were afterwards more completely described 
by Vesalius. The work by which he is known, of which 
only four complete copies are said to be in existence, is 
** Musculorum humani corporis picturata dissectio," 4to, 
printed, Haller thinks, in 1543, no date or place named. 
The figures, twenty-seven in number, are. neatly engraved 
on copper, and represent the muscles of the upper extre- 
mities. In the preface, he promises a continuation of the 
work, which he probably did not finish. He died in 1579.  

CANAYE (Philip de la), seigneur du Fresne, counsel- 
lor of state, was born 1551 at Paris, and carefully educstted 
by his father James de la Canaye, an eminent advocate. 
At the age of fifteen, having declared himself a Calvinist, 
he went into Italy, Germany, and to Constanstinople ; and 
published an account of his travels to that city, under the 
title of ^^ Ephemerides.** He shone afterwards at the bar, 
and was counsellor of state under Henry III. Henry IV. 
sent hitn embassador into England, Germany, and to Ve- 
liice. He assisted at the famous conference of Fontaine- 
bleau, 1600, between cardinal du Perron and Duplessis- 
Momay, and afterwards turned catholic. The year fol- 
lowing be was sent ambassador to Venice, where he contri- 
buted greatly to the termination of the disputes between 
that republic and pope Paul V. He died at his return to 

'■^ PilkingtoiL— Walpole't Anecdotal. 

» SaUer Bitil. ABtU— Reel's Cyclepvdta. 

C N A A Y E. 171 

Parisi February 27, 1610. Three vols. fol. of his embassies 
were published in 1635, with his life prefixed to the first. ^ 
CANDIDO (P£T£r), was an artist, whose real name was 
De Witte (or White), although Sandrart calls him Candido, 
as also does De Piles, on account of that name being in- 
scribed on some of the prints engraved after the designs o£ 
this artist. Some authors affirm that he was born at Mu- 
nich ; but Descamps asserts, that he was born at Bruges, 
io Flanders, in 1548, although he probably might have re- 
sided for several years at Munich, and perhaps have died 
there. He painted with equal success in fresco and in 
oil, and had an excellent genius for modelling. He worked 
in conjunction with Vasari at the pope^s palace in Rome^ 
and was also employed at Florence by the grand djuke ; in 
both places affording competent proofs of his skill, and 
gaining r^utation ; till at last he was taken into the ser- 
vice of the elector Maximilian of Bavaria, and spent the 
remainder of his life in the court of that prince. Several 
prints are pubUshed by Sadeler, after his designs and 
paintings ; particularly the Hermits, and the Four Doctors 
of the Church. • 


CANGIAGI (Lucas), or CAMBIASO, called Luchet- 
TO, an eminent Genoese painter, was born at Oneglia, 
near <jrenoa, in 1527, and became a most expeditious 
painter, working with both his hands, by which unusual 
power be executed more designs, and finished more great 
works with his own pencil in a much shorter time than most 
other artists could do with several assistants. It is men- 
tioned as a memorable circumstance in bis life, that at the 
^ge of seventeen he was employed in painting the front of 
a house in fresco ; but whilst he was commencing his work, 
some Florentine painters who were actually engaged, con- 
ceived him to be a mere grinder of colours, and when he 
took up his pallet and pencils they wished to have pre- 
vented his proceeding with it, lest he should spoil the 
work, but after a few strokes of his pencil they were con- 
vinced of their mistake, and respected his singular abilities. 
Of Cangiagi, it is remarked, that he practised three dif- 
. ferent modes of painting at three different periods of his 
life. His first manner was gigantic and unnatural, which 

» L'Arocat.— Mamri, . . - . « Pilkioftoii. 

in C A N G I A G I. 


be corrected in consequence of the remonslraiices of his 
friend Aiessi^ the celebrated architect^ for his best style^^ 
in forming which he consulted nature with attention, and 
digested his thoughts in sketches, before he began to paint, 
tlis third manner was distinguished by a more rapid exe- 
cution, to which he recurred in order to make more am* 
pie provision for his wife and family, and had a great 
deal of the mannerist. His works at Genoa are very nu^ 
merous, and he was employed by the king of Spain to 
adorn part of the Escurial. 

Of his personal history, we are told that in his youth he 
was volatile, and that when bis wife died he became ena* 
moured of her sister, but could not obtain a dispensation 
from the pope to marry her, although he endeavoured to 
gain his favour by painting two fine pictures for his boli-» 
ness. When employed by Philip II. of Spain, Jbe wished 
to obtain his leave to marry the lady, but was again, nn^ 
successful, and it is supposed the disappointment contri^- 
buted to his death, which happened at the Escurial in 1 Si5. 
In the royal collection at Paris there are a ^' Sleeping Ca-» 
pid,'' as large as life, and likewise *^ Judith with her At* 
tendant,'* which do honour to this master. In the Pem^ 
broke collection at Wilton, there is a picture, represent- 
ing Christ bearing his cross, which is ascribed to Can-/ 

CANINIUS (Anoelus), a learned scholar of the six-^ 
teenth century, was a native of Anghiari in Tuscany, where 
he acquired great reputation by his knowledge, not only 
of the Greek, Latin, and Hebrew, but of the Syriac and 
other oriental languages, which he taught at Venice, Pa-* 
dua, Bologna, Rome, and Spain. From Spain be came 
to France m 1550, accompanied by fiither Simon Guicfaard, 
then superior of Uie order of the Minims ; and at Paris, he 
had for one of his scholars, the celebrated Andrew Duditb , 
of Buda. At length he attached himself to William do^ 
Prat, bishop of Clermont, in whose service he died at 
Auvergne in 1557. He was the author of some works j 

which have not appeared, but among those: published was 
a very valuable Greek grammar,, entitled '^ Uellenismus,^' 
and a book of instructions in tiie oriental languages, en« v 
titled *^ Institudones lingu»mm Syriacae, Assyriacse, et 
Thalmudicae, una cum iEthiopicss et Arabicse collatione,'' j 

I Pil|tii«lia.«-4yAiBeiiviis» vol» It 


C A W I N I U S. 175 

Paris, 1554, 4to, which was mudh esteemed by the learned 
of bis time. ^ 

CANI8IUS (Henry), or De Hondt, the nephew of 
Peter Canisius, first provincial of the Jesuits in Germany, 
who died in 1597, was born at Nimeguen^ and became not 
only a celebrated lawyer, but a general scholar of great 
reputation, particularly in ecclesiastical antiquities. After 
studying at the university of Louvain, he was appointed 
professor of canon law in that of Ingolstadt, which situa- 
tion he retained until his death in 1610. His professional 
writings were principally, 1. ** Summa juris Canonici." 
a. " Commentarium in regulas juris.'* 3. " Prselectiones 
academicfie," &c. ail collected and republished by Andrew 
Bouvet in **^ Opera Canonica Canisii,'* Louvain, 1649, 4to, 
Cologne, 1662. But the work by which he is best known 
is bis 3. << Antiquae lectiones,'* 1601 — 1603, 7 vols. 4to, 
reprinted by the tare of M. James Basnage, ujider the 
title of *' Thesaurus monumentorum ecclesiasticorum & 
historfcorum,'* &c. Amsterdam, 1725, in 7 parts, usually 
bound in 4 vols, folio. The learned editor has enriched 
them with particular prefaces at the head of each work, in- 
dicating the subject and the author, accompanied by use- 
ful tod Curious reuiarks, and some note^ of Capperonier, 
This collection comprises several pieces of great import- 
ance to the history of the middle ages, and to chronology 
in general. Basnage, ail we have noticed in his life, died 
before this. Work was entirely printed.* 

CANITZ (the Baron o^), a German poet and statesman, 
and privy counsellor of state. Was of an ancient and illus- 
trious family in Brandenburg, and bom at Berlin in 16.54, 
five months after his father's deat)i. After his early stu- 
dies, he travelled to France, Italy, Holland, and England ; 
and upon his return to his country,' was charged with im- 
portant negociatiobs by Frederic II. and Frederfc til. 
Cahitz united the statesman with the poet; and was con- 
versant in many lianguages, dead as well as living. His 
German poems were published for the tenth time, 1750, in 
8vo. He is said to have taken Horace for his model, and 
to have written purely aiid delicately; and the French bio- 
graphers complimented him with the title of the Pope of 
Germany. He not odly cultivated the fine arts himself, 

* Gen. Diet — Moreri. — Saxii Onommit 

' MQreri.-f-FoppeB BibL Belg.<— Bsillci JiifeflMni.^p-Saidt Onomast. 

176 C A N I T Z;. 

but gave all the eocouragement he could to them in others. 
He died at Berlin in 1699, highly praised for the excel- 
lence of his private character. ^ 

CANNE (John), was a leader of the Engl^h Brownists 
at Amsterdam, whither he fled on the restoration ; but 
little is known of his personal history. His employ in Eng- 
land before his flight seems to have been no other than 
compiling the weekly news, yet he found time sufficient to 
collate many passages of Scripture, from whence he drew 
his notes, which he placed in the margin of his Bible ; the 
first edit, printed in 8vo, at Amsterdam, in 1664, is the 
rarest, but the best, perhaps, is that of Edinburgh, 1727, 
8vo. In the preface be mentions a larger work, to be soon 
published, but it does not seem to have ever been printed. 
It was his opinion that the original text of scripture in 
Hebrew and Greek should be translated, as much as pos- 
sible, word for word, as Ainswortb did the Pentateuch, the 
Psalms, and Canticles,, which were all printed together in 
1639, folio. Ganne succeeded Ainsworth as preacher to 
the congregation of Brownists at Amsterdam. * 

CANO (Alonso), a Spanish artist, and styled the Mi- 
chel Angelo of Spain, because he excelled in painting, 
sculpture, and architecture, was born in the city of Gre- 
nada in 1600, where his father, an eminent architect, edu- 
cated him in his own profession, and when his instructions 
in this branch were completed, he applied himself to the 
study of sculpture, and made an uncommon progress in a 
very short time. He next went to Seville, and for eight 
months studied i\nder Pacheco, and afterwards under Juan 
del Castillo, in whose academy he executed many noble 
paintings for the public edifices in Seville, and at the s^me 
time gave some specimens of his excellence in statuary, 
which were highly admired, particularly a " Madonna and 
Child/' in the great church of Nebriga, and two colossal 
figures of San Pedro and San Pablo. Count Olivarez was 
the means of his coming to Madrid, where he was made 
first royal architect, king's painter, and preceptor to the 
prince, don Balthazar Carlos of Austria. jHere, as archi- 
tect, he projected several additional works to the palaces, 
some public gates to the city, and a triumphal arch erected, 
on the entrance of Mariana, second queen to Philip IV, 
As a painter, he executed many celebrated compositions 
in the churches and palaces of Madrid. 

I Diet Hist. • Neai's PuriUns.— Crosby's Hist, of the Baptists. 

GANG. 177 


While in the height of his fame an event happened which 
involved him in much trouble. Returning home one even- 
ing, he discovered his wife murdered, his house robbed, 
while an Italian journeyman, on whom the suspicion na- 
turally fell, had escaped. The criminal judges held a 
court of inquiry, and having discovered that Cano had been 
jealous of this Italian, and also that he was known to be 
attached to another woman, they acquitted the fugitive 
gallant, aud condeniined the husband. On this he fled to 
Valencia, and being discovered there, took refuge in a 
Carthusian convent about three leagues from that city, 
where he seemed for a time determined upon taking the 
order, but afterwards was so imprudent as to return to 
Madrid, where he was apprehended, and ordered to be 
put to the torture, which he suffered without uttering a 
single word. On this the king received him again into fa- 
vour, and as Cano saw there was no absolute safety but 
within the pale of the church, he solicited the king with 
that view, and was named residentiary of Grenada. The 
chapter objected to his nomination, but were obliged to 
submit, and their church profited by the appointment, 
many sculptures and paintings being of his donation. The 
last years of his life he spent in acts of devotion and cha- 
rity. When he had no money to bestow in alms, whiqh 
was frequently the case, he would call for paper, and give 
a beggar a drawing, directing him where to carry it for 
sale. To the Jews he bore an implacable antipathy. On 
his death-bed he would not receive the sacraments from a 
priest who attended him, because he had administered 
them to the converted Jews ; and from another he would 
not accept the crucifix presented to him in his last mo- 
ments, telling him it was so, bungling a piece of work that 
he could not endure the sight of it. In this manner died 
Alonso Cano, at the age of seventy-six, in 1676 ; a circum- 
stance, says^ his biographer, which shows that his ruling 
passion for the arts accompanied him in the article of death, 
superseding even religion itself in those moments when 
the great interacts of salvation naturally must be supposed to 
occupy the mind to the exclusion of every other idea. 

In his early days, as he was of a noble family, he dis- 
dained to accept pay for his productions, declaring that he 
worked for fame and practice, and that he considered him- 
self as yet so imperfect in his art, that he could not in 
conscience admit of any recompence^ As he acdvanced, 

Vol. VIII. N 

- 178 CAN O. 

however, he had no scrapie in accepting the just reward of 
his merit; and the following anecdote, related by Mr. Cum- 
berland, will show his spirit in asserting what was his due. 
A counsellor of Grenada having refused to pay the sum of 
one .hundred pistoles for an image of St. Antony of Padua, 
which Cano had made for him, he dashed the saint into 
pieces on the pavement of his academy, while the coun- 
sellor was reckoning up how many pistoles per day Cano 
had earned whilst the work was in hand. " You have been 
twenty-five days carving this image of St. Antony," said 
the counsellor, "and the purchase-money demanded being 
one hundred, you have rated your labour at the exorbitant 
price of four pistoles per day, whilst I, who am a coun- 
sellor, and your superior, do not make half your profits 
by my talents." — " Wretch !" cried the enraged artist, 
** to talk to me of your talents^ — I have been fifty years 
learning to make this statue in twenty-five days ;" and so 
saying, flung it with the utmost violence upon the pave* 
menc. The affrigl;ted counsellor escaped out of the hous^ 
in terror. For this proiunation, however, of the image 
of a saint, he was suspended from his function by the 
chapter of Grenada, and was not restored by the king until 
he had finished a magnificent crucifix, which the queen 
had ordered, but which he had long neglected. 

In Mr. Fuseli's opinion, Cano excelled, as a painter^ 
with the single exception of Velasquez, all his contemn 
poraries, and yet seems to have owed his superiority ep- 
tirely to nature : his design is correct, his arrangements 
happy, and his colour charming. As a sculptor, he gives 
evident proofs of having studied the antique by the dig- 
; nity of his forms, the grandeur of his drapery, and ele- 

gance of taste. In architecture he was too loaded, too 
ornamental, and swayed by the fashion of the day. With 
I such talents he connected a whimsical character, and, as 

I the master of a school, scarcely left a pupil that rose above 

mediocrity. A catalogue of his nearly endless works may 
be found in Bermudez. * 

CANON, or CANONICUS (JoHN),^y some called 
MaebR£S, an English Franciscan monk, and an able Aristo- 
telian of the fourteenth century, studied some time at 
Oxford, from which he removed to Paris, where he be- 
came a pupil of Duns Scotus, whom, says Pits, he long 

^ Cumberland's AB«odott9 of Painters ia Spaiii.--PUkiBgtoiw 

CANON. 17« 


attended, and alwap imitated. He returned afterwards t0 
Oxford, and there taught theology to the time of his deaths 
which, according to Dupin, happened about the year 1340* 
DupiQ also says that he was a doctor of divinity of Paris* 
He was particularly learned in the Aristotelian philosophy^ 
and in civil and canon-*law. In Lincoln college library, 
Oxford, is one of his manuscripts, to which are prefixed 
many verses in honour of Mm, and in one of them he is 
styled " Alter Aristoteles." His published works are, U 
** In Aristotelis Physica, Lib. VIIL" printed at St. Alban's 
in 1481, 8vo, and reprinted at Venice 1481, 1492, and 
1505., 2. " Lecturae magistrales ; Lib. L Questiones dis- 
putatae. Lib. L QuaBstiones dialectices. Lib. L'* printed 
with the former at Venice, 1492 and 1516. ^ 
. CANTACUZENUS (John), emperor of Constantinople, 
and a celebrated Byzantine historian, was born at Con- 
stantinople about the year 1295, of a very ancient and 
noble family ; his father being governor of Peloponnesus, 
and his mother a near relation of the emperor's. He was 
fcred-to letters and to arms, and afterwards to the highest 
offices of state, in which he acquitted himself in such a 
manner as to gain the favour of both court and city. He 
was made prefect of the bedchamber to the emperor An- 
dronicus the elder, but lost his favour about 1320, by 
addicdng himself too much to the interest of his grand- 
son Andronicus. In 1328, when the grandson seized. the 
empire, he loaded Cantacuzenus with wealth and honours ; 
made him generalissimo of his forces ; did nothing without 
consulting him ; and fain would have joined him with him- 
self in the government^ which Cantacuzenus refused. In 
1341 Andronicus died, and left to Cantacuzenus the care 
of the empire, till his son John Paleologus, who was then 
but nine years of age, should be fit to take it upon himself: 
which trust he discharged very diligently and faithfully. 
Bnt the empress dowager, the patriarch of Constantinople, 
and some of the nobles, soon growing jealous and envious 
of Cantacuzenus, formed a party against him, and de- 
clared him a trtitor : upon which a great portion of the 
fiobility and army besought him to take the empire upon 
himself, and accordingly be was crowned at Hadrianopolis 
in May 134£. A civil war raged for five years, and Can- 
tacussenua was conqueror, who, however, came to the foU 

1 Bale, Pits, .and Tanner, 
N 2 

130 C A N T A C U Z E N U S. 

lowing terms of peace with John Paleologiis ; viz. that him- 
self should be crowned, and that John should be a partner 
with him in the empire, though not upon an equal footing; 
till he should arrive at years sufficient. He gave him also 
his daughter Helen, to whom he had formerly been- en- 

faged, for a wife; and the nuptials were celebrated in 
Iiiy 1347. But suspicions and enmities soon arising be- 
tween the new emperors, the war broke out again, and 
lasted till John took Constantinople in 1355. A few dayi 
after that city was taken, Cantacuzenus, unwilling to con- 
tinue a civil war any longer, abdicated his share of the 
empire, and retired to a monastery, where he took the 
habit of a monk, with the new name of Joasaphus, and 
spent the remainder of his life in study and writing. His 
wife retired also at the same time to a nunnery, where she 
changed her own name Irene for the new one of Eugenia. 

How long he lived in this retirement, and when he died, 
is not very certain ; but it is agreed by all, that he lived 
a very long time in it, and it is supposed by some, that he 
did not die till 1411, when he was 100 years of age, or 
upwards. Others, with considerable probability, place his 
death on Nov. 20, 1411. In this place, however, he wrote 
^ history of his own times, in four books, or rather of the 
timfes in which he was engaged in worldly affairs ; since 
the period it includes is only from 1320 to 1355. He was 
a very proper person to relate the transactions within this 
period, because he was not only an eye-witness of what 
was done, but himself the orderer and doer of a great part : 
upon which account Vossius has not scrupled to prefer him 
to all the Byzantine historians. A Latin translation of this 
history, from the Greek manuscript in the duke of Bavaria's 
library, was published by Pontanus at Ingolstadtin 1603 ; 
and afterwards at Paris 1645, a splendid edition in three 
volumes folio of the Greek from the MS. of M. Seguier, 
chancellor of France, with Pontanus's Latin version, and 
the notes of him and Gretser. 

Besides this history, he wrote also some theological 
works, particularly an apology for the IJhristian religion 
against that of Mahomet, in four books: this he did at the 
request of a monk and friend of his, who bad been so- 
licited by a mussulman of Persia to desert Christianity,, and 
• embrace Mahonietanism. In this he does not content him- 
self with replying to the particular objection of the mus- 
sulman to Christianity^ but writes a general defence of it 


« t 

ligainst the Koran. He calls himself Chrbtodulus as a 
writer. This apdogy was printed in Greek and Latin at 
Basil, 1543) by fiibliander and Gualtharus, from Greek MSS. 
Gibbon, in his " Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire," 
says, that the name and situation of the emperor John Can* 
tacuzenus) might inspire the most lively curiosity. His me-* 
morials of forty years extend from the revolt of the younger 
Andronicus to his own abdication of the empire ; and it is 
observed, that, like Moses and Caesar, he was the principal 
actor in the scenes which he describes. But in this elo-* 
quent work, " we should vainly seek the sincerity of an 
hero or a penitent. Retired in a cloister from the vices 
and passions of the world, he presents not a confessioni 
but an apology, of the life of an ambitious statesman. In* 
stead of unfolding the true counsels and characters of men, 
he displays the smooth and specious surface of events, 
highly yarnishQd with his own praises and those of his 
friends. Their motives are always pure ; their ends always 
legitimate ; they conspire and rebel without ^.ny views of 
interest; and the^ violence which they inflict or sutfer is 
celebrated as the spontaneous effect of reason and virtue." * 
• CANTARINI (HiMONE), a painter and engraver, called 
often from his native place da Pesaro, was born in 1612, 
and was a pupil of Pandolfi. Alter, proving himself, by 
the picture of St. Peter at Fano, less an imitator of Guido 
than bis equal, he entered bis school at Bologna more as a 
rival than as a pupil: the humility which he had affected 
at his entrance, soon dissolved in a proud display of his 
powers; and the modest student became the supercilious 
censor of his companions, and of the master himself. From 
the general disgust, which the insolence of this conduct 
had excited, Cantarini fled to Rome, and for some time 
studied RafFaello and the antiques. When he returned to . 
Bologna, where he taught, and from thence to the court 
of Mantua, his powers seemed to smooth the road to new 
success ; but fear of those whom he had provoked by 
arrogance or invective, with the mortiH cation of having 
failed in the portrait of the duke, impaired his health and 
drove him to Verona, where he died in 164S, in his thirty- 
sixth year, not without suspicion of having being poisoned 
by a painter of Mantua, whom he had reviled. Cantarini 

* Univ. History. — Moreri in art, John.-^VMsius de Hist Qrsc. — Cave vol. II* 
— Saxii Onomast. 

182 C A N T A R I N L 

is not equal to Guido, because the most perfect imitator of 
a style cannot be called equal to its inventor : but the on* 
ginal beauties which he added, of conception and execu- 
tion, raise him above all the pupils of that school. If his 
ideas have less dignity, they are, perhaps, more graceful 
than those of Guido : if he has less compass of knowledge, 
he has more accuracy, and no rival in the finish of the 
extremities. The heads of his saints have been called pro- 
digies of beauty and expression. Sir Robert Strange had 
a picture of Cantarini's, " Our Saviour standing on the 
Globe, attended by Cherubiras," which, he says, is no- 
thing inferior to Guido, inimitably coloured; the compo- 
sition extremely agreeable, and the whole apparently 
painted with great facility. Cantarini etched with great 
spirit. Strutt enumerates some of his works in this manner. * 

CANTEL (Peter Joseph), a man of considerable learn- 
ing ip classical criticism, was born Nov. 1, 1645, in the 
diocese of Rouen, and entered the society of the Jesuits in 
1664, completing his vows in 1679. His immoderate and 
incessant application to study, operatif»g upon a delicate 
constitution, shortened his days, and he died in the Jesuits^ 
college at Paris, Dec. 6, 1684. He w^asone of the French 
literati employed in preparing the Delphin classics, and 
edited Justin in 1677, 4to, and Valerius Maximus in 1679, 
enriched with six dissertations, on the names, families, 
magistrates, &c. of the Romans. He published aisoj I. 
'^ De Romana Repiiblica, de re militari et civili Romano- 
rum,'' Paris, 1684, 12mo, and thrice reprinted at Utrecht, 
1691, 1696, 1707, the last with plates, taken from Justus 
Lipsius and Onuphrius Panviniusv This has always been 
considered as an excellent abridgment of the Roman anti* 
quities. 2. " Metropolitanarum urbium historia civilis et 
ccclesiastica, tomus primus, &c." Paris, 1.684, 8vo.' 

CANTEMIR (Demetrius), of an illustrious family in 
Tartary, and prince of Moldavia, was born in 1673. His 
father, who was 'governor of the three cantons of Moldavia, 
became prince of this province in 1664. Demetriiis, being 
sent early to Constantinople, flattered himself with the 
prospect of succeeding him ; but was supplanted by a rival 
at the Porte. Being sent in 1710 by the Ottoman minister 
to defend Moldavia against the czar Peter, he delivered 

» Pilkington. — Slrutl.— IVArgeiiviUe, toI. II.— Sir R. Strauge's Catalogue, 
s Moreri. — Saxii Oaomasticon. 

C A N T E M I R. ua 

it up to that monarch ; and, following his new master 
through his conquests, indemnified himself for all he had 
lost ; for he obtained the title of prince of the empire, with 
full power and authority over the Moldavians, who quitted 
their country to attach themselves to his fortunes. He 
died, 1723, in his territories 6f the Ukraine, much la- 
mented. He was studious and learned, and is said to have 
understood eleven languages. He wrote in Latin a " His- 
tory of the Growth and Decay of the Ottoman Empire," 
A. D. 1300 — 1683, which was published in an English 
translation by Tindal, Lond. 1734, fol. Gibbon says it con- 
tains strange blunders in Oriental history, though he ac- 
knowledges that the author was conversant with the lan- 
guage, annals, and institutions of the Turks. His "Sys- 
tem of the Mahometan Religion'' was written and printed 
in the Russian language, by order of czar Peter ; his moral 
dialogues entitled " The World and the Soul," were 
printed in Moldavia in Greek and Moldavian ; " The pre-» 
sent state of Moldavia" was printed in Latin; his " Musical 
Airs with Turkish Words," and " An Introduction to Mu- 
sic," in Moldavian. He was also the author of other pieces, 
which were either lost in his shipwreck, or still remain 

CANTEMIR (Antiochus), son of the above, was born 
in 1710. The most skilled at Petersburg in mathematics, 
physics, history, morality, and polite literature, were em- 
ployed to continue those lectures, which his father had be- 
gun to give him. The academy of Petersburg opened 
their gates to him, and the ministry initiated hini into 
affairs of state. Successively ambassador to London and 
Paris, he was equally admired as a minister and man of 
letters. On his return to Russia, he conducted himself 
with most consummate wisdom and prudence, during the 
different revolutions which agitated t,hat country. This ac-^ 
complished person died in 1744. The Russians before him 
bad nothing in verse but some barbarous sougs : he was the 
first who introduced any civilized poetry among them. 
Besides a translation of Anacreon and the epistles of Ho- 
race, he gave them of his own, satires, odes, and fables. 
He made several foreign works known to them ; as, 1. The 
Plurality of worlds. 2. The Persian letters. 3. The dia- 
logues of Algarotti upon light, &c. : and he printed a^ 

1 Moreri. — Gibbon's Hist. 

184 C A N T E M I R. 

** Concordance to the Psalms" in the Russian language/ 
The abb6 de Guasco, who translated his Satires, has writ* 
ten his life. * 

CANTERUS (William), an eminent linguist and phi- 
lologer, was born at Utrecht of an ancient and reputable 
family in 1542; and educated in the belles lettres under 
the inspection of his parents, till he was 1 2 years of age. 
He was then sent to Cornelius Valerius at Louvain, with 
whom he continued four years ; and gave surprising proofs 
of his progress in Greek and Latin literature, by writing 
letters in those languages, by translations, and by drawing 
up some dramatic pieces. Having an uncommon taste for 
the Greek, he removed in 1559 from Louvain to Paris, for 
the sake of learning that language more perfectly from 
John Auratus, under whom he studied till 1562, and then 
was obliged to leave France on account of the civil wars. 
He travelled next into Germany and Italy, and Visited the 
several universities of those countries ; Bononia particu- 
larly, where he became known to the famous Carolus 
Sigonius, to whom he afterwards dedicated his eight books 
" Novarum Lectionum." Venice he had a great desire to 
see, not only for the beauty and niagnificence of the place, 
btit for the opportunity he should have of purchasing ma- 
nuscripts ; which the Greeks brought in great abundance 
from their own country, and there exposed to sale : and 
from Venice he purposed to go to Rome. But, not being 
able to bear the heat of those regions, he dropped the 
pursuit of his journey, and returned through Germany to 
Louvain, where in about eight years* time excessive study 
brought on a lingering consumption, of which he died in 
li75, when he was only in his 33d year. Thuanus says, 
that he deserved to be reckoned among the most learned 
men of his age ; and that he would certainly have done! 
great things, if he had not died so very immaturely. He 
understood six languages, besides that of his native coun- 
try, viz. the Latin, Greek, Hebrew, French, Italian, and 

It may justly seem a matter of wonder, how in so short 
a life a man could go through so many laborious tasks ; 
and no less matter of curiosity to know how he contrived 
to do it. Melchior .Adam hasf given us some account of 
diis : and according to him, Canterus was, in - the firs^ 

I Diet. Hut. 

C,A N T E R U S. 185 

place, very temperate and abstemious in point of diet. 
He always began his studies at seven in the morning, and 
not sooner, because early rising did not agree with him; 
and pursued them very intensely till half past eleven. 
Then he walked out for an hour before dinner; and, after 
he had dined, walked for another hour. Then, retiring to 
his study, he slept an hour upon a couch, and after that 
resumed his studies, which he continued till almost sun-set 
in winter, and seven in summer. Then he took another 
hour^s walk; and, after returning again to his studies, 
continued them till midnight' without interruption. These 
last Hours of the day were not however devoted by him to 
severe study, but to writing letters to his friends, or any 
other business that required less labour and attention. In 
these habits, Canterus was both assiduous and constant ; 
and his studies were conducted with as much form and 
method, as if he himself had been a machine. He had not 
only his particular hours for studying, but he divided those 
by an hour-glass, some of which he set apart for reading, 
ethers for writing ; and as he tells us himself in a preface 
to his Latin translation of Stoboeus, he never varied from 
his established method on any account whatever. During 
bis short life, he collected a most excellent and curious 
library; not only full of the best authors in all the lan- 
guages he understood, but abounding* with Greek manu- 
scripts, which he had purchased in his travels, and which, 
if death had spared him, he intended to have published 
with Latin versions and notes. He could have said with An- 
toninus, that " nothing was dearer to him than his books :" 
his inordinate love of which exposed him to a most severe 
trial, when a sudden inundation at Louvain greatly da- 
maged, and had like to have destroyed his whole library. 
This happened in the winter of 1573, and was such an af- 
fliction to him, thatj as Melchior Adam says, it would cer- 
tainly have killed him, if his friends had not plied him 
with proper topics of consolation, and assisted him in 
drying and restoring his books and manuscripts. 

His writings are purely philological and critical, as, 
1. ^^ Novarum lecticSnum libri octo," Basil, 1564, and an, 
icnpraved edition 1571, 8vo. 2. " Syntiagnia de ratione 
emendandi Grsecos autores," printed in the last mentioned 
edition of the former. 3. Not©, scholia, emendationes; & 
explicationes in Euripidem, Sophoglem, JEschylum, Ci- 
peronem, Propertium, Ausonium, Arnobium, &c. besides 


a book of various readings in several MSS. of tbe ^eptai^ 
^int, and a great many translations of Greek authors. 

His brother Theodore was also a classical scholar, and 
editor of many annotations and criticisms, some of which 
are in Gruter^s Thesaurus. Burman has given a very am** 
pie catalogue of the writings of both these learned brothers. ' 

CANTON (John), an ingenious natural philosopher, 
was born at Stroud, in Gloucestershire, July 31, 1713; 
and was placed, when young, under the care of a Mr. 
Davis, of the same place, a very able mathennitician, with 
whom, before he attained the age of nine years, he had 
gone through both vulgar and decimal arithmetic' He 
then proceeded to the mathematics, and particularly to 
algebra and astronomy, wherein he made a considerable 
progress, when his father took him from school, and pj3t 
him to learn his own business, that of a broad-cloth weaver^ 
but this circumstance did not damp his zeal for the acqui- 
sition of knowledge. All his leisure time was devoted to 
tbe assiduous cultivation of astronomical science ; and, by 
the help of the Caroline tables, annexed to Wing^s astro* 
nomy, he computed eclipses of the moon and other ph»- 
nomena. His acquaintance with that science he applied^ 
likewise, to the constructing of several kinds of dials. But 
the studies of our young philosopher being frequently pur- 
sued to very late hours, his father, fearing that they would 
injure his health, forbade him the use of a candle in bis 
chamber, any longer than for the purpose of going to bed, 
and would himself often see that his injunction was obeyed. 
The son's thirst of knowledge was, however, so great^ that 
it made him attempt to evade the prohibition, and to jfind 
means of secreting his light till the family had retired to 
rest ; when he rose to prosecute undisturbed his favourite 
pursuits. It was during this prohibition, and at these 
hours, that he computed, and cut upon stone, with no 
better an instrument than a common knife, tbe lines of a 
large upright sun-dial ; on which, besides the hour of the 
day, were shewn the rising of the sun, his place in the 
ecliptic, and some other particulars. When this was finished, 
and made known to bis father, he pernritted it to be placed 
against the front of his house, where it excited the admi« 
ration of several gentlemen in the*neighbourhood, and in-» 
troduced young Mr. Canton to their acquaintance, which 

* Moreri. — Foppen Bibl. Belf. — Burmanni Trajectum erudilum. — Blount's 
Censureu^-'^Saxu Onomast. 



was fottovved by the offer of the use of their libraries. In' 
the library of one of these gentlemen, he found Martin's 
Philosophical Grammar, which was the first book that gave* 
him a taste for natural philosophy. In the possession of 
another gentleman, a few miles from Stroud, he first saw 
a pair of globes ; an object that afforded him uncommon' 
pleasure, fiova the great ease with which he could solve 
those problems he had hitherto been accustomed to com-' 
pute. The dial was beautified a few years ago, at the ex- 
pence of the gentlemen at Stroud ; several of whom had 
been his schooUfellows, and who continued still to regard 
it as a very distinguished performance. Among other per- 
sons with whom he became acquainted in early life, was 
the late reverend and ingenious Dr. Henry Miles of Tooth- 
ing, a learned member of the royal society, and of ap* 
proved eminence in^natural knowledge. This gentleman^ 
perceiving diat Mr. Canton possessed abilities too promis- 
ing to be confined within the narrow limits of a country 
town, prevailed* on his father to permit him to come to 
London. Accordingly he arrived at the metropolis March 
4, 1737, and resided with Dr. Miles, at Tooting (who, it 
may here be noticed, bequeathed to him all his philoso« 
phical instruments), till the 6th of May following; when 
be articled himself, for the term of five years, as a clerk 
to Mr. Samuel Watkins^ master of the academy in Spital- 
square. In this situation, bis ingenuity, diligence, and 
good conduct were so conspicuous, that, on the expiration 
of bis clerkship, in the month of May 1742, he was taken 
into partnership with Mr. Watkins for three years ; which 
gentleman he afterwards succeeded in SpitaUsquare, and 
there continued during his whole life. On December 25, 
1744, he married Penelope, the eldest daughter of Mr. 
Thomas Colbrooke, and niece to James Colbrooke, esq. 
banker in London. 

Towards the end of the year 1745, electricity, which 
seems early to have engaged Mr. Canton^ s notice, received 
a very capital improvement by the discovery of the famous 
Leyden phial. This event turned the thoughts of most of 
the philosophers of Europe to that branch of natural phi- 
losophy ; and our author, who was one of the first to re- 
peat and to pursue tKe experiment, found his assiduity 
and attention rewarded by many capital discoveries. To- 
wards the end of 1749 he was concerned with his friend, 
the late ingenious Benjamin Robins, esq. in making expe- 

188 CANTON. 

nimemts in order to determine to what herglit rockets may 
be made to ascend, and at what distance their light maj 
be seen. On January 17, 1750, was read at the royal 
society, Mr. Canton's method of making artificial magnets, 
without the use of, and yet far superior to, any natural 
ones. This paper procured him, March 22, 1750, the 
honour of being elected a member of the society ; .and, on 
the St. Andrew's day following, the farther honour of re- 
ceiving the most distinguished testimony of their appro* 
batlon, in the present of their gold medal. On April 21, 
in the same year, he was complimented with the de- 
gree of M. A. by the university of Aberdeen ; and, on No- 
vember 30, 1751, was chosen one of the coitncilof the 
royal society. 

In 17^2, when the act passed for changing the ,st3He, 
Mr. Canton gs^ve to the earl of Macclesfield several memo- 
rial canons for finding leap-year, the dominical letter, the. 
epact, i&c. This he did with the view of having them in- 
serted in the common-prayer book; but his happened to 
be too late in his communication, the form in which they 
now stand having been previously settled. These .canons, 
with an explication of the reasons of the rules,' were after- 
yards given to the rev. Dr. Jennings, who inserted them 
in his " Introduction to the use of the Globes." 

On July 20, 1752, our philosopher was so fortunate as to 
be the first person in England, who, by attracting the elec- 
tric fire from the clouds during a thunder storm, rerified 
Dr. Franklin's hypothesis of the similarity of lightning and 
electricity. Dec. 6, 1753, his paper, entitled, "Electri- 
cal experiments," with an attempt to account for their se- 
veral phenomena, was read at the Royal Society. In the 
same paper Mr. Canton mentioned his having discovered, 
by a great number of experiments, that some clouds were 
in a posi^ve, and some in a negative state of electricity. 
Dr. Franklin, much about the same time, made the like 
discovery in America. This circumstance, together with 
our author's constant defence of the doctor's hypothesis,- 
induced that eminent philosopher, immediately on bis ar- 
rival in England, to pay Mr. Canton a visit, and gave rise 
to a friendship which ever after continued without inter- 
ruption or diminution. On November 14, 1754, was read 
at the royal society, a letter to the right honourable the. 
earl of Macclesfield, concerning some new electrical ex- 
periments. On St. Andrew's day, 1754, he was a second time 
elected one of the council of the royal society for the year 

CANTON. 18f 

ensuing. In the Lsuly^s Diary for 1756, our author an-)- 
swered the prize question that had been proposed in the 
preceding year. The question was, " How can what we 
call the shooting of stars be best accounted for; what is the 
substance of this phsenomenon ; and in what state of the 
atmosphere doth it most frequently shew itself?'' The sor 
lution, though anonymous, was so satisfactory to his friend 
'Mr. I'homas Simpson, who then conducted that work, 
that he sent Mr. Canton the prize^ accompanied with a 
Dote, in which he said he was sure that he was not mistaken 
in the author of it, as no one besides, that he knew of^ 
could have au.swered the question. Our philosopher's next 
communication to the public was a letter in the Gentle- 
man's Magazine for September 1759, on the electrical 
properties of the tourmalin, in which the laws of that won- 
derful stone are laid down in a very concise and elegant 
manner. On- Dec. 13, in the same year, was read, at the 
royal society, '^ An attempt to account for the regular 
diurnal variation of the horizontal magnetic needle ; and 
also for its irregular variation at the time of an aurora bo- 
realis." A complete year's observations of the diurnal va- 
riations of the needle are annexed to the paper. On 
Nov. 5, 1761, our author communicated to the royal so- 
ciety an account of the transit of Venus, June 6, 1761, 
observed in Spital-square. Mr. Canton's next communi-^ 
cation to the society was a letter addressed to Dr. Benja- 
min Franklin, and read Feb. 4, 1762, containing some re- 
marks on Mr. Delaval's electrical experiments. On De- 
cember 1 6, in the same year, another curious addition was 
made by him to philosophical knowledge, in a paper en-i 
titled, " Experiments to prove that water is not incom- 
pressible." These experiments are a complete refutation 
of the famou^ Florentine experiment, which so many phi- 
losophers have mentioned as a proof of the iucompressibi- 
lity of water. On St. Andrew's day, 1763, oqr author was 
the third time elected one of the council of the royal so- 
ciety ; and on Nov. 8, in the following year, were read, 
before that learned body, his farther experiments and ob- 
servations on the compressibility of water, and some other 
fluids. The establishment of this fact, in opposition to the 
received opinion, formed on the hasty decision of the 
Florentine academy, was thought to be deserving of the 
society's gold medal.. It was accordingly moved for in the 
council of 1764 J and after several invidious debys; which 


C A N T 6 N- 

teraiinated much to the honour of Mr. Canton, it was pre» 
seated to him Nov. 30, 1765. 

The next communication of our ingenious author to the 
royal society, which we shall take notice of in this piace^ ^ 
was on Dec. 22, 1768, being " An«asy method of mak- 
ing a phosphorus, that will imbibe and emit light like the 
£oJognian stone; with experiments and observatioos.'* 
.When he first shewed to Dr. Franklin the instantaneous 
-light acquired by some of this phosphorus from the near 
discharge of an electrified bottle, the doctor immediately 
exclaimed, ^^ And God said, Let there be light, and there 
was light !" The dean and chapter of St. Paul's having, 
in a letter to the president, dated March 6, 1769, requested 
the opinion of the royal society relative to the best and 
most effectual method of fixing electrical conductors to 
preserve that cathedral from damage by lightning, Mr. 
Canton was one of the committee appointed to take the 
letter into consideration, and to report their opinion upon 
it. The gentlemen joined with him in this business were 
Dr. Watson, Dr. Franklin, Mr. Delaval, and Mr. Wilson* 
-Their report was made on the 8th of June following ; and 
the mode recommended by them has been carried into exe- 
cution. This will probably contribute, in the most effec- 
-tual manner, to preserve the noble fabric of St. Paul's 
from being injured by lightning. The last paper of our 
author's, which was read before the Royal Society, was on 
Dec. 21, 1769 J and contained experiments to prove that 
the luminousness of the sea arises from the putrefaction of 
its animal substances. In the account now given of his 
communications to the public, we have chiefly confined 
ourselves to such as were the most important, and which 
threw new and distinguished light on various objects in the 
philosophical world. Besides these, he wrote a number 
of papers, both in earlier and in later life, which appeared 
in several different publications, and particularly in the 
Gentleman's Magazine, of which a list is given in the 
note *. We may add, that he was very particular with 

* In the Ladies Diary for 1739, 
<* The time and quantity of an eclipse 
of the moon.^* In the Gentleman's 
Magazine for January 1739, " A ques- 
tion on the cause of the thunder and 
lightning which happened on the fourth 
of that month.*' Id ditto for August 
^739, «* The number of Mr. Whitfield's 
hearers calculated." In ditto for Sep- 

tember 1750, " The number of Mr. 
Whitfield's hearers justified." In this 
he estimates the number of Mr. Whit- 
field's bearers, when he preached in 
Moorfit Ids, at more than 25,000. In 
the Ladies Diary for 1740, " The tiiie 
ami quantity of two eclipses of the 
moon." In the Gentleman's Magazine 
for October 1748, « A letter to ^fr. 



regard to the neatness and elegance of his apparatus ; and 
that his address in conducting his experiments was remark- 
ably conspicuous. 

The close and sedentary life of Mr. Canton, arising 
from an unremitted attention to the duties of his profession, 
and to the prosecution of his philosophical inquiries and 
experiments, probably contributed to shorten his days. 
The disorder into which he fell, and which carried him off, 
was a dropsy. It was supposed, by his friend Dr. Milner, 
to be a dropsy in the thorax. His death was on March 
22, 1772, in the 54th year of his age, to the great regret 

Urbatt, on the remarkable variation of 
beat and cold in Fahrenheit's Ihemio- 
meter." in ditto for December 1748, 
** Observations on the common ther- 
mometer, &c." In ditto for June 1752, 
** The true length of the year deter- 
«Bined by scriptare data, in imitation 
•of the rev. Mr. John Kennedy." In the 
Philosophical Transactions, vol. XLVIL 
p. 568, *« Part of a letter to Mr. Wat- 
son, on extracting electrical fire from 
the clouds." In the supplement to 
Martin's Magazine for 1760, ** A let- 
ter to the author, on the electricity of 
a mop- stick." In the Gentleman's 
Magazine for September 1761, *' A let- 
ter signed Indagator, occasioned by a 
supposed accidental discovery of an at- 
traction between tallow and the magne- 
tic needle, mentioned in the preceding 
Magazine for August." In ditto for 
November 1761, '* Another letter sign' 
«d Indagator, occasioned by Mr. Chap- 
pie's in that for October, on the sup- 
posed attraoti(Hi between tallow, &c«" 
In the Gentleman's Magazine for De- 
cember of the same year, Mr. Chappie 
takes notice* of a letter sent to him at 
Powderham Castle, near Exeter, against 
his imagined attraction between tallow 
and the magaetic needle, signed Ami- 
cus. This came from the same hand as 
those signed Indagator. In the Ga- 
zetteer for June the 8th, 1764, « A 
letter to the printer^ coneeming the 
appearance of Venus in the day-time ; 
signed Astronomus." In the Philoso- 
phical Transactions, vol. LIV. p. 308, 
** An account of melting small bra9*< 
wire, by artificial lightning from a case 
of thirty.five bottles." In ditto, voU 
I.VI.I, p. ^03, *< Observations on the 
heat of Bath and Bristol water." In 
Pr. Owen's jenquiry into -the present 
state of tha Septuagint version of the 

Old Testament, p. 136, " A scheme 
to reconcile the fourth and fifth verses 
of the thirty-fifth chapter of the book 
of Numbers." See the appendix to 
that work, p. 174. In the Philosophi- 
cal Transactions, vol. LIX. p. 192, 
'* A letter to the Astronomer Royal, 
containing observations on the transit 
of Venus, June the 3d, 1769 j and on 
the eclipse of the sun the next morn- 
ing." In the Gazetteer for October 31, 
1770, " A card from Astronomus to 
Copernicus." When Dr. Priestley 
wrote his History of Electricity, Mr< 
Canton eommunicated to him several 
new^ experiments and observations, > 
which are inserted in that rery valua- 
ble work. They are as follows : 1. On 
electric atmospheres, with a figure, p« 
246. 2. On glass-balls hermetically 
sealed, p. 279. 0. Observations on 
^Mr. Wilson's experiment concerning 
light in vacuo, p. 289. 4. On tbo 
tourmalin, p. 305. - 5. Comparison of 
the positive and negative electricity in 
the clouds, p. 316. 6. A new method 
of electrifying the air, p. 196. 7. Gold 
and silver vitrified by the heat of elec- 
trical explosions, p. 647. 8. All the 
prismatic colours produced by electri- 
cal explosions of fine wire of different 
metals, extended over tKe surface of 
glass, p. 679. See also the Philoso- 
phical Transactions, vol. LVIII. p. 73. 
In Dr. Priestley's history of vision, &<?. 
p. 434, are observations, by our au- 
thor, on light transmitted through thick 
and thin substances. We might add, 
that Mr. Canton* in early life, wrote 
several enigmas and poems in the Lon- 
don and Gentleman's Magazines. But 
such productions, though sometioies 
the amusements of the most ingenious 
minds when yonag^ scarcely deserva 
to be particularly marked out. 

132 CANTON. 

. of hi» family, and of his literary and otlier acquaintance^ 
.Nor w^s his decease a small loss to the interests of know- 
ledge; since from the time of life in which he died, an4 
his happy and successful genius in philosophical pursuits^ 
he might have been expected to have enriched the world 
of science with new discoveries. Mr. Canton was a |nai^ 
of very amiable character and manners. In conversation 
be was calm, mild, and rather sparing than redundant : 
what he did say was remarkably sensible and judicious. 
He had much pleasure in attending the meetings of the 
Royal Society,, and some voluntary private societies of 
learned and intelligent persons, to which he belonged. By 
his wife, who survived him, he left several children His 
eldest son, Mr. William Canton^ succeeded .him in the 
academy in Spital -square, which he carried on with great 
reputation ; and he also pursued with advantage the same 
philosophical studies to which his ingenious and worthy 
father was so eminently devoted. * ' 

CANTWELL (Andrew), a native of Tipperary in Ire- 
land, lived principally in Paris, where he was made doctor 
in medicine in 1742. The same year he published a trans- 
lation into French of the account of Mrs. Stephens's medi- 
cine for dissolving the stone in the bladder; and in 1746 
an apcount of sir Hans Sloaue's medicines for diseases of 
the eyes ; also some severe strictures on the practice of 
propagating the small pox by inoculation ; and in the Phi- 
losopliical Tr:insactions, London, No. 453, an account of 
a double child, a boy. He died at Paris, July 11, 1764.* 

CANUS (Melchior), a Spanish divine, was a native of 
Taranzo, in the diocese of Toledo. He was Francis Vic- 
toria's pupil, and succeeded him in the theological chair at 
Salamanca, where he taught with reputation. Canus ap* 
peared also with great distinction at the council of Trent^ 
under Paul HI. and was made bishop, of the Canary Islands' 
1552. '^e resigned his bishopric afterwards, and was ap- 
pointed provincial of the province of Castile. He died 1 560^ 
at Toledo. His treatise *' de locis Theologicis," published 
at Padua 1727, 4 to, is very elegantly written, and is justly 
esteemed a master- piece. He is also supposed the a^uthor, 
. of " Praelectiones de PenitentiS,." He appears to have 
been a man of more liberality than might have been ^x- 
. pected from bis age and profession. Dr. Jortin quotes 

» Bk^. Brit. « Diet. Hist 

C A'lf U S- 193 

some instances of this in his *^ Remarks on Ecclesiastical 
History/' vol. II. p. 316. His whole works were printed 
at Venice in 17S9, 4to. ^ 

CANUS, or CANO (John Sebastian del), a Biscayan^ 
companion of the fimious Magellan ip his maritime espe- 
didons, passed, in company with him, about the year 1520^ 
the straits to which that celebrated navigator gave his name* 
After the death of Magellan, be reached the isles of Snnda^ 
from whence he proceeded to double the cape of Good 
Hope. He returned to Seville in 1522, after having made 
the circuit of the world by theeast, in three years and four 
weeks. Charles V. gave him for his device a terrestrial 
globe, with these words : ** Primus me circumdedisti.'* 
Care must be taken npt to confound him with James Canus^ 
a Portuguese, who, in 1484, discovered the kingdom of 

CAPACCIO, (Julius C^ssar), a historian of the sev«a« 
teenth century, was born in Campagnia, in the kingdom of 
Niqdes, of an obscure family, which was afterwards raised 
by Capaccio*s merits. He studied at Naples the civil and 
canon law, and afterwards read over the poets and histo- 
rians. Being a person of note for his learning and parts^ 
he was made secretary to the town of Naples. He was 
one of those thi^t had the greatest share in setting up the 
academy of the Otiosi. Francis de la Rovere, duke of 
Urbino, employed him in the education of the prince his 
son ; and while he was employed in this business he wrote 
most of his works. He died in 1631. His works' are: 
•^ Tratato de*i imprese ;" " II secretario, prediche quadra-^ 
gecimali;" « II principe ;" " Historia Puteolana ;'' *«His- 
toria Napolitana,'' &c. the latter are in Graevius's The- 
aaurus, but the separate editions of these, as well as of hit 
<< Iliustrium mulierum et virorum historia,'' Naples^ 1609, 
4to, are very scarce. ' 

CAPECIO (SciPio), in Latin Capvcius, a native of Na- 
ples, and a Latin poet of the sixteenth century, attempted 
to imitate Lucretms, in his poem of the " Principles of 
thing^,** Frankfort, 1631, 8vo, with considerable success. 
Cardinal Bembo and Manucius placed this work on a level 
with his model, to which high praise it is scarcely entitled* 
An edition, with an Italian translation, was given in 8VO9 

1 Moreri.-— Dupin. — ^Antonio Bibl. Hist.— Saiii Onomast > Mor«ri. 

» Iforeri.— Diet. Hiitr^FAbricii Coiiit>eciuft Thei. JLitt. Tta1i«. 

Vgfc. VIIL O 

194 C A P E C I O., 

at Venice, in 1754. He also composed elegies, epigrams^ 
and a poem ^' De Vate maximo/' i. e. St. John ^e Bap- 
tist, which Gesner, doubtless a great friend of the poet^ 
equalled with the productions of antiquity. «* 

CAPEL (Arthur, Lord) was the only son and heir of 
sir Henry Capel, who died in the flower of his age. He 
succeeded to the family estate on the death of his grand- 
father, sir Arthur, and following the example of his vir- 
tuous ancestors, was vei*y eminent for his hospitality . to 
his neighbours^ while bis great charities to the poor en- 
deared him to the hearts of the people, who chose. him to 
serve in parliament for the county of Hertford, in 1639 
and 1640. In the following year he was made a peer by 
Charles I. with the title of lord Capel, of Hadham. Upon 
the breaking out of the rebellion, he raised at his own 
charge some troops of horse, in defence of the royal cause, 
although he had at first sided with the parlialnent ; and did 
t)ot attach himself particularly to the court, untiL he saw 

- that the designs of the republicans were no longer ton- 
ducted with moderation or justice. He fought valiantly in 
many battles and skirmishes, and continued to > adhere 
loyally to his king, till his majesty's armies were dispersed, 

' his garrisons lost, and his person imprisoned, when lord 
Capel compounded with the parliamentarians, and retired 
to his manor of Hadham. Perceiving, some time after, 
the hard treatment his sovereign met with, he resolutely 
ventured again, with all the force he could r^se, to rescue 
the king from his enemies; and joining his trt)ops with 
those of lord Goring and sir Charles Lucas, underwent the « 
severest hardships in the memorable siege of Colchester, 
which was at length surrendered to general Fairfax upon 
articles' which were immediately broke ; for sir Charles 
Lucas and sir George Lisle were shot, and lord Capel sent 
prisoner to Windsor-castle. An act of attainder being or- 
dered by the house of commons to be brought in against, 
him, the house voted, Nov. 10, 164.8, that he and some 
others should be banished, but that punishment not being 
thought severe enough, he was removed to the Tower. 
Lord Clarendofl is of opinion that two or three sharp and 
bitter speeches which passed between Ireton and lord 
Capel, cost the latter his life. In .the mean time, hpw- 
6ver, he contrived to escape out of his prison, but being 

^ Moreri.'— Oen. bict.«— Diet. Hiit. 


drscovered and apprehended at Lamb^tli, on F^b. 10^ 
1649, he was brought before a pretended high court of 
justice in Westminster-hall, to be tried for treason and 
other high crimes ; and though he strenuously insisted that 
he was a prisoner to the lord general Fairfax, that he had 
conditions given him^ and was to l)five fair quarter for his 
life ; yet his plea was over- ruled. *In three days aft^r he 
was brought again before the court, when the counsel 
moved that he should be hanged, drawn, and quartered. 
This, however, was changed for beheading, and the ^o- 
tence was executed March 9. He trod the fatal stage^ 
says lord Orford, with all the dignity of valour and con- 
scious integrity. In these qualities all historians are agreed, 
if we except Mrs. Macaulay, whose hostility to the loyalists 
is rather a compliment His literary remains were pub- 
Jished in 1654, with the title " Daily observations or me- 
. dilations ; divine, moral, written by a person of honour 
and piety ;" to which are added *' Certain letters written 
to several persons,^' 4to ; and the whole were reprinted - 
afterwards in 12mo, with the title of " Excellent Contem- 
plations, &c.'' and some account of his life. Some ^' Stan- 
zas^" by lord Capel, written when he was a prisoner in 
the Tower, were inserted in the Gentleman's Magazine 
for 1757. His heart, which he had ordered to be kept, 
and deposited near the remains of his royal master, was 
afterwards placed in the family-vault at Hadham, as ap- 
pears by a letter from the late incumbent of that parish, 
Dr. Anthony Hamilton, published in the fifteenth volume 
of the ArchsBologia. * 

CAPEL (Arthur), eldest son and heir of the pre^ced- 
ing, became his successor, and notwithstanding the suffer- 
ings of bis father, his estate was uodcr sequestration ; but 
. at the restoration, he was, by Charles II. advanced to the ' 
title and dignity of viscount Maiden, and earl of Essex, 
on April 20, 1661. He also was constituted lord lieute- 
nant and custos rotulorum of the county of Hertford, on 
July 7, 1660 i and lord lieutenant of the county of Wilts, 
: during the minority of the duke of Somerset, on April 2, 
1668. In the year 1670, he was sent ambassador to Chris- 
. tian V. king of Denmark, whence he returned with high ' 
favour for having vindicated the honour of tlie British flag : 
and upon testimonies of his courage, prudence, and abili^ 

^ Biog, BriU— Park's Royal and Noble AuthorSi 


196 C A P E 1. 

ties, was sworn of the pHvy-counctl in 1672, and 
made lord-lieutenant of the kingdom of Ireland; which 
high office he exercised in that kingdom to the general 
satisfaction of the people. After his return, be, in 1678j 
with Halifa!r, and the duke of Buckingbstm, had the chief 
political influence among the lords ; yet, when tbey moved 
an address to the king to send the duke of York from 
court, ^he mstjority was against them. In 1679, he was 
appointed first and chief commissioner of the treasuiy : 
and his majesty choosing a new council, be ordered sir 
William Temple to propose it to the lord chancellor Fineb, 
the earl of Sunderland, and the earl of Essex, but to one 
after another; on which, when he communicated it to the 
earl of Essex, he said, '^ It would leave the parliament 
and nation in the dispositions to the king, that he found at 
his coming in.'' Accordingly be was sworn of that privy<* 
council on April 21, 1679, being then first lord commis^ 
tioner of the treasury ; and his majesty valued himself on 
it so, that the next day he communicated it by a speech 
to the parliament, which was agreeable to both houses : 
but not concurring with the duke of York in his measures^ 
his majesty, on November 19 following, declared in coun- 
cil, that he had given leave to the earl of Essex to resign 
his place of first commissioner of the treasury ;' yet in- 
tended that he should continue of his privy-council. Ne^ 
vertheless, soon after, being a great opposer , of the court 
measures, ahd on Jan. 25, 1680-lj delivering a, petition 
against the parliament's sitting at Oxford, he was accused^ 
with the lord Russel, of the fanatic plot, and sent pri«» 
soner to the Tower in the beginning of July, 1683. Bi« 
shop Burnet says, that a party of horse was sent to bring 
him up from his seat in Hertfordshire, where he bad been- 
for some time, and seemed so little apprehensive of dan- 
ger, that his lady did not imagine be had any concern : 
on his mind. He was offered to be conveyed away, but ' 
he would not stir: his tenderness for lord Russel was the 
cause of this, thinking his disappearing might incline tbe 
jury to believe the evidence the more. Soon aft^er his 
commitment, he was found with his throat cut, on July 
13, 1683. The cause of this is variously represented, . 
some imputing it to himself in a fit of despondency, and 
some to the contrivance of his enemies. From the evi- . 
dence examined in the Biog. Britannica^ a decision seems 

C A P E L. 197 

d^cult See ^' Bp. Burnet's late History charged iK^ith 
great partiality,'' by Mr. Braddon, 1725, 8vo. 

Sir Heory Cbauocy, in bis Antiquities of Hertfordshire^ 
says, be was a person of an agreeable stature, slender in 
body, adorned with a comely countenance, mixed with 
gravity and sweetness, and was easy of access ; his mind 
was si^date, but his discourses were generally free and 
pleasant, and his demeanour very con^laisaot > his promises 
were real and sincere ; bis reprimands smart and ingeni* 
ctts, having a quick apprehension, g<K)d elocution, sound 
judgment, great courage, and resolution unalterable : he 
was always wary and circumspect in council, where he en- 
deavoured to obstruct all arbitrary power, and the increase 
of the Popish iiuerest, having a particular regard for the 
established religion of his country ; be was very temperate 
in his diet, strict in his justice, tender of his honour, and 
constant to his friend ; be delighted much in his library, * 
which enabled him to speak on all occasions with great ap* 
plause, and would spend his vacant hours in the viewing 
of records, and learning of the mathematics. These were 
bis diversions, together with recreating himself in his fine, 
gardens and pleasant groves at Cashiobury, which were' 
of his own plantation. ^ 

CAPEL (Richard), son of Gbrietopher Capel, an al- 
derman of Gloucester,' was bom 1586 in that city, and 
after being educated there in grammar, became a com<«> 
moner of Alban hall, Oxford, in 1601, and soon after was 
elected demy of Magdalen«college. In* 1609 be was made 
perpetual fellow, being then M. A. the highest degree 
which he took at the university. While there, Wood says, 
^ his emiaence was great, and he was resorted to by noted 
men, especially of the Calvinist persuasion,*' and was tutor 
to sevend young men who afterwards rose to high reputa- 
tion, particularly Accepted Frewen, archbishop of Ifork^ 
Will. Pemble, &c. He left college on obtaining the rec-. 
toiy of Eastington in Gloucestershire, and became highly 
popular as a. plain and practical preacher, and a man oi 
exemplary life and conversation. In 1633, when the Book 
of Spor^ Qn tbe Lord's day was ordered to be read in all 
churches, be refused, and resigned his rectory. He then 
obtained licence from the bishop of Gloucester to practise 
physicy which he did with much success for some years, 

1 CoUins'fi Peerage.— Jiiog. 3rU.— -Burnet's Qiat of his own T^mtB^ 

198 C A P E L. 

residing at Pitchcomb, near Stroad, where he had ah 
estate. In the commencement of the rebellion, he was 
called to. be one of the assembly of divines, bnt did not 
accept the offer. Wood thinks he was restored to his be- 
nefice at this time, or had another conferred upon him, 
which we believe was Pitchcomb, where he died Sept. 21, 
1656, and was buried in the church there. Clarke informs 
us that for some time he attended the court of James I. 
until the death of sir Thomas Overbury, who was his par- 
ticular friend. His principal works are, 1. " Temptation^, 
their nature, danger, and cure, &c." Lond. 1650, 8vo, and 
an *^ Apology'* against some exceptions, 1659, Svo. 
2. " Remains, being an useful Appendix to the former," 
1658, Svo. His son Daniel Capel was also a divine, and, 
according to Walker, ejected from his living in Glouces- 
tershire by the Oxford visitors. He then practised physite 
at Stroud, where he died in 1679. He wrote, " Tenta- • 
raei\ medicum de variolis," and some otheir tracts. * 
; CAPELL (Edward), a gentleman well known by his 
indefatigaV)le attention to the works of Shakspeare,' was 
bom. at Troston, near Bury,. Suffolk, June 11, 1713, and 
received his education at the school of St. Edmund's Bury. 
In the dedication of his edition of Shakspeare, in 1768, to 
the duke of Grafton, he observes, that " his father and the 
grandfather of his grace were friends, and to the patronage 
of the deceased nobleman he owed the leisure which en- 
abled him to bestow the attention of twenty yeafs on that 
work." The office which his grace bestowed on Mr. Ca- 
pell was that of deputy inspector of the plays, to which a 
salary is annexed of 200/. a year. So early as the year 
1745, as Capell himself informs u^, shocked at the licen- 
tiousness of Hanmer's plan, he first projected an edition of 
Shakspeare, of the strictest accuracy, to be collated and 
publi^shed, in due time, *^ ex fifle codicum." He itniiie-* 
diately proceeded to collec*: and compare the oldest and 
scarcest copies; noting the original excellencies* and de-* 
fects of the rarest quartos, and distinguishing the improve- 
ments or variations of the first, second, and third folios. 
But while all this mass of profound criticistri was tempering 
in the forge, he appeared at last a self-armed Aristarchus, 
almost as lawless as any of his predecessors, vindicating 
bis claim to public notice by his established reputation, the 

' Ath. Ox, Ttf], IL-^Foller'B Worthies,— Clarke's Lives of Thirty ^twQ Dirio^^ 

C A P E L L. 19» 

aiudioritatlve air of his notes, and the shrewd observations^ 
as well as majesty, of his preface. His edition, however, 
was the effort of a poet, rather than of a critic ; and Mr. 
Capell lay fortified and secure in his strong holdsj en- 
trenched in the black letter. Three years after (to use his 
own language) he ** set out his own edition, in ten vo- 
lumes, small octavo, with an introduction," 1768, printed 
at the expence of the principal booksellers of London, who 
gave him 300/. for his labours. There is not, among tjhe 
various publications of the present literary aera, a. more 
singular composition than that '^ Introduction." In style 
and manner it is mare obsolete, and antique, than the age 
of which it treats. It is lord Herbert of Cherbury walking 
the new pavement in all the trappings of! romance ; but, 
like lord Herbert, it displays many valuable qualities ac-f 
companyiug this air of extravagance, tuuch sound sense^ 
and appropriate erudition. It has since been added to the 
prolegomena of Johnson and Steevena's edition. In the 
title-page of this work was also announced, ^^ Whereunto 
will be. added, in some c^her volumes, notes, critical and 
explanatory, and a body of various readings entire." The 
introduction likewise declared, tl)at these ^^ notes and va-^ 
rious readings" would be accompanied with another worky 
disclosing the sources from/ which Shakspeare " drew the 
greater part of his knowledge in mythological and classical 
matters, his fable, his history, and even the seeming pe-^ 
culiarities of his language — 'to which,** says Mr. Capell, 
" we have, given for title, The School of Shakspeare." No* 
thing surely could be more properly conceived than such 
designs, nor have we ever met with any thing better 
grounded on the subject of " the learning of Shakspeare'* 
than what may be found' in the long note to tlus part of 
Mr. Capell's introduction. It is more solid than even the 
popular essay on this topic. Such were the meditated 
achievements of the. critical knight-errant, Edward CapelL 
But, alas! art is long, and life is short. Three-and^, 
twenty years had elapsed, in collection, collation, compi- 
lation, and transcription, between the conception and pro- 
duction of his projected edition : and it then came, like 
human births, naked into the world, without notes or cQm-> 
mentary, save the critical matter dispersed through the 
introduction, and a brief account of the origin of the fables, 
of the several plays, and a table of the different editions. 
Certain quaintnesses of style, and peculiarities of printinj;^ 


^500 G A P E L t. 

aiid punotoation^ attended the whole of this pobiieatioir. 
The outline, however, was correct. The critic^ with un^ 
remitting toil, proceeded in his undertaking. But while 
he was diving into the classics of Caxton, and working hi$ 
way under ground, like the river Mole, in order to eoierge 
with all his glories; while he was looking forward to his 
triumphs; certain other active .spirits went to work upon 
his plan, and, digging out the promised tr^asures^ laid 
them prematurely before the public, defeating the eSect 
of our critic^s discoveries by anticipation^ Steevens^ Ma^ 
lone, Farmer, Percy, Reed, and a whole host of literacy 
ferrets^ burrowed into every hole and corner of the warreft 
pf modern antiquity, and overran all the country, whose 
map had been delineated by Edward Capell. Such a con^ 
tingeucy nearl}^ staggered the steady and unshaken per-^ 
severance of our critic, at the very eve of the completion 
of his labours, and, as his editor informs us^^or, atas ! at 
the end of near forty years, the publiciktion was posthu-* 
mouS) and the critic himself no m6re l-«-!^we say then, as 
his editor relates^ he was almost determined to lay the 
work Wholly aside. He persevered, however (as we learn 
from the rev. editor, Mr. Collins), by the encouragement 
of some noble and worthy persons: and to such their en^. 
eouragement, and his perseverance, the public was, in 
1783, indebted for three large volumes in 4Ao, under the 
title of ** Notes and various readings of Shakspeare; to- 
gether with the School of Shakspeare, or extracts from 
divers English books, that were in print in the author^s 
time; evidently shewing from whence bis several fabled 
were taken, and some parcel of his dialogue. Also 
farther extracts, which contribute to a due understanding 
of hi|» writings, or give a light to the history of his life, or 
to the dramatic history of bis time/' 

Besides the works already mentioned, Mr. Capeil waa 
the editor of a volume of ancient poems called ^^ Prolu- 
sions ;'* and the alteration of Anthony and Cleopatra, as 
acted at Drury-lane in 1758. He died Jan. 24, 1781. 

This lively account of Mr, Capeil, which appeared in 
the two last editions of this Dictionary, seems to be prin- 
cipally taken from an ingenious criticism in vol. XLIX. of 
the Monthly Review ; ^nd those who wish ;to investigate 
the merits of Mr. Cap^l, as an editor, at a small expence 
of time, may be referred to the other volumes of that re^ 
Tiew in which his works ^e cbaraqterised^ and to th# 

C A P E t L. soi 

Critical R^iew, vol. XLL and LVI. In vol. XLIX. of the 
Crit. Reviewr is a list of bis MSS. and printed books^ wiuch, 
he gave to Trinity college, Cambridge ; and firom a not^ 
on one of these Uiere is some reason to suspect that he >yasi 
in a considerable measure, the author of a defence of him*' 
.self, entitled f^ A Letter to George Hardinge, esq. on th^ 
subject of a passage in Mr. Steevens's Preface to his imr 
pression of Shakspeare/' 1777, 4to, unless, indeed, th^ 
gentlemanto whom the fetter was attributed, the rev. Mr» 
Collins, was disposed to flatter him beyond all reasonably 
bounds, and at the expence of his own sense and taste. Mr. 
CapeU, we are told, spent a whole life on Shakspeare ; and 
if it be true, which we are also told, that he transcribed 
the works of that illustrious poet ten times with his qwi| 
band, it is no breach of charity to add, that much of a life 
that might have been employed to more valuable purposes^ 
wAa miserably wasted,^ 

CAPELLA (Margunus MIneus Fei4X), a Latin ppet, 
lived abomit the year 490 of the vulgar sra. He is thought 
to have -been an African and proconsul. We have a poem 
of hi$ mixed with prose, entitled *^ De nuptiis Philologist 
et MeiMuirii, et de septem arcibus liberalibus." Grptiu^* 
at tjbe a^e of only fourteen years, gave a good edition of 
this production in 1599, in 8vo, with notes and corrections*- 
He i;estored numberless corrupted passages, with a sagacity, 
truly wonderful in a boy of his age. That part which 
treats of mu»c has been most noticed by inquirers intp the 
history of that art. * 

CAPELLUS, or CAPPEL (Lewis), an eminent French 
protestant and learned divine, was born at Sedan, a town, 
in Champagne, about 1579. He was professor of divinity 
and of the Oriental languages in the university of Saumur ; 
and so very deeply skilled in the Hebrew, that our learned 
bishop Hail calls him . '^ magnum Hebraizantium oraculum 
in Gallia," the greiat oracle of all that studied Hebrew in < 
France. He was the author of some very learned works ; 
but is now chiefly memorable for the controversy he had 
with the younger Buxtorf concerning the antiquity of the 
Hebrew points. Two opinions have prevailed concerning 
the true date and origin of these points ; both of which 

1 Month. «nd Crit. Rev. as above— See a note hj Mr. Malone, in the 4th 
Act of Julius Cflesar in Johnson and Stecveos's Shakspeare. 
' * Vossius. — ^Fabric. Bibl. Lat.—- Hawkins's Hist, of Music, and Pr, Barney 
In Reel's pyctopedia* 

fit)2 CAPELLUS. 

fcave been very warmly espoused. The first k, that thd 
points are coeval with the language, and were always in 
Use among the Jews : the second, that the points were not 
known to the Jews before their dispersion from Jerusalem^ 
but invented afterwards by modern rabbis to prevent the 
language, which was every day decaying, from being ut- 
terly lost ; viz. that they were invented by the Masoreth 
Jews of Tiberias, about 600 years after Christ*. This 
opinion of their late invention was taken up by Capellus, 
who defended it in a very excellent and learned treatise 
entitled " Arcanum punctuationis revelatum," &c. which 
work, after being refused a lice*nce in France and at Ge- 
neva, was printed in Holland,, and caused a great clamour 
iamong the protestants, as if it had a tendency to hurt their 
tause. It is, however, certain, that Luther, Calvin, Zuing- 
Jius, and others, had espoused the same notion as well as 
the Scaligers, Casaubons, Erpenius, Salmasius, Grotius, 
and the Heinsii ; and therefore it could not be said, that 
Capellus introduced any novelty, but only more solidly 
established an opinion, which had been approved of by the 
most learned and judicious protestants. The true reason, 
perhaps, why the German protestants in general so warmly 
opposed Capellus's opinion, was, that they had been ac- 
customed to follow that of the two Buxtorfs, whom they 
considered as oracles in Hebrew learning. Buxtorf the 
father had written a little treatise in defence of the anti- 
quity of the points ; and as Buxtorfs credit was justly 
great among them, they chose rather to rely upon his au- 
thority than to examine .his arguments, in so -abstruse an 
inquiry. Buxtorf the son wrote against Capellus, and 
Maintained his father's opinion. Capellus, however, has 
bieen generally supposed to have put the matter beyond 
any father dispute ; on which account his scholars Bochart, 
Grotius, Spanheim, Vossius, Daill^, and almost all the 

. * "That the Hebrew vowel-points proved, and never can be proved ; and 

are ancient, might he easily proved; that they are not necessary to a radical 

that they give, as near as. we can come knowledj^e of the language, every per- 

to it, the true ancient pronunciation, son knows who is at all acquainted 

is pretty clear from the Hebrew names with its nature; and lastly, that they 

retained by the Septuagint, and -by are of no importance in biblical criti- 

quotations of Hebrew in other letters cism, the unsettled controversy ctm- 

found in the primitive fathers ; and cerning them fully ascertains. The 

^at thus far tney are of i^usiderable best defence of them ever published is 

use, none of their opponents should that by Mr. Feter Whit^eld, Liverptml^ 

deny: but that they are coeval with 1748, 4to.*'-s-Pr. Xlarke's Bib!iQgi»« 

the Hebrew language h&h never been phical Dictionary, 

C A P E L' L U S. 80S 


learned in Hebrew since^ have very readily acceded to 
his opinion. 

Capellus composed another work, entitled *^ Critica 8a* 
era ;" fol. which so highly displeased the protestahts that 
they hindered the impression of it ; till John Capellas, 
who was his son, and afterwards turned papist, got leave 
of the king to print it at Paris in 1650. This work is a 
cdllection of various readings and errors^ which he thought 
were crept into the copies of the Bible, through the fault 
of the transcribers, and nnist have been a work of prodi* 
^ious labour, since the author acknowledges, that he bad 
been thitty-six years about it. The younger Buxtorf wrote 
a learned answer to it, and some English protestants have 
also appeared against it : but Grotius, on the other side^ 
very much commends it in an epistle to the author ; where 
he tells him to be content with the judicious approbation 
of a few, rather than the blind applause of many readers. 
<^ Contentus esto,'' says he, *^ magnis potius quam multis 
laudatoribus.'' Father Simon quotes a letter which Mori« 
nns wrote to cardinal Fvancis Barbarini on the subject of 
his ^^ Critica Sacra,'' in which he intimates that they would 
do Capellus a kindness in condemning his book, because it 
bad procured him the hatred of his own party ; but that 
at the same time it would be prejudicial to the Roman 
catholic cause, which those *^ Critica" were thought to 
support. This letter was printed in England, and added 
to a cdllection of letters entitled ^' Bibliotheca Orientalis." 
Capellus died at Saumur, June 16, 1658, aged almost 
eighty ; having made an abridgment of his life in his work 
** De gente Capellorum." 

It has hitherto escaped the notice of Capellus's biogra* 
phers, that England had a considerable share in his edu- 
cation. He came to Oxford in 1610, and resided for some 
time at Exeter . college, attracted by the fame of those 
eminent rectors of that house. Dr. Holland and Dr. Pri« 
deaux. Wood says that he wore a gown, and in February 
-of ^ the above year answered in certain disputations in the 
divinity school, and performed othe^ exercises in order to 
take the degree of b^helor in divinity ; but his qame does 
not appear i^i the register. In 1612, out of gratitude for 
the assistance he had enjoyed in his studies, he presented 
6ome books to the library ; and it was after his return from 
Oxford that he was appointed Hebrew professor at Saumur, 
Capellus's other works are, 1, " Historia ApostoUca. 



ittustraiay^' Genev. 1634, 4to/ in^rted aft^rwurdg in toI. 1/ 
of the '' Critici Sacri," London, 1660, fol. 2. " Spicile- 
giiim:post messem ;*' a collection of criticisms on the New 
Teifttaoieat, Gen. 1632, 4tQy and added afterwards to Ca> 
iMton^s. ^^ Myrotbecium fivangelicun^" oi' which we have- 
already mentioned Capellua was the editor. 3. ^* Dia- 
trihise duas,*' also in the Spicileginm. 4. '* Templi Hiero* 
9«d|ywitaiii Delineatio triplex,'^ in ¥oL I. of the ^^ Critici 
Sacri/* 5. ^^Ad novam Davidis lyram animadversiones^ 
Ac.'' SbIoiut. 1643, 8to. 6. ^Diatriha de ver4siet anti- 
cs Ebraeoram Uteris," Amst 1645, 12akOy in answer to 
Bvxtorf. l.^^De critica nuper a se editaj[ a4 v^t. yiriun 
IX Jacob* Usserium Armacanum in Hihetriiia Spiscopuiny 
^pbtola apologetica, in qua Amoldi Bootii temevaria Cri- 
tiose censors ref^Utur,'' Salm.* 1651, ito. His oori^espond* 
eoce with, the learned Usher may be seen in P^arr*s va- 
luable collection of letters to and from the archbishop, p. 
4,5a, 6$2^ 56a, 569, and 587. 8. <' Chronologia Ss^ora," 
Baris, 1655, 4to, reprhned afterwards amEong the prelego«^ 
imena to^ Walton's Polyglots In 1775 and 1778, a new 
edition of his ^ Oritica Sacra^'was published at Halle in 2 
vols. 6vo, by Yogel and Sdurfenberg, with, corvectioos 
and improvements. * 

< CAPIPULI (Camillas), a native of Mantua, who died 
in 154^5 made himself famous by a work entitled '^The 
Stratagems of Charles IX. against the Huguenots,'' . which 
he published in Italian at Rome, 1572, 4to, and a French 
translation was printed 1574. He describes the massacre 
0f St. Bartholomew, and relates some Tery remarkable par* 
ticulars respecting the motives and consequences Qf that 
outrage, which very naturally gave ocffence • to the Fre&ch 

• CAPILUPI (Lelio), df Mantosf, broth^^ of thjj pre- 
ceding, was a celebrated poet of the sixteenth century^ 
^o acquired great reputation by his (centos of .Viifgi]^ in 
wfaiefa he applies the expressions- of that great poet to the 
Jives of th^ monks and the public affairs of bis time* . Hi$ 
4pento against women, Venice, 1550, 8vo, is thoiigbttoo 
aatirical. Part of Capilupi's poems ^re in >the f' 0elici8e 
Poetarum Italorum/' torn. I. and they are prin^d sepa* 
jpately, 1600, 4to. He died 1560, aged sixty*tw!o. Ut 
I . ' ... 

' Moreri.— Ath. Ox. vol. I. Fasti and vol. IL Ath. — Mosheim. — Blount's Ceu- 
feUra.— Saxii Oaomast. 2 Moreri. — Gen. Diet. 

C A P I L U P I. 20* 

should be distinguished from his brotliers Hyppblitus 4nd 
JuKus Capilupi, who were also Latin poets. All their 
poems are collected in one vol. 4to, printed at Rome, 1590^ 
except the ^* Cento Virgilianos ^e Monachis/' which is 
proscribed at Rome, and o)ay be found at the end of the 
•* Regnnm Papisticum'* of Naogeorgus. ' 

CAPISTRAN (John), a Franciscan friar, was born in 
the village of Capistran in Italy, 1385, and acquired pro- 
digious reputation by his zeal, his eloquence, and the re*- 
gttlarity of his manners. He was sent into Bohemia, itk 
order to effect the conversion of the Hussites ; and he 
preached a crusade against the Turks, in Germany, in 
Hungary, and in Poland. His eloquence seconded io 
happily the valour of Hunniades, that he contributed 
greatly to the victories which the Christians gained oveir 
Mahomet, and particularly to the famous battle of Belgrade 
in 1456. These two men divided so evidently the glory 
of the victories which were gained, that it was thought' 
there was a jealousy between them ; for in the account 
which Capistran gave of the victory of Belgrade, no notice 
was taken of John Hunniades ; and the relations of the iat- 
ter dki not Qiake the least mention of' Capistran. Capisw 
tran died a little after the victory last mentioned, Oct 2Sp 
1456, and was buried at Willak in Hungary. We are 
told, that many miracles were wrought 9,t his tomb, and 
that his prayers put a stop to the miracles of a lay-brother. 
He was canonized in October 1690 by pope Alexander 
VIII. but had before been beatified by Gregory XV. 
Some very surprising effects are related of his eloquence, 
a& that he prevailed on his heai^rs to make a pile of, and 
burn, all their implements of gaming, and then take up 
arms against the Turks. He did not, however, depend 
upon his eloquence, but employed the secular arm in the 
work of conversion, and put to death those whom he found 
refractory. His body, after being buried above a century, 
was removed to another monastery when the Turks took 
Sirmisch, and afterwards, when the protestants got pos- 
session of that monastery, it was thrown into a well. His 
principal work was, " Speculum Clericorum,'* a treatise 
on the power of the pope and councils, &c. which he 
maintained in the genuine spirit of persecution, ' 

^ Mor«ri.--4acB. D|ct» ' Gen. Pict. 

206 C A P I T O.' 


CAPITO (Wolfgang Fabricius), an eminent LutheraQ 
reformer, was born at Hagenau in Alsace^ in 1478. His 
father was of the senatorian rank, and being averse to the 
lives of the^divines of his time, bad him brought up to the 
profession of physic at Basil, where he took his doctor^s 
degree, and likewise made great proficiency in other stu- 
dies. After his father's deaths however, in 1 504, he studied 
divinity, and also civil law, under Zasius, an eminent ci- 
vilian, and took a degree in that faculty. At Heidelberg 
he became acquainted with Oecolampadius, with whom he 
ever after preserved the strictest intimacy and friendship. 
On their first acquaintance t^ey studied Hebrew together 
under the tuition of one Matthew Adrian, a converted Jew^ 
and Capito then became a preacher,* first at Spire and af- 
terwards at Basil, where he continued for some years. 
From thence he was sent for by the elector Palathie, who 
made him his counsellor, and sent him on several em-p 
bassies, and Charles V. is said to have conferred upoo him 
the order of knighthood. From Mentz he followed Bucer 
to Strasburgh, where he astonished his hearers by preach- 
jng the reformed, or rather reforming religion, at St Tho- 
mas's church in that city, beginning his ministry by ex- 
pounding St. Paul's epistle to the Colossians. The fame 
of Capito and .Bucer spread so wide, that James Faber and 
Gerard Rufus were sent privately from France to hear him, 
by Margaret queen of Navarre, sister to the French king ; 
and by this means the protestant doctrine was introduced 
into France. Capito was a man of great learning and 
eloquence, tempered with a prudence which gave weight 
to his public services as well as to his^writings. In all dis- 
putes, he insisted on brotherly love and peaceable disi- 

In 1525 he was recalled into his own country where h^ 
continued to preach the reformed ^principles, and admi- 
nistered the ordinances of baptism and of the Lord's supper 
without any of the popish ceremonies. He likewise made 
frequent excursions into the neighbouring parts of Switzer- 
land, preaching and confirming the converts to the new 
doctrines. He distinguished himself particularly in a so* 
lemn disputation held at Bern, in 1528, against the mass, 
&c. and likewise at the diet at Ratisbon, in 1541, where 
be was one of the delegates from the protestants. As be 

C A P I T O. 20T 

was returning home from this last, he died of the plague, 
about the end of the year 1541, in the sixty-third year of 
his age. 

* Capito was esteemeclone of the first men of bis age for 
learning, and had a very extensive correspondence with 
his learned contemporaries. Among others, he was very 
importunate with Erasmus, to throw off the disguise, and 
appear more decidedly for the protestant religion ; but 
Oecolampadius was his principal friend, and after the death 
of that reformer, he married his widow, by whom he had 
several children. He had before married another lady of 
great literary accomplishments, who lived but a short time. 
Moreri and the editors of the Dictionnaire Historique make 
this lady to have been his second wife, and tell us that 
she would sometimes preach when he was indisposed, but 
both accounts appear improbable^ Capito left the follow- 
ing works: ** Institutionum Hebraicarum libri duo;^* 
** Enarrationes in Habacuc et Hoseam propbetas,'* Stras- 
burgh, 1526, 8vo; ** Vita Jobannis Oecolampadii ;" MDe 
formando puro Theologo ;^' ^^ Explicatio doctissima in 
Hexhameron opus Dei.^* He was also the editor of Oeco- 
lampadius^s Commentary on Ezekiel, published at 8tras« 
burgh, 1534, 4to. His life of Oecolampadius was trans- 
lated into English, and published along with those of Lu- 
ther and Zuinglius, by Henry Bennet Callesian, Lond. 
1561, 8vo.» 

CAPORALI (Cjesar), an Italian poet and governor 
of Atri in the kingdom of Naples, was born at Perugia in 
3 530. He wrote a satirical poem on courts and courtiers, 
which procured him much reputation, while his circle of 
friends and admir'ers was greatly enlarged by the vivacity 
and pleasantry of his conversation. Among the number of 
his patrons was Ascanio, marquis of Coria, at whose house 
'he died in l^OL He wrote also some poenis of the ro- 
inantie'* elass, as his <* Life of Maecenas," left unfinished, 
and two comedies, viz. ^^ Lo Seiocco," and " La Nin- 
netta," published at Venice in 1 605. A collection of his 
poemsy with the observations of his son Charles, was pub- 
iished at Venice in 1656 and 1662.^ 

* Mejehior AdBin.^-Fuller'i; Abel Redivirus. — Freheri Theatrum, 
'^ Mwie^i.— Tiralbosdii.— Erythrse.i Pinacotbeea. 

S08 C A P P E. 

CAlPPE (KEWCOMfi), a dissenting minisier of tbe Strw 
euiian persuasion, son of the rev. Joseph Oappe, minister 
of the dissenting congregation at Mill hill in Leeds, was 
born in that town Feb. 21, 1732»S, and educated for some 
time under the care of his father, whom he lost in his six-^ 
teenth year. Having at this early age discovered a predi« 
lection for nonconformity, he was placed at the academy 
of Dr. Aikin at KiLworth in Leicestershire, in 1743, and 
the next year removed to that of Dr. Doddridge at Nor- 
thampton. During his residence here he overcame some\' 
scruples that arose in his mind respecting the evidences of 
revealed religion, by examining them in the best writers 
with great attention. After passing two years at Norths 
ampton^ he wa^ deprived of the benefit of Dr. Dod* 
dridge^s instructions, who was obliged to leave England on 
account of his health, and in 1752 went to the university 
of Glasgow, where he continued three years, improving 
his knowledge with great industry and success, and form* 
ing an acquaintance with many eminent men of the day^ 
particularly Dr. Leechman, Dr. CuUc^n, Dr. Adam Smithy 
Dr. Moore, and the late Dr. Black. Having completed his 
studies, he returned in 1755 to Leeds, and within a short 
time after was chosen co-pastor, and the following year 
sole pastor of the dissenting congregation at St Savioui"- 

Sate, York. This situation he retained for forty years> 
uring which he engaged the respect and affection of his 
hearers, and was distinguished as a preacher of uncommon 
eloquence, and a man of great learning and amiable man* 
ners. In 1791 and 1793 he experienced two paralytic 
shocks, which ever after affected both his walking and his 
speech, but was enabled to employ much of his time in 
preparing those works for the press which appeared aft^ 
his death. Weakened at length by paralytic affections, he 
died Dec. 24, 1800^. He published in his life-time, 1. "A 
Sermon upon the king of Prussia's Victory at Rosbach,*' 
Nov. 5, 1757. 2. "Three Fast-day Sermons^ published 
during the American War." 3. ** A Sermon on the Thanks- 
giving-day, 1784.'* 4. ** A Fast-day Sermon, written du- 
ring the American War, but first published in 1795." 5. 
** A Sermon on the Death of the rev. Edw. Sandercock.'' 6. 
^ A selection of Psalms for Social Worship.** 7. •* Re- 
marks in vindication, of Dr. Priestley^ in answer to the 
Monthly Reviewers.'* 8. ^^ Letters published in the York 

. C A P P E. 209 

Chronicle, signed * A doughty Champion in heavy ar- 
mour,' in reply to the attack of Dr. Cooper (ander the 
signature of Erasmus) upon Mr. Lindsey on his resigning 
the living of Catterick, and ^* Discourses on the Provi-* 
dence.and Government of God/* In 1802 were published 
^^ Critical Remarks on many important passages of Scrip- 
ture, together with dissertations upon several subjects tend- 
ing to illustrate the phraseology and doctrine of the New 
Testament" To these were prefixed, memoirs of his life, 
by the editor Catherine Cappe, his second wife, 2 vols. 
8vo. The chief object of these remarks is to attack the 
Trinitarian doctrine, and to give those explanations and 
ineanings to various parts of the New Testament language 
which are adopted by the modern Unitarian school. How 
far he has been successful may be seen in our references.' 
, CAPPERONNIER (Claude), an eminent classical scho- 
lar and Greek professor, was born at Mondidier, a small 
town in Picardy, May 1, 1671. For some time bis father, 
who. was a tanner, employed |iim in that business, but he 
early contracted a fondness for reading, and even taught 
^imself, at his leisure hours, the elements of Latin. About 
the beginning of 1685, Charles de St. Leger, his uncle, a 
Benedictine of the abbey of Corbie, happening, on a visit 
to Mondidier, to discover his nephew's predilection, ad- 
vised his parents to send him to the college of Mondidier, 
where the Benedictines of Cluny then taught Latin. There 
Capperonnier studied for eighteen months, and by an un- 
common effort of diligence combined the study of Greek 
with .Latin, two languages which he considered as mutually 
aiding each other, and which he made the subject of all 
his future researches. In 1686 he continued his education 
at Amiens among the Jesuits, for two years, under father 
Lpnguemare, who observing his application to be far more 
incessant than that of his fellow-scholars, gave him private 
lessons in Greek. In 1688 he came to Paris, where at the 
seminary of the Trente-trois, he entered upon a course of 
philosophy and theology, during which he never failed to 
compare the fathers of the church with the ancient Greek 
and Roman philosophers. In 1693 and 1694 he studied 
the Oriental languages in the college of Ave-Maria, and 
in the latter year, the bishop of his diocese sent him to 

1 Life, ts above. — Monthly Kev; vol. LXIX. where his "Remarks in yittdU 
•Rtioo of Dr. Prieatley" are AaBunfd.--Brit. ^rit. yoL XXI. p. 6$. 


^10 CAPPER O N N I E R. 

the community of St. George d' Abbeville to assist the 
ecclesiaslical students in the Greek language^ and in 1695 
to that of St Valois de Monstreuil to teach humanity and 
philosophy ; but the sea air and his excessive application 
disagreeing with his health, he returned to Paris in 1696, 
took the degree of master of arts, and followed the business 
of education until he found that it interfered too much with 
his studies. Contenting himself, therefore, with the small 
profits arising from giving a few lessons, he took up his 
abode, in May ] 697, in one of the colleges, and when he 
had taken his baclielor's degree in divinity went to Amiena 
to take orders. Returning to Paris, he became a licen- 
tiate, and obtained the friendship and patronage of car- 
dinal Rohan, the abbe Louvois, and other persons of note. 
At this time, some lessons which he gave in the Greek, and 
a chapelry of very moderate income in the church of St. 
Audr6 des Arcs, were his jonly resources, with which he 
lived a life of study and temperance, defrayed the ex- 
pences of his licentiate, and even could purchase books. 
Mr. Colesson, however, a law- professor, and who from 
being his scholar had become bis friend, seeing with what 
difficulty he could 'maintain himself, made him an offer of 
bis house and table, which, after many scruples, he con- 
sented to accept He went to his new habitation in 1700, 
and in the following year resigned his duty in the chapel, 
the only benefice he had, because it took up that time 
which he thought completely lost if not employed ia 
^tudy. In 1706, M. Yiel, then rector of the university of 
Paris, and M. Pourchot, the syndic, admiring his disin<» 
terested spirit, procured him a pension of four hundred 
livres on the faculty of arts, to which no other condition 
was annexed than that he should revise the Greek book» 
used in the classes. M. Capperonnier expressed his gra- 
titude on this occasion in a Greek poem, which was printed 
with a Latin translation by M. Viel, 4to, a pamphlet of 
jsix pages. 

During his residence with M. Colesson, which lastefd 
more than ten years, he read with that professor whatever 
lie could find in the Greek authors respecting the law, and 
jacquired a very profound knowledge of the subject ; nor 
was he less skilled in what the ancients have conveyed to 
JUS on the arts and sciences ; and the assistance he afforded^ 
to many eminent writers ba» been amply acknowledged^ 

C A P P E R O N N I E R. 2U 

particularly by-Montfancon, Baudelot de Dairvil, Kuster^ 
Tournemine, and many others. In 1702 he engaged with 
Toumenoine and Dnpin in an edition of Photius> of which 
Dupin was to be principal editor, Tournemine was to fur*' 
trish the notes, and Capperonnier the translations. This 
work was considerably advanced, and some part printed^ 
when it was interrupted by the banishment of Dupin to 
Chatelleraut, and was never afterwards completed ; a cv> 
cumstance which the learned world has to regret, as 
Capperonnier had employed three years in collating the 
best editions and manuscripts, and Photius' still remains 
without an editor. ... ». . 

Capperonnier was an inmate with M. Colesson when the 
university of Basil invited him to the chair of the Greek 
professor, with a liberal salary, and freedom of conscience; 
but this be did not think proper to accept. About the end 
of 1710 he was induced to undertake theeducation of thei 
three sons of M. Crozat, who, on his removing to his housej 
settled a pension of one hundred pistoles upon him, which^ 
with his usual moderation, Capperonnier made sufficient 
for all his wants, until in Oct. 1722 he was appointed 
royal professor of Greek. On this occasion he delivered a 
Latin discourse on the use and excellence of the Greek 
language. In 1725 he published at Paris his edition of 
** Quintilian,*' fol. dedicated to the king, who bestowed on 
him a pension of 800 livres. Burman, who had published 
an edition of Quintilian. thought it incumbent to attack 
this of our author, who answered h^s objections with tem- 
perate and sound reasoning. Capperonnier's is a splendid 
book, and particularly useful in illustrating the author by 
references to the$ Greek* orators. In 1719 our author pub- 
lished *^ Apologie de Sophocle,'* a pamphlet, 8vo, in an- 
swer to some objections of Voltaire to the GBdipus. M. 
Capperonnier died at Paris, Jply 24, 1744, leaving a cha- 
racter of amiable simplicity, great piety and probity, and 
singular benevolence and kindness. He was distinguished 
by a very retentive memory. Among various works which 
he left for the press were an edition of the " Antiqui Rhe* 
tores Latini,'* with notes and illustrations, published at 
Strasburghin 1756, 4to ; and " Philological Observations'* 
on Greek and Latin authors, which would amount to se* 
veral volumes in 4to. He also completed a " Treatise on 
the ancient pronunciation of the Greek language," and 


made great additions and corrections to Stephens^s Latin 
Thesaurus. ' 

CAPPERONNIER (John), nephew of the preceding, 
was borii at Mondidier in 1716, and died at Paris in 1775. 
He was a member of the academy of inscriptions, professor 
of Greek in the royal college, to which he succeeded on 
his uncle^s death, and librarian to the king. He inherited 
much of his uncle's taste for classical studies, and was not 
less esteemed for his private character. He published, 1. 
an edition of Joinville's " History of St. Lewis," Paris, 
1761, fol. 2. An edition of '^ Anacreon," 1748, 12mo, 
described in our authority as rare, nor do we find it in 
Harwood, Dibdin, or Clarke. 3. ** Cssaris Opera," Paris, 
Barbou, 1754, 2 vols. 12mo. 4. ^* Plautus," with a good 
glossary, by Valart, 1759, 8 vols. 12mo. 5. ** Sophocles,** 
prepared by our author, but published after his death by 
Vauvilliers, Paris, 1781, 2 vols. 4to. An ample account 
of this edition may be sden in Dibdin., Capperonnier also 
contributed various papers to the academy of inscriptious. 
His son, a very learned young man, who had also a place 
in the royal library, was unfortunately drowned a few years 
ago, while sailing in a pleasure-boat with some friends. * 

CAPRIATA (Peter John), a Genoese advocate, who 
lived in the seventeenth century, and acquired much fame, 
as a lawyer, is now only known as a historian. His Italian 
history comprehends the transactions that occurred in Italy 
<iuring his own time, which he has related with clearness,^ 
and with sagacity traced to their causes ; maintaining at the 
.same time, as he says, a perfect impartiality between the 
powers of France and Spain, that were concerned in theoi. 
The two first parts of this history were published by Ca* 
priata in his life»time, from 1613 to 1644; and the third 
part, extending to 1660, was published by his son after 
his death. The whole was translated into English by 
Henry earl of Monmouth, and published Lond. 1663, foL* 

CARACCI (Lewis, Augustine, and Hannibal), were 
<;elebrated painters of the Lombard school, all of Bologna, 
in Italy, and the founders of the Bologna school. Lewis 
Caracci was bolrn in 1555, and was cousin-gernian to Au* 
gustine and Hannibal, who were brothers. He discovered 
but an indifferent genius for painting under his first master^ 
Prospero Fontana ; who therefore dissuaded him from pur* 

1 Mprcri. • Diet Hiftt.— Dibdia'i CiMiict. & Qca. Dict^— M^itr^ 

C A R A C CI. «13 

'suing it any fiurther, and treated him so roughly that Lewis 
left bis school. However, he was determined to supply 
Ae defects of nature by art ; and henceforward had re- 
course to no other master but the works of the great pain- 
ters. He went to Venice, where the famous Tintoret, 
seeing something of his doing, encouraged him to proceed 
in his profession, and foretold, that he would one day be 
the first in it« This prophetic applause animated him in 
bis resolutions to acquire a mastery in his art ; and he tra- 
velled about to study the works of those who had excelled 
in it. He studied Titian's, Tintoret's, and Paulo Vero- 
^nese's works at Venice : Andrea del Sarto's at Florence ; 
Correggio's at Parma ; and Julio Romano's at Mantua : but 
Correggio's manner touched him most sensibly, and he 
followed it ever after. 

Augustine Caracci was born in 1557, and Hannibal in 
1560. Their father, though a taylor by trade, was yet 
very carefnl to give his sons a liberal education. Augustine 
was intended to be bred a scholar ; but his genius leading 
him to arts, he was afterwards put to a goldsmith. He 
quitted this profession in a little time, and then gave him- 
self up to every thing that pleased his fancy. He first put 
himself under the tuition of his cousin Lewis ; and became 
a very good designer and painter. ^ He gained some know- 
ledge likewise of all the parts of the mathematics, natural 
philosophy, rhetoric, music, and most of the liberal arts 
and sciences. He was also a tolerable poet, t)nd very ac- 
complished in many other respects. Though painting waa 
the profession he always adhered to, yet it was often in- 
terrupted by his pursuits in the art of engraving, which he 
learnt of Cornelius Cort, and in which he surpassed all the 
masters of his time. 

Hannibal Caracci in the mean time was a disciple of 
Lewis, as well as his brother Augustine ; but never deviated 
from his art, though he wandered through all those places 
which afforded any means of cultivating and perfecting it. 
Among his many admirable qualities, be bad so pnKligious 
a memory, that whatever he had once seen, he never failed 
to retain and make his own. Thus at Parma, he acquired 
the sweetness and purity of Correggio ; at Venice, the 
strength and distribution of colours of Titian; at Romey 
the correctness of desiscn and beautiful forms of the an- 
tique : and by his wonderful performances in the Farnese 
palsice, he soon made it appear, that all the several per- 

214 e A E A e c I. 

fecdons of the most emiaent maaters^ his pre^cessofts, 
were united ia himself alone. 

At length these three painters, having qoacle all the ad-> 
vantages they could by observation and practice, formed a 
plan of association, and continued hencefosward almo«t 
always together. Lewis communicated his discoveries freely 
to^his cQusins ; and proposed to them that they should 
r^mt^ their. seQ,timeuts and their manner, and aet %s it were 
in coofe4eracy^ The proposal was accepted : they pa4nted 
"^riou^ pi<:ture6 in several places; and finding their crediib 
tQ iacrease^ they laid the foundation of that celebrated 
school, which ever since has gone by the name of the 
Caracci's academy. Hither all the young students, who 
had ^ view of becoming masters., resorted to be instructed 
in the rudiments of painting ; and here the Caracci taught 
iVeeiy an4; vf ithout reserve to all that came. Lewises eharge 
was to make ;a. collection of antique statues . and bas-reli^fk. 
"^hey had, designs of the best masters, and a coUection of 
curious b^ks on all subjects relating to their an : and they 
li^^d a skilftl anatomist always ready to tdach what be** 
longed to the knitting and motion of the muscles, fte^ 
There were often disputations in the academy ; and not 
qply painters but men of learning proposed questions, 
wbich ! were always decided by Lewis. Evefy- body was 
i|rell received ; and though stsLted hours were allotted to 
threat of di^erent matters, yet improvements might be made 
at, all hoMHS'by the antiquities and the designs . which were 
V);be seen, 

. The fame of the Caracci reaching Rome,, the cardinal 
Farnese sejit for Hannibal thither, to paint the gallery of 
bis palace. — Hannibal was the more willing to go, because 
lie had a great desire to see Raphael's works, with the an-, 
tique statues and bas-reliefs. The gusto which he took 
there from the ancient sculpture, made him change his 
Bolognian manner for one more learned, but less natural 
in the design and in the colouring. Augustine followed 
Hannibal, to assist him in his undertaking of the Farnese 
gallery ; but the brothers not rightly agreeing, the car* 
dinal sent Augustine to the court of the duke of Parma, 
in whose service he died in 1602, being only forty- five 
years of age. His most celebrated piece of painting is 
that of the Communion of St. Jerom, in Bologna : *^ a 
piece," says a connoisseur, " so complete in all its parts, 
that it was much to be lamented the excellaiit author 

C A R A C XJI. ai5 

sliould withdraw himself from the practice of an art, in 
which his abilities were so very extraordinary, to follow 
the inferior profession of a graver." Augustine had a na- 
.tural son, called Antonio, who was brought up a painter 
under hia uncle Hannibal ; and who applied himself with 
aq much success to the study of all the capital pieces in 
Rome, that it is thought he would have surpassed even 

. Hannibal himself, if he had lived ; but he died at the age 
of thirty«.five, in 1618. 

. Meanwhile Hannibal continued working in the Farnese 
gallery at Rome ; and, after inconceivable pains and care^ 

. finished the paintings in the perfection they are in at pre- 
sent He hoped that the cardinal would have rewarded 
him in some proportion to the excellence of his work, and 
to. the time it took him up, which was eight years ; but he 
was disappointed. The cardinal, influenced by an ignorant 
Spaniard his domestic, gave him but a little above 200 
}K>unds. When the money was brought him, he was so 
surprised at the injustice done him, that be could not i^eak 
^ word to the person .who brought it. This confirmed him 
in a melancholy which his temper naturally inclined to^ 
and made him r^olve. never more to touch his pencil ;. and 
this resolution he had undoubtedly kept, if his necessities 
had not compelledhim to break it. It is said that his me- 
lancholy gained so much upon him that at certain times it 
deprived him of the right use of his - senses; It did ino^ 
however, put a stop to his amours; and his debi^ 
Naples, whither he. bad > retired for. the recovery; of bi^ 
health, brought a:dtstemper upoil^ him, of whidh he died 
atfoity-iiine years of > age. « As in bis life he h^d ifnitated 
Raphael in his works^ so he seems tO'hdvb copied thaf 
gr^t master in the cause .ai|d: manner' of his death.' : liii 
venemtion for Raphaierl was indeed- so great,' that M wasihiii 
dcakih<rbed' request to be buried io/ the.^am^ tomb. with 
hiiiei ; ^which was iaooosdingty xbndvin. tbe opantbeon ^r tov .Rome. Tthere are extant' seveval'prints of the 
blessed riV^in^o, and of ^tber stsbjects,; etched- by the hand 
6f>:tfaps'4iioonipdrahlQb.:Biitis€i. ^ He x^ -said i to have been a 
frieadkly; plains hbtreit, atidiopen^heartedmn ; very com-* 
HicmiteiiT€sto.his*«dholars,. and sae^tTiten^eJfyikind to them^ 
l3aftbe<gecieraUy.k(^iihii»' moneyi<in th^ $ame box with 
Jbrascbli^i8,>wherGitWy'^ either s^9 

thejiiiiad:oc'ciisioii.':^i J;.o/.'i/}iin ,/..... i, . •. -• :-: 

..Wixi!i&^^^ Romey Levris wtttf 

ai6 C A R A C C L 

courted from all parts of Lombardy, especially by tbe 
clergy, to make pictures in their churches ; and we may 
judge of his capacity and facility, by the great number c^ 
pictures, he made, and by the preference that was given 
him to other painters. In the midst of these employment!!^ 
Hannibal solicited him to come and assist him in the Far« 
nese gallery; and so earnestly that he could not avoid 
complying with his request. He went to Rome ; corrected 
several things in that gallery ; painted a figure or two him* 
self, and then returned to Bologna, where he died, 161 9, 
aged 63. 

Had the Caracci had no reputation of their own, yet the 
merit of their disciples, in the acadenoy which they 
founded, would have rendered their name illustrious in 
succeeding times: among whom were Guido, Domeni- 
cbino, Lanfranco, &c. &c. 

In the excellent lectures of sir Jo^raa Reynolds are 
many remarks and criticisms on the Caracci ; and other au« 
thors may be referred to for various testimonies to their 
mierit and opinions on their works* It may be sufEcient| 
however, in this place, to conclude with that of Mn Fuseli, 
who, after objecting to Pilkington's arrangemeint and some 
of his criticisms, proceeds to characterise these artists. 

Loduvico Caracci, far from subscribing to a master's 
dictates,, or implicit imitation of former styles, was the 
sworn pupil of nature. To a modest but dignihed design, 
to a simplicity eminently fitted for those subjects of i«ii- 
giouS' gravity which his taste preferred, he joined that:so- 
lemnity of hue, that sober twiUght, that air of cloistered 
lnedits^too» . whioh has. been so often recommended as the 
proper tone of historic colour. • Too often content to rear 
the humbler graces of his subject, he. seldom courted ele- 
gance, but always, wheli he did,' with enviable success. 
Even now, though they are.ji^aj^y «in a state of .evan«Si- 
cence, the threge uymphs in the. garden scene of .S. Mi- 
cbele in Boscoy «eem moulded byth^ hand, itispired hyr: 
the breath, of. love ; this; genial glow: he .coqamuhifvitesr 
tven to the ^pen isilverj tone jof <freaeoi: .ht^imasteuMpiiieofl 
in oil is the altar-piecCvOf St. John , the Baptist,} fofjnnrly 
in!the Certosa of Bologoa, now> ift theLouvte, a-workralK 
sainted by this solemn, hue, - wfaofte^ligkftsi seem j&aabr&ifMA 
by a golden veil. But Xodovioo.s(9mi^time& indulged- ami 
succeeded in tones austere, unmixed and hardy: such is 
th^ Flag^latioa oC Christ in l^e smaet church,, of which the 

€ A R A C C I. 217 

tvemendous depth of tbe flesh tints contrasts with the stern 
blue of the wide*expanded sky; and less cpnyeys, than 
dmshes its terrors on the astcoiished sense. 

Agostino Caracciy with a singular modesty, which 
prompted him rather to propagate the fame of others by 
his graver, than by steady exertion to rely on his own 
power for perpetuity of name, combined with some learn- 
ing a cultivated taste, correctness and sometimes elegance 
of form, and a Correggiesque colour, especially in fresco. 
His most celebrated work in oil is the Communion of St 
Jerome, formerly at the Certosa, now likewise, with its 
rival picture of the same subject, among tbe spoils of the 
Louvre. These two pictures have often been compared 
without much discrimination of the principles that distin« 
goish either, and the result has commonly been in favour 
of Domenichino ; but suri^y, if Agostino yields to his 
scholar in repose, and the placid economy of the whole, 
he far excels him in the principal figure, the expression 
and character of the Saint* 

, Annibale Caracci, superior to his cousin and brother in^ 
power of execution and academic prowess, was inferior ta 
c^fthei: in taste and sensibility and judgment : of this the 
best proof .tbat can be adduced is his master-work, that on' 
which he rests >his fame, the f'arnese gallery ; a work whose 
uniform vigour. of execution nothiug can> equal but its \m-i 
becility and inOongruity of conception : if impropriety of 
orpiun^ot were to be fixed by definition, thei subjects of 
that gallei!y.9)ight be quoted as( the most declMve instan- 
ces: tbe artt0|} ii;iay admire the splendor, the exuberance, 
the'conqent^^tian of powers, displayed by Annibale Ca- 
racci, but th.atnan of sense must lament their misapplica- 
tion in. the Fari^ese gallery, ^ 

.f CARACCJQr( Anthony), baron of Gorano, was a na- 
tive of Niurdo in ithe kingdom of Naples, and in the seven- 
teenth c^aMiry a/?quired much fame by his Italian poems*^ tragedies that of <M1 Corradino** is distin- 
guished above tbe rest, printed at Rome in 1694. He 
employed himself in a work of far greater importance, his 
^^ Imperio vindicate," an epic poem in forty cantos, printed 
at Rome in 1 $90, 4to. The Italians place it immediately 
after Ariosto and Tassp ; but persons of taste, while they 
admire the facility and abundance of the author, rank his 

I PilkfaigtOD, and Stratt,<^D'ArgenviIle. 

JTIS <; A R A C C I O. 

poem' far beneath the Orlando Furio«o and the Gtenisa- 
lemme Liberata. The author died atr Rome in 1702.' 

CARACCIOLI, or CARACCIOLO (Robbrt), often 
called HoBERTUs de Licio, « from Lqz6 or Lecc^, where 
be was born in 1425, descended probably from the illustti- 
cus family of Caraccioli, and became one of the most ce- 
lebrated preachers of his time. Having- ai» early imdina* 
tioo. to the churchy he entered the order of the Fi^nciscans, 
but finding their discipline too rigid, he removed to the 
Conventuals, and according to Erasmus^ lived with more 
freedom. . He was, however, distinguished for talents, and 
occupied some honourable offices, and was appointed pro* 
fessor. of divinity. His particular bias was to prea<shing, 
which be cultivated with such success, as to incline all hi^ 
brethren to imitate one who, • throughout all Italy, wad 
hailed sa a second St Paul, ^e displayed his pulpit elo<* 
quence not only in the principal cities of Italy, Assisa, 
Florence^ Venice, Ferrary Naples, &c. but before the 
popes, and is said to have censured the vicetr and luxury 
of the Roman court with great boldness and some q^liaint 
humour. This,, however, appears not to have given sevi^ 
cms offence, as he was employed by the popes, as well a^ 
by the king of Naples, in several negociations of iisiport>^ 
»Bce^ and was made auccessively bistk>p' of Aquino, of 
Lecc6, and of Aquila. After motfe than (fifty yesirs^ exer<^ 
cise of his talent as' a preacher, he died at his- native pla'cti 
May 6, 1 49 i^. Of his sermons eight votumel bav6 been oftett 
printed. 1, " Sermones de adventu,*' V^ebiioe, 1496, SW.* 
2. "De Quadragesima,'* Cologne, 1475, fel. S. *«Dd 
Quadragesima, seu Quadragesimale perutriflii^simum de P^ 
nitentia," . Venice, 1472, 4to. There jire Ita^'ah transht^ 
tions of some of these. 4. *^ De Tt^entpore, &6.San6ttfi 
rum," Naples, 1489, 4to. 5^ /'De SotenHiiitatibus^todus 
i^ani," Venice, 1471. 6. ^* De Chrifste/" &c. Veniw; 
1489, 4to. 7i *' De timore judiciorutn Dei/' ^^ij^led, 1 473^ 
fol. 8. <* De amore divinorum officioruni,'^ iMd. . 1473. 
There is another volume under the tid^''*< Rttberti de Li** 
irio ^Sermones," Leyden,, 1500, 4to. He wrote also somd 
theological works, of which a catalogue tiiay be seen in 
our authority. DomeniCo de Angelis wrofe hife life, which' 
was published at Naples in 170S,'4to.* - 

1 Moreri.--i.Dict. Hist, f M«rcliand'« l>ict. llisU 

C A R A C C I O L L 81:9 

CARAGCIOLI (Lewis Anthony) Marquis, wsis amr 
live of Paris, where he was boro in 1723» and having emr 
braced the military life, became a coloael in the Polish 
service. Having quitted that, he travelled in Italy, and 
afterwards returned to his own country, where he passed a 
considerable part of his time in writing and publishing, and 
where he died May 29, 1803. His works, which are ra- 
ther numerous than valuable, are of the moral or historic 
kind. Of the first, we have, 1. ^ Charactere de l'Amiti6." 
2. " Conversation avec Soi-meme.'' 3. " Jouissance de 
Soi-meroe." 4. "Le Veritable Mentor," &c. &c.; and of 
the historic or biographical kind, are the lives of cardinal 
de BeruUe, Benedict XIV. Clement XIV. madame de 
Maintenon, &c. : these are each comprized in a duodecimo 
volume, a quantity and form for which he appears to have 
had a predilection. Above twenty other works are entt-^ 
merated in the Diot. Hist, of which the only one worthy of 
notice is *^ Ganganelli's Letters," which were translated 
into English some years ago, and had considerable success 
in raising the opinions of the public in favour of that pdn^ 
tiff; but it is now generally acknowledged that they were 
th9 composition of Caraccioli. His life of Ganganelli, ^ 
which was translated into English in 1770, is esteemed 
more authentic. There was another Caraccioli in this 
country some years ago, who called himself Charles Ca* 
raccioli, gent, and published a confused jumble under the 
tide of a Life of L<^rd Clive, and, if we mistake not, some 
novels. * 

cian monk, born at Madrid in 1606, was at first abbot 
of Melrose, in the Low Countries, then titulary bishop of 
Missi; afterwards, by a singular turn, engineer and in« 
tendant of the fortifications in Bohemia, from having 
served as a soldier. The same capricious and inconstant 
humour which made him lay down the crozier to take up 
the halberd, now led him from being engineer to become 
bishop again. He had successively the bishoprics of Ko* 
nigsgratz, of Campano, and of Vigevano, in which last^* 
mentioned town he died in 1682, aged 76. He was a maa 
of the most unbounded mind, and of whom it was said, 
that he was endowed virith genius to the eighth degree, 
with eloquence to the fifth, and with judgment to the 

1 Diet. Hist, 

220 C A R A M U E L 

second. He wrote scTeral works of controversial theology ; 
And a system of divinity^ in Latin^ 7 vols, folio. * 

CARAVAGIO (Michael An«elo Amerigi da), a ce- 
lebrated painter, was born at Caravagio, a place in the 
Milanese, in 1569. His father was a mason by trade, and 
employed bim in making paste for the fresco-painters in 
Milan. The habit of being constantly among painters, 
and seeing them work, produced in -him a taste for that 
JMTt, and without a teacher, without studying either an- 
tiques, or the master-pieces of the modems, he became a 
great painter. He employed himself entirely in making 
portraits for four or five years. He found nature the surest 
guide in his art, and he followed her with a servile obe- 
dience. He painted solely after her, without any selec- 
tion, the beautiful as well as the ordinary ; and copied 
her veiy defects. On being once shewn some fine antique 
figures, ** See,** said he, pointing to the bystanders, ^*how 
many more models nature has given me than all your 
Ktatues !" and went immediately into an alehouse, where 
he painted on the spot a gipsy who happened to be in the 
street, so as none could find any thing to correct in it. 

It was difficult to be upon good terms with him. He 
was naturally -quarrelsome, despised every one, and found 
no performances good but his own. A man of this temper 
^uld not be long without enemies. Some business that 
he had at Milan obliged bim to leave this city, and make 
a journey to Venice, where he adopted Giorgioni*s man- 
ner. His stay here was but short, and he repaired to 
Rome. He was in such poor circumstances, that he was 
forced by necessity to work for Josebino, wlio gave him 
fruit and flowers to paint. TfAs department was not that 
wherein he excelled ; he therefore left Josehinb, to go 
and paint large figures' for Prospero, a painter of grotesque. 
Prospero every where sounded his praise, and made con- 
siderable profit by his works. A picture, the gamester, 
diat jGaravagio had painted, so highly pleased the cardinal 
del Monte, that, having bought it, he requested to see 
the artist, and kept him in his palace, where he caused 
him to paint several pieces for the pavilion in his garden. 
; All the avails of the work-room of Caravagio were black- 
ened, in order that the shades of objects might have no 
nafleetions, and all day long only one light entered it 

1 Morer}.--'Antouio Bibl. Hisp.-^ioeroiiy yol. XXiXj who^girei a liit of hii 

. C A R A y A G I O. . %2l 

tbrougb the uppermost window. Thus he succeeded im 
f^iving his pictures that dimness and strength, which, at 
.first sight, excelled and eclipsed all others. Even Rul>en8 
himself acknowledged Caravagio to be his master in tb^ 
€lar*obscure. Caravagio gave all his objects so striking 
and extraordinary a truth as could not be exceeded, and 
it was not possible to carry the natural any fiurther. But 
all these beauties disappeared in large compositions : his 
style was then hard and insupportable. He placed hid 
figures all on the same plan, without gradation, without 
perspective ; and his light to every •bject is uniformly the 
same. ' 

All the painters of the time combined against Caravagio : 
they objected to him that he had neither genius, nor pro- 
priety, nor grace, nor sagacity, and that he knew not hov^ 
to make a good choice; and it is certain that his figures aro 
not noble. He used to paint the porters, who served him 
for models, without their heads, which he afterwards put 
on according to the saints, heroes, and other great per* 
sonages they were to represent. The altar-pieces that he 
executed for churches and monasteries were obliged fre& 
quently to be taken down again from their places ; this was> 
particularly the case with a St. Matthias, who, instead of 
a haggard old fellow, looked like a jolly clown ; and the 
Peath of the holy Virgin, who had the appearance of a low 
drunken woman. But all these affronts, were unable to 
correct him.. At last, all the painters,. following the stream 
of the fashion, imitated his exampi^^. 

When Annibal Caracci came to Rome, Caravagio was 
80 forcibly struck with his colouring, that, in spite of faia 
canity, he exclaimed, ^^ God be thanked, at last I have 
found one painter in my life-time !" Caravagio used ta 
say of his works, that the merit of every stroke of the pen« 
cil be made belonged to nature, and not to him. With« 
out genius, without reading, . without the study of his artj^ 
she was his only assistant and guide. He was therefora 
usually called ^^ The naturalist ;*' a name given likewise ta 
all the painters who, like him, adhered (slavishly to n^ure< 

His vindictive temper allowed him to gain but fern 
friends, excepting Civoli and Pomeranci. He lived. in 
continual strife with Caracci, and particularly with Jose<» 
hino. Qn the latter's refusing to fight with him, as hev 
was not a knight, he took the resolution to go to Malta, 
and cause himself to be admitted servientOi^ ia 

929 C A R A Y A G I O. 

Qtdfcr to compel Josehino to give up all fsrtbef evasion* 
He killed a young noan at Rome, with whom be quarrelled 
at t;ejiQis, and fled, though sorely wounded, to Zagardes, 
4o the duke Maria Coionna, from thence to Naples, and 
afterwards to Malta. As liis reputation had now made its 
way into all parts, he was never permitted to be idle, 
especially at Msdta, where he finished several pieces for 
the church of St. John and the grand master. The grand 
master made him a cavaliero serviente, presented him with 
a golden chain, and gave him two slaves for his attendants. 

. He affirooted a knight of some consequence, and was 
therefore thrown into prison. He found means to escape 
by night, and went to Sicily ; where not thinking himself 
safe, he {»x>ceeded to Naples. Here he chose to remain 
' till the grand master, to whom he had sent as a present an 
Herodias with the head of St John, should procure his 
pardon. But one day, as he was going out of his inn, he 
was attacked at the door by armed people, and wounded 
in the face. Though severely smarting with the wound, he 
got immediately on board a felucca, and went to Rome, 
knowing that cardinal Gonzaga had obtained his pardon 
from the pope. On his landing from the vessel, be was 
seized upon by the Spanish guard, who took him for ano* 
ther cavalier, and carried him to prison, 'from whence he 
was not discharged till they had convinced themselves 
of their mistake. He now returned to the felucca, in 
prder to fetch his baggage, but found it no longer there. 
Quite dejected under the pressure of so many misfortunes, 
be wandered about upon the shore, and at length, in the 
extreme heat of the sun, reached on foot the gate Porto 
Ercole, where his courage entirely forsook him ; a violent 
fever ensued, of which he died, 1609, in the fortieth year 
of his age. 

Caravagio's life was one continued series of misfortunes : 
he did not dare to go home to his country ; on all bands he 
saw ^ himself proscribed ; he had scarcely a friend in the 
world,.. and died, 4]uite destitute, on the common road. 
He uanally went very ill clothed ; he lived, without the or- 
dinary accommodations, in any alehouse that would har- 
bour him ; and, once, when he had not wherewith to pay 
his: reckoning, he painted the sign for the alehouse, which, 
some time afterwards, was. sold for a considerable sum. 
For many years tbe canvas of a portrait served him for a 
lable-doth at his dinner. 

C A R A V A G I O^ 22» 

Mr. Fttseli observes of this great artist, that he esta- 
blished a style of his own, in which energy and truth wer^ 
to recover the rights supplanted by variety and manner. Of 
litis style, the model, or what the Italians call ^^ 11 vero,^ 
dictated the forms, from which to deviate, or which to imv 
jirore, was equally high treason' against the art, or matter 
of derision in the eye of Caravagio. But to forms thus 
indiscriminately picked from the dregs of the street, he 
contrived to give energy and interest, by ideal light and 
shade. So novel a combination, substantiated by powers 
so decisive, could not fail to draw after it a number of fol- 
lowers. The great excellence of Caravagio consisted in 
truth of colour : he penetrated the substance of the thing 
before him, whether still life, fruit, flowers or flesh. Hig 
tints are few, but true, with little help from cinnabar or 
azure. Hence Hannibal Caracci declared, that he did not 
paint, but grind flesh. (Che cestui macinava carne.) 

Rome possesses few pictures of this great master. There 
yet remains at the Spada palace, in half figures, a St. 
Anna with the Virgin by her side, busied in female work : 
vulgarity discriminates their features ; both are dressed in 
the vulgar Roman dress. Another picture, an altar-piece 
of entire figures, is our Lady of Loretto, with two Pilgrims, 
in the church of St. Augustine. What Shakspeare would 
have called ^^ a dying ray," imbrowns rather than illu- 
minates the silent scenery, and consecrates the whole. Iii 
the palace of the Bo rghesi there was the Supper at £maus; 
a S. Sebastian in theCanipidoglio ; and in the Pamphili col- 
lection, Hagar with Ishmael dying, and a Fruit-girl. But the 
master-piece of all his works, the Intombing of Christ, 
formerly in the Chiesa Nuova, before which the rival altar- 
pieces of Baroccio, Guido, and Rubens, with all theii^ 
bloom, their suavity, and colour, remained unobservefd ; 
this work, the knot of Caravagio^s powers, is now trans- 
ported to the Louvre. ' 

CARAVAGGIO (Polidoro Caldara da), another 
eminent artist, was born in 1492, at Caravaggio in the 
Milanese ; from a labourer he became an assistant of Ra- 
phael in the works of the Vatican, and acquired supreme 
celebrity for unrivalled felicity in imitating the antique 
basso-relievos with a power little, if at all, inferior to that 
of the ancients themselves. These admirable works he 

^ Lif^ m the preceding edition vf this Diet.— I)*ArjenTille,-^PilkiDgtQn. 

;^24 C A R A V A G G I O. 

executed in chiaroscuro. He was the inventor of a style 
which rose and perished with him. His deaign was without 
manner^ compact, correct. He had the art of transposing 
himself into the times of which he represented the trans*- 
actions, the costume, and rites : nothing modem swims on 
bis works. . Rome once abounded in friezes, facades, supra* 
portas, painted by him and Maturino of Florence his com- 
panion, of which, to the irreparable detriment of the art,, 
scarcely a fragment remains, if we except the Fable of 
Niobe, left in ruins by time and the rage of barbarians. 
This, one of his most classic labours, once decorated the 
outside of the Maschera d'Oro. All the compensation we 
have for these losses are the prints of Cberubino Albert!, 
and Henry Golzius, who engraved his Gods, the Niobe, 
and the Brennus ; beside the etchings of Santes Bartoli 
and Gallestruzzi. 

When Bourbon stormed and pillaged Home in .1527]^ 
Polidoro fled to Naples, but did not live.there, as Vasari was 
misinformed, in a starving condition. Having been re* 
ceived in the house of Andrea da Salerno, 'and introduced 
by him to general notice, he soon, was furnished with com- 
missions sufficiently numerous, and even had begun to 
form a school, when he .resolved to pass over to Sicily. He 
bad now exchanged chiaroscuro for colour, and painted at 
Messina a numerous composition of ^^ Christ led to CaU 
vary," extolled by Vasari to the skies, but he did not long 
survive this work, being strangled in bed, in 1543, by aser« 
vant of bis, who wanted to possess himself of his property. 
The merits of Polidoro as a colourist can only be learned 
in Sicily. To judge from some pieces once in the posses-* 
sion of Gavin Hamilton, his manner, for some time at 
least, was dim and pallid. ^ 

CARDAN, or CARD ANUS (Jerom), an Italian physi- 
cian, mathematician, and philosopher, watt born at Pavia^- 
Sept. 24, 1501. It appears that his father and mother 
were not married, and the latter, a woman of violent pas* 
sions, endeavoured to destroy him by procuring abortion* 
He was, however, safely born, and his father who was a 
lawyer by profession, at Milan, and a man well ski4led ii) 
what were then called secret arts, instructed him very early 
in the mysteries of numbers, and the precepts of astrology. 
9e taught him also the elements of geometry^ and waa 

) Pilkipgtom<— Anf«iTiil«i vol. IF« 

' r 

CARDAN. 225 

desirous to have engaged hicn in the study of jdrispru- 
deoce. But his own inclination being rather to mediciue 
and mathematics, at the age of twenty he went to the uni'^. 
▼ersity of Pavia, where, two years after, be explained 
Euclid. He then went to Padua, and, in 1524, was ad« 
mitted to the degree of master of arts, and in the follow- 
ing year to that of doctor in medicine. In \529f he re^ 
turned to Milan, where although he obtained little fame as 
a physician, he was appointed professor of mathematics, 
for which he was better qualified; and in 1539, he became 
one of the medical college in Milan. Here he attempted 
to reform the medical practice by publishing his two first 
works, *^ De malo recentiorum medicorum medendi usu,*' 
Venice, 1536; and *< Contradiceutium Medicorum libri 
duo," Lyons, 1548; but he was too supercilious and 
peevish to profit by the kindness of his friends, who made 
repeated efforts to obtain an advantageous establishment 
for him ; and he had, in 1531, formed a. matrimonial con- 
nection of which he bitterly complained as the cause of alt 
his subsequent misfortunes. 

In 1 547, an ofier was made to him of the honourable 
post of physician to the king of Denmark^ with an annual 
salary of eight hundred crowns, and a free table, which he 
refused on account of the climate and the religion pf the 
country. This offer, which was made by the advice of 
Vesalius, is a. proof that his medical reputation was con- 
siderably high ; and we find that it was likewise very ex- 
tensive, for in 1552, he was invited into Scotland by Ha- 
milton, archbishop of St Andrew^s, who had consulted the 
most eminent physicians in Europe withput effect. Of 
his disease, which was of the asthmatic kind, he began to 
recover from the time that Cardan prescribed for him ; and 
in less than two months Cardan left him with fair pro- 
spects of recovery, and gave him some prescriptions, which 
in two years effected a complete cure. For this he wai^ 
amply rewarded by his^ patient, and great offers were made 
to persuade him to reside in Scotland. These, however, 
he rejectod, and took an opportunity to visit France and 
Germany, from which he- passed into England, and at 
London he exercised his astrological knowledge in calcu- 
lating the nativity of Edward VI. The most remarkable 
part of it was, that the young monarch should die a violent 
death ; for which reason, he says, he left the kingdom for 
fear of further danger which might follow on it. He drew 

Vol. VIII. Q 

»?6 C All D A ^f. 

a very favourable character of Edward, which was proba- 
bly just and sincere, because it was afterwards published 
in one of his works, in Italy, where Edward was detested 
as a heretic, and where Cardan could have no motive for 
flattering his memory. While at the English court Ed- 
ward was solicitous to retain him in England, and appears 
to have honoured him with frequent conferences; but Car- 
dan refused all his offers, and^ returned to Milan, after an 
absence, in all, of only ten months, and resided there un- 
til 1559, practising physic and teaching the mathematics. 
He then went to Pavia, where he filled the chair of pro- 
fessor of medicine until 1562, when he removed to Bo- 
logna, and there likewise became professor of medicine 
until 1570. About this time he was, for some reason with 
which we are unacquainted, thrown into prison, which was 
exchanged soon after for a milder confinement in his own 
house. On his release, he was invited to Rome, and ad- 
mitted into the college of physicians there^ with a pension 
from the pope. Here he died Sept. 21, 1576, "more," 
.says Brucker, "like a maniac than a philosopher/' Thu- 
anus and Scaliger both are of opinion that he starved him- 
self, in order to verify his own prediction of his death. 

His life was a series of adventures, which he has com- 
mitted to writing in his work •* De vita propria*" with 
great freedom, and probably great truth, but with a 
thorough contempt for fame or decency. It would ap-» 
pear as if he had written this history of his life for no other 
purpose than to give the public a proof that he was a most 
uncommon compound of wisdom and folly, and it is certainly 
not often that a character is to be met with so capricious and 
unequal. He congratulates himself that he had not a 
friend in the world ; but that to make up for the loss, he 
was attended by an aerial spirit, an emanation from Saturn 
and Mercury, which was the constant guide of his actions, 
and teacher of every duty to which he was bound. When 
nature did not visit him with any bodily pain, he would 
procure to himself that disagreeable sensation, by biting 
his lips so strongly, or pulling his fingers to such a degree, 
as sometimes to force the tears from his eyes ; and the 

* In ibis work, which was published that he dr^w the horoscope of Jesut 

1654, 12mo, he has collected all the Christ; and that his description of the 

lestimooies of his contemporaries rela- unicorn is exactly correspondent to that 

ling to bis own character, and has. en- fictitious animal which is one of tli% 

lixled them ** Testimooia de me.'' • supporters of the royal arios*" 
Mr. Grander sayi^ " It is remarkable 

CARDAN. 227 

reason he assigned was, in order to moderate certain impe- 
tuous sallies of his mind^ whose violence was far more ia« 
supportable than bodily pain ; and that the sure conse* 
quence of such a severe practice was his better enjoying 
the pleasure of health. 

He makes no scruple of owning that he was revengeful *, 
envious, treacherous, a dealer in the black art, a back- 
biter, a calumniator, and unreservedly addicted to all the 
foul and detestable excesses that can be imagined. Yet| 
with all this, he was perhaps the vainest of human beings ; 
and speaks thus of his talents. — " I Have been admired by 
many nations ; and an almost infinite number of panegy<^ 
rics in prose and verse have been composed to celebrate my 
fame. I was born to release the world from the manifold 
errors under which it groaned. What I have found out 
could not be discovered either by my predecessors, or my 
contemporaries ; and that is the reason why those authors, 
who write any thing worthy of being remembered^ blush, 
not to t)wn that they are indebted to me for it. I have 
composed a book on the dialectic art, in which there is 
neither a superfluous letter, nor one deficient.' I finished 
it in seven days, which s^ms a prodigy. Yet where i^ 
there a person to be found, that caii boast of his having 
become master of its doctrine in a year ? And he, that 
shall have comprehended it in that time, must appear tp 
have been instructed by a familiar demon.'* 

Cardanus certainly instructed himself in every species of 
knowledge, and made very considerable improvements ia 
medicine, mathematics, and philosophy. Scaliger, who 
wrote against him with great warmth, owns that he was en- 
dowed with a very comprehensive and penetrating mind* 
He has been accused of impiety, and even of atheism. Of 
impiety it will not be easy to remove the imputation, many, 
of his actions being grossly impious and iounoral;; but he 
appears to have thought better than he acted, and was ra- 
ther a superstitious man than a free-thinker. He owns 

* One of his sods married a woman left two treatises " De fulgore," an4 

of looM ckaracter, and administered *< De abscinentia ab' usu cibonim fo^« 

poisoa to her, for which be was cob- dorum.*' The first is in tile soeMiA 

-demned and executed. Cardan at- ▼otame of his father's works. The se» 

tempted to justify this crime, on the cond was added by bis father to atrea« 

plea of the woman's infidelity, and tise whkh be wrote on his son's deatb^ 

says that divine vengeance porsoed his *' De militate ez adversis oapienda^ 

son's judges for having condemned 1560," the year in which that «t««| 

i^ Ttiu so* was a physkiair, and took placn 

228 CARDAN. 

himself that he was not a devotee, parum pius ; but at the 
same time he declares, that though he was naturally very 
vindictive, he often let slip the occasion t)f satisfying his 
resentment, out of veneration for the Deity, Dei ob venera- 
ttonem. He says, " There is no form of- worship more 
pleasing to the Deity, than that of obeying the law, not- 
withstanding the strongest impulses of our nature to tres* 
pass ag^nst it.^' He says he was sometimes tempted to lay 
violent hands on himself, which he calls heroic love; and 
iniagined that several other persons have been possessed 
with it, though they^did not own it. Nothing gave him 
more pleasure, than to talk of things which made the whole 
company uneasy : he spoke on all subjects, in season and 
out of season ; and was so fond of games of chance, as to 
spend whole days in them, to the great prejudice of his 
family and reputation; for he even staked his furniture 
and his wife's jewels. He observes, that the poverty to 
which he was reduced, never compelled him to do any 
thing beneath his birth or virtue ; and that one of the me- 
thods he took to earn a subsistence, was the making of 

He wrote a great number of books, now comprised in 
10 vols, folio, Lyons, 1663. His poverty, he tells us, was 
one reason why he wrote so many treatises, the digressions 
and obscurity of which puzzle the reader, who often finds 
in them what he did not expect to meet with. In his arith- 
metic he introduces several discourses concerning the mo-» 
tion of the planets, the creation, and the tower of Babel ; 
and in bis logic he has inserted a criticism on historians 
and letter- writers. He owns that he made these digres- 
sions to fill up ; his bargain with the booksellers being for 

* so much a sheet : and he wrote as much for bread as for 
reputation. With regard to the obscurity of his' writings, 
Naudseus alleges the following among other reasons for it : 
that Cardan imagined, that many things being familiar to 
him needed not to be expressed, and the heat of his ima- 

• gination and his extensive genius hurried him from one 
thing to another, without staying to explain the medium 
or connection between them. Naudseus adds, that the 
amazing contradictions in his writings are an evident proof, 
that he was not always in his senses ; that they can neither 
be imputed to a defect of memory, nor to artifice ; and that 
the little relation there is between his several variations, 
proceeded firom the difi^rent fits of madness with which he 
was seized. 

CARDAN. 229 

In the midst of all this weakness^ Cardan is universally 
acknowledged to have been a man of great erudition and 
fertile invention, and is celebrated as the author of many 
new and singular observations in philosophy and medicine. 
His discoveries in mathematics may be seen in Dr. Hut- 
ton^s Dictionary, or the Cyclopaedia, art Algebra ; and 
bis treatise ^^ De Methodo Medendi*' discovers a mind ca- 
pable of detecting and renouncing established errors. His 
book ^^ De subtilitate et varietate rerum^' shews, in the 
opinion of Brucker, that if he could have preserved his 
judgment free from the influence of a disordered imagina- 
tion, be was able to have contributed to the improvement 
of natural philosophy. Of the dogmas of this philosopher, 
the following are a specimen : *^ Primary matter, which 
remains immutably the same, fills every place; whence, 
without the annihilation of matter there can be no vaciuum. 
Three principles subsist every where ; matter, form, and 
mind. There are in matter three kinds of motion ; the first, 
from form to element ; the second, the reverse of this ; the 
third, the descent of heavy bodies. The elements pr pas- 
sive principles are three ; water, earth, and air, for na- 
turally'all things are oold, that is, destitute of heat. The 
agent in nature. is celestial heat; the air, being exposed to 
the action of the solar rays, is perpetually in motion. The 
moon and all the other heavenly bodies are luminous from 
themselves. The heavens are animated by an ever-active 
principle, and are therefore never quiescent. Man, having 
mind as well as soul, is not an animal. The dispositions. of 
men are produced, and all moral affairs are directed, by the 
influence of the stars. Mind is universally diffused ; and 
though it appears multiplied, is but one ; it is extrinsically, 
and for a time, attached to human bodies, but never pe* 

Innumerable other sijugular metaphysical and physical 
notions are to be found in the works of Cardan ; lyid they 
are accompanied with many experiments and observations 
on natural phenomena. But the whole is thrown together 
in sucii a confused mass, as plainly proves that, though the 
author'6 head was replete with ideas, he wanted j^hat sound 
understanding and cool judgment, without which the most 
ingenious and original conceptions must prove abortive. 
He was too fond pf mysticism, too credulous^ too i^uper- 
stitious, and, id a word, too much of an astrologer, to be 
a true philosopher. Cardan^ therefore, notwithstanding 


all the variety and apparent origiimUty of his writingS| miisl 
be ranked among the iinsuccessiiil adventurers in philo- 

. sophy.' 

CARDI (Lev^tis), called also Cigoli and Ciyou, an 
eminent painter, was born in 1559, at the castle of Cigoli^ 
in Tuscany, and became the scholar of Santi di Titi, but 
after travelling into Lombardy, studied the works of the 
first masters, and particularly Correggio, He had some 

. taste, also, for poetry and music, but soon became exclu- 
sively attached to his particular art. He was employed by 
the grand duke in the palace Pitti, and afterwards at Rome 
and Florence exhibited some excellent specimens of his 
genius. He gave a new style to the Florentine school ; but 
to say that perhaps he was superior to all his contempora- 
ries, that he approached nearer than any other the style of 
Correggio, are expressions of Baldinucci, which none will 
believe who has seen the imitations of that master by Ba- 
roccio, the Caracci, or Scbidone. Cardi, to judge from 
his pictures as they are now, availed himself with success 
of Correggio's chiaroscuro, joined it to learning in design, 
and set it off by judicious perspective and a far livelier 
colour than that of the Tuscan school ; but his pictures do 
not exhibit that contrast of tints, tl^t impastp, that splen- 
dour, that graceful air, those bold fore-shortenings, which 
constitute the character of the head] of .Lombard art. In 
short, he was the inventor of an original but not a steady 
style; that which he adopted at Rome differs from his 
former one. If the general tone of his colour be Lom- 
bardesque, his draperies resemble those of Paolo Veronese^ 
and sometimes he approaches the depth of Guercino. 

Besides the many pictures which the grand duke an4 
the Pecori family possess of this master, a few are dispersed 

' through private collections at Florence. Excellent are his 
<« Trinity" in the church of St. Croce, his " St. Albert'' in 
that of S. Maria Maggiore, aqd the ^^ Martyrdom of Ste- 
phen" at the Sisters of Monte Domini, which Pietro da 
Cortona ranked with the principal pictures of Flor«i9oe* 
" St. Anthony converting a Heretic," at Cortona, ^ con- 
sidered as superior to any. other pencil at Cortona. His 
** St. Peter healing the Cripple," in the Vatican at Rom^i 

' Oen, Diet. — Bmcker. — Hutt«ii's Math, Diet— Saxii O^ofnast. — Robert- 
ton's Hilt of Sootiand.—- Heylin't Hist, of the Beformation, p. 141. — Niceron, 
ToU XIV. corrected in n few parti^iUrA k>y freytag» i& bis Adpftaius Literaritts.. 

- C A R D I. 2Sl 

Andrea Sacchi placed next the *' Transfiguration" of Ra- 
phael, and the *' St. Jerom" of Domenichino ; but this 
master-piece, by the humidity of the place, the bad 
priming, and the brutality of the cleaner, is entirely de-. 
stroyed. Its merit procured him the title of Cavaliere.' 
Another work of his, the fresco of the dome in S. Maria 
Maggiore, still remains : in this, by some error in per- 
spective, he appeared inferior to himself ; it displeased,, 
and be. was not suffered to correct it, notwithstanding his 
eager supplications ; but had this perished, and the pic- 
ture in the Vatican survived, the fame of Cigoli would rest 
on a firmer basis, and the assertions of Baldinucci deserve 
more credit. It is supposed that chagrin at not succeeding 
in painting the dome, hastened his death, which happened 
in 1613. He also engraved a few plates in a slight, Reat 
style, which, however, evinces the hand of the master* 
Strutt mentions bis engraving of ^^ Mary Magdalen washing 
the feet of Christ," as containing beads of great beauty*^ 

CARDONA (John Baptist), bishop of Tortosa, in Ca-.- 
talonia, was a native of Valencia, in Spain, of which ca- 
thedral he waa made a. canon. He went to Rome, with 
great fame for learning, during the pontificate of Gregory 
Xni. ai\d was promoted to the bishopric of Elne, a town 
of Roussillon, die seat of which see wa» afterwards removed 
to Perpignan. He was then translated to the bishopric 
of Vich y and lastly to that of Tortosa wb<^re he died^ in 
1590. In 1587 he published at Tarracon.&i a quarto vOk 
lume, contiaiining, 1. ^' De regia Sancti Laurentii Biblio- 
theca." 2. *^ De Bibliothecis (ex Fulvio Ursiuo) et t)e 
Bibliotbeca Vaticana(exOnuphfii Scedis.") 3. "De ex-* 
purgandis haereticorum propriis nominibus.'.' 4. " De? 
Dyptichis." Of these, the firdt, iii which he treats of col- 
lecling all manner of useful booksy and having able libra-^ 
rians, and in which be strongly exbortis Philip II; to put 
the Escurial library into gpod order, is^ of ccH>siderab]e 
yalpe to. bibliographers* His treatise *' D4 Dyptichip,'* 
those at>ciient pubiie registers, is alsov^ry dUrious. Cor 
pies, if .we may so speak, of thesse registers^ a^e still to be 
&een in France, at Sens, Dijon, and Besan^on, the latt^ 
of which has been well described b^ M. Coste, the librarian, 
of that city.' . , 

* Argenvllte, vol. I.— Wlkingtoii. , 

« AntoBio Bibi. Hisp.^-I^oreri.'^Dfbdii^s fiiliUofflati^^.-^iit H'^t^^S^cK: 

233 C A R E W. 

CAREW (George), afterwards earl of Totness (de- 
scended from an ancieitt family in the West of England, 
originally so named from Carew-castle in Pembrokeshire) 
was born in 1557. His mother was Anne, daughter of sir 
Nicolas Harvey, knight, and his father, George,* archdea- 
con of I'otness, and successively dean of Bristol, of the 
queen's chapel, of Windsor, of Christ Church, Oxon, and 
of Exeter; besides several other preferments, most of which 
he resigned before his decease, which occurred in 1585. 
George Carew in 1 572 was admitted gentleman commoner 
of Broadgate-hall (now Pembroke college) in Oxford ; 
where he made a good proficiency in learning, particularly 
in the study of antiquities, but being of an active temper, 
he left the university without a degree; and applying 
himself to military affairs, went and served in Ireland 
against the earl of Desniond. in 1580 he was made go- 
vernor of Asketten-castle, and in 1589 was created master 
of arts at Oxford, being Uien a knight. Some time after, 
being constituted lieutenant-general of the artillery, or 
master of the ordnance in Ireland, he was one of the com- 
linantiers at the expedition to Cadiz, in 1596 ; and again, 
the next year^ in the intended expedition against Spain. 
Having in 1599 been appointed president of Muqfter, he 
was in 1600 made treasurer of the army, and one of the 
lords justices of Ireland. When he entered upon his go* 
vernment, he found every thing in a deplorable ccHidition ; 
all the country being in open and actual rebellion, except- 
ing a few of the better sort, and himself having for his 
defence but three thousand foot and two hundred and fifty 
horse ; yet he behaved with so much conduct and bravery, 
that he reduced many castles and forts, took James Fitz 
Thomas, the titular earl of Desmond, and O'Connor, pri- 
soners ; and brought the Bourkes, Obriens, and many other 
Irish rebels, to submission. He also bravely resisted the 
Ax thousand Spaniards, who landed at Kinsale, October 
I, 1601, and had so well established the province of which 
he was president, by apprehending the^chief of those he 
mistrusted, and taking pledges of the rest, that no person 
of consideration joined the Spaniards. In 1602 he made 
himself master of the castle of Donboy, which was a very 
difficult undertaking, and reckoned almost impracticable ; 
and by this means prevented the arrival of an army of 
Spaniards, which were ready to sail for Ireland. He had 
fpr some time been desirous of quitting his burdensome 

C A R E W. ass 

office of president of Munster, but he could not obtain 
permission till the beginning of 1603, when, leaving that . 
province in perfect peace, he arrived in England the 2l8t 
of March, three days before queen Elizabeth's death. His 
merit was so great, that he was taken notice of by the new ^ 

king, and made by him, in the first year of his reign, go« 
vernor of the isle of Guernsey, and Castle Comet : and 
having married Joyce *, the daughter and heir of William 
Clopton, of Cloptou, CO. Warwick, esq. he was June 4^ 
J 605, advanced to the degree of a baron, by the title of lord 
Carew, of Clopton. Afterwards he was made vice-cham-> 
berlain and treasurer to king James's queen ; and in 160S 
constituted master of the ordnance throughout England for 
life; and sworn of the privy-council to the king, as he had 
before been to queen Elizabeth. Upon king Charles Ist's 
acce'ssion to the crown^ he was created, Feb. I, 1625, earl 
of Totness. At length, full of years and honours, he de- 
parted this life at the Savoy in London^ Maroh 27, 1629, 
aged seventy-three years and ten months ; and was buried 
at Stratford upon Avon, near Clopton : leaving behind him 
the character of a faithful subject, a valiant and prudent "^ 
commander, an honest counsellor, a genteel scholar, a 
lover of antiquities, and a great patron of learning. A 
stately monument was erected to his memory, by his ifpi- 
dow, with a long inscription reciting his actions. 

He wrote, or rather caused to be written under his di- 
rection, a book entitled -'< Pacata Hibernia," or the his- 
tory of the wars in Ireland, especially within the province 
of Munster, in the years 1599, 1600, 1601, and 1602; 
which, after his death, was printed at London in 1633, fol. 
with seventeen maps ; being published by his natural son, 
Thomas Stafford. Harris, in his edition of Ware's Ireland, 
appeals to the preface, to p. 367, and other parts of this 
work, as proofs that Carew was not the author of it. — Sir 
George Carew collected also, in four large volumes, several 
chronologies, charters, letters, monuments, maps, &c. re- 
lating- to Ireland ; which are preserved in the Bodleian J ^^ Jg ^ 

f la a biographical account of Uia Carew, which was without his know- Qh^-^ — Q 

family placed on the back of a picture ledge and consent, and intended to ^^ ^^ ^ ^ 

cHF lord Totness, in the possession of disinherit her; but, upon an accidental 

his descendant, t^e late Boothby Clop- conversation with captain Caraw, found A\^ *X/A 

ton, esq. this la^»s name is Anne, and him a gentleman of superior genius ^ *^ *^ ^^ 

not Joyce : and it is added, that Mr. and fine address, and settled bis estata, 

Clopton was extremely displeased with which was very considerable, upon him 

his 4aughter'8 marrii^ge with captain and bis dadghter. 

234 C A R E W. 

librafy : and made collections, notes, and extracts for wri^ 
ting The History of the reign of king Henry V . which w^re 
inserted in J. Speed's Chronicle. Sir James Ware says, that 
the earl of Totness translated into English <* A History of 
the affairs of Ireland," written by Maurice Regan, servant 
and interpreter to Dermot, 9on of Murchard king of Lein- 
Ster, in 1171, and which bad been turned into French 
verse by a friend of Regan. Bishop Nicolson describes 
this history as extant in the duke ofChandos^s library, 
under the title of ^^ Mauritii Regani, servi et interpretift 
Dermitii, filii Murchardi, &c. Historise de Hibernia frag-> 
mentum Anglice reddilum a D. Georgio Carew, Memo- 
nine preside sub Elizabetba;'' and Mr. Harris mentions 
another MS copy among the bishop of Clogher's MSS. in 
the college library, Dublin. Nicolson also informs ns that 
this learned nobleman wrote forty*two volumes relating to 
the affairs of Ireland, which are in the Lambeth library, 
and four more of collections from the originals in the Cot- 
ton library. 

The natural son of the earl of Totness, afterwards sir 
Thomas Stafford, was secretary to that nobleman when 
president of Munster ; and the earl bequeathed by bis will 
(femaining at Doctors' Commons, dated Nov. 30, 1625) all 
his^books and MSS. to sir Thomas; who, in 1633, pub- 
lished the earPs history, as already mentioned, which he 
dedicated to Charles I. ^^ to whom nothing (xrald pads 
through the publisher's hands which was not justly due, 
both by common allegiAnce and particular service.'* Ta 
sir Thomas the esarl also gave bis lease of an annuity or 
pension of 500i. received from the Alienation office; ^nd if 
sir Thomas survived him, he wished his eoantess tot^onvey 
utito him all his estates of Wocdgrove in Esses, at Sal- 
combe, Abberto», and Lanceston, or ekewfaere, in De- 
von and CornwaU. Sir Tboinas survived bodi him; and his 
cmnkess; the latter of whom died Jan. 14, 1636*7^ and 
by her will (in the Couiniions, dated June 9, 1636) she de- 
sires her trusty and good friend and chaplaia, Richard 
^^^ Wright, clerk, dwelling in Warwickshire, and Richard 
Wootton, of Fleet-street, London, gent, to peruse alt her 
^ deeds and evidences, and deliver unto sir Thomas Stafford 
. » f ucb as belonged to him. ' 

* Biog. Brit. — ^Park's edition of the Royal and NoMe Auttiors. — ^Wood's Ath. 
TOT. I. and Colleges and Halls, art. " Deans of Christ Charch."" — Arcfiaeologia, 
▼ol. I. p. xviii.— Nicolson^s Uifit. libraiy. — Gent. Mag. toI. LXXXH. partIL 
|>. 314. 

C A R E W. 23S 

C AREW (George), brother to Richard, hereafter men- 
tioned, aod second son of Thomas Carevtr, esq. and Eliza- 
beth his wife, was probably born at his father^s seat at East 
Anthony, but in what particular year we are not able to 
ascertain. He was educated in the university of Oxford^ 
after which he studied law in the inns of court, and then 
set out on his travels. On his return to bis native country 
he was called to the bar, and after some time was appointed 
secretary to sir Christopher Hatton, lord chaucellor of 
England, by the especial recommendation of queen EU«« 
zabeth, who gave him a prothonotaryship in the chancery^ 
and conferred upon him the honour of knighthood. la 
1597, being then a roaster in chancery, he was sent am« 
bassador to the king of Poland. In the next reign, he was 
one of the commissioners for treating with the Scotch con^* 
corning an union between the two kingdoms ; after which 
he was appointed ambassador to the court of France, where 
he continued from the latter end of the year 1605 till 1609* 
During his residence in that country, he was regarded by 
the French ministers as being too partial to the Spanish 
interest, but probably their disgust to him might arise front 
his not being very tractable in some points of his nego* 
tiation, and particularly in the demand of the debts due t6 
the king his master. Whatever might be hb political prin«« 
ciples, it is certaiUj that he sought the conversation of 
men of letters; and formed, an intimacy with Thuimua, te 
whom he communicated an account of the transactions in 
Poland, whilst be was employed tbere» whidi was of great 
service to tjt^at admirable author in drawing up the 121at 
book of his History. After sir George Carew's retuFR 
from France^ he was advanced to the post of master of the 
court of ward^ which honourable situation he did not long 
live to enjoy ; for it appears from a letter wiritten by Thu- 
anus to Camden, in the spring of the j^ar (613, that ha 
was then lately deceased. In this letter, Thuanus laments 
hill death as a great misfortune to himself; for he cousin 
dered sir George's friendship not only as a per&onal ko-r 
nour, but as very useful in his work, and especially in ve** 
moving the calumnies and misrepresentations which might 
be raised of him in the court e>f England. Sir George 
Care w married Thomasine^ daughter of sir Francis Godtftl" 
phin, great grandfather of the lord treadurer Gofloiphi% 
^nd had by her two sons and three daughters. Francis, the 
elder soc^, was created knight of the bath at the corona- 
tion of king Charles tlie First, and attended the earl of 

236 C A R E W. 

Denbigh in the expedition for the relief of Rochelie, where 
he acquired great reputation by his courage and conduct ; 
but, being seized with a fit of sickness in bis voyage 
homeward, he died in the Isle of Wight/ on the 4th of 
June, 1628, at the age of twenty-seven. 

When sir George Carew returned in 1609 from his* 
French embassy, he drew up, and addressed to king James 
the First, " A Relation of the state of France, with the 
characters of Henry the Fourth, and the principal persons 
of that court ;'' which reflects great credit upon his sa- 
gacity and attention as an ambassador, and his abilities as 
a writer. In this piece are considered, 1. The name of 
France. 2. Its ancient and modern limits. 3. Its quality, 
strength, and situation. 4. Its riches. 5. Its political orders. 
6. Its disorders and dangers. 7. The persons governing, 
with those who are likely to succeed. 8. In what terms the 
French live with their bordering neighbours. And lastly, 
the state of matters between the king of England's domi- 
nions and theirs. These heads are divided, as occasion 
requires, into other subordinate ones. The characters are 
drawn from personal knowledge and close observation, and 
Blight be of service to a general historian of that period. 
The composition is perspicuous and manly, and entirely 
free from the pedantry which prevailed in the reign of king 
James L his taste having been formed in a better sera, that 
of Queen Elizabeth. The valuable tract we are speaking 
of lay for a long time in manuscript, till happily falling 
into the hands of the late earl of Hardwicke, it was com- 
municated by him to Dr. Birch, who published it in 1749, 
at the end of his ^'Historical view of the Negotiations 
between the Courts of England, France and Brussels, from 
the year 1592 t«. 1617." That intelligent and industrious 
writer justly observes, that it is a model, upon which am- 
bassadors may form and digest their notions and represen- 
tations ; and the late celebrated poet, Gray, spoke of it as 
an excellent performance. ^ 

CAREW (NiCHOtAS>j of the Carews of Beddington, in 
Surrey, was the son of sir Richard Carew, knight banneret, 
and Magdalen, daughter of sir Robert Oxenbridge. At an 
early age he was introduced to the court of king Henry 
VIIL where he soon became a favourite, and was made 
^ne of the gentlemen of the privy chamber. Having been 

^ Biof. Brit.— Birch's Prince Htniy.-^Mason's lifo of Grey, 

C A R £ W. 237 

employed upon some public business in France, he. be- 
came, as many other young men have been, so enamoured 
of French fashions and amusements, that, when he re- 
turned to his own country, he was continually liiaking in- 
'Tidious comparisons to the disadvantage of the English 
court. His majesty, who was too much of a &riton not to 
be disgusted at this behaviour, removed him from his per- 
son, and sentenced him to an honourable banishment, ap« 
pointing him governor of Ruysbank in Picardy ; to which 
government he was forthwith commanded to repair, much 
against his inclination. This little offence, however, was 
soon passed over, and we find him again employed by the 
king, and for several years his constant companion, and a 
partaker with him in all the justs, tournaments, masques, 
and other diversions of the same kind, with which that reigH 
abounded, and which are described very much at large in 
Hairs Chronicle : and as a more substantial mark of his 
favour, the king appointed him master of the horse, an 
office of great honour, being reckoned the third in rank 
about the king's household, and afterwards created him 
knight of the garter. His promotion may probably be at- 
tributed in some measure to the interest of Anne Bullen, 
to whom he was related through their common ancestor, 
lord Hog. His good fortune was not of long continuance ; 
for in 1539 he engaged in a conspiracy, as we are told by 
our historians, with the marquis of Exeter, the lord Mon- 
tacute, and sir Edward Neville ; the object of which was 
to set cardinal Pole upon the throne. The accuser was sir 
Geffrey Poole, lord Montacute's brother; the trial was 
summary, and the conspirators were all executed. Sir Ni- 
cholas Carew was beheaded on Tower-hill, March 3, 1539, 
when he made, says Holinshed, ^* a godly confession, both 
of his fault and superstitious faith.'^ Fuller mentions a 
tradition , of a quarrel which happened at bowls between 
the ki^g and sir Nicholas Carew, t^ which he ascribes his 
majesty's displeasure, and sir Nicholas's death. The mo- 
narch's known caprice, his hatred of the papists, to whom 
sir Nicholas was zealously attached, the absnrdhy of the 
plot, and the improbability of its success, might incline us 
to hearken to Fuller's story, if sir Nicholas alone had suf-r 
fered ; but as he had so many partners in his punishment, 
with whom it is not pretended that the king had any quar- 
rel, it will be more safe, perhaps, to rely upon the account 
given by our annalists. Sir Nicholajs Carew was buried in 

e»8 C A R E W. 

the church of St. Botolph, Aldersgate, in the same tomb 
with Thomas lord Darcy, and others of his family. ^ 

CAREW (Richard), author of the Survey of Cornwall 
and brother of the preceding sir George Carew, the am- 
|>assador, was the eldest son of Thomas Carew, of Eatst 
Anthony, esq. by Elizabeth Edgecombe, daughter of Ri- 
chard Edgecombe, of Edgecombe, esq. both in the same 
county, and was bom in 1555. When very young, he 
became a gentleman commoner of Christ Church college, 
Oxford ; and at fourteen years of age had the honour of 
disputing, extempore, with the afterwards famous sir Philip 
Sydney, in the presence of the^ earls of Leicester, War- 
wick, and other nobility. After spending three years at 
the university, he removed to the Middle Temple, where 
ke also resided three years, and then travelled into France, 
and applied himself so diligently to the acquisition of the 
French .language, that by reading and conversation he 
gained a complete knowledge of it in three quarters of a 
year. Not lon^ after his return to England he married, in 
1577, Juliana Arundel, of Trerice. In 1581, Mr. Carew 
was made justice of the peace, and in 1586 was appointed 
high sheriff of the county of Cornwal; about which time 
he was, likewise, queen's deputy for the militia. In 1589 
he was elected a member of the college of antiquaries, a 
distinction to which he was entitled by his literary abilities 
and pursuits. What particularly engaged his attention 
was his native county, his " Survey'* of which was published 
in quarto, at London, in 1 602. It has been twice reprinted, 
first in 1723, and next in 1769. Of this work Camden 
speaks in high terms, and acknowledges his obligations to 
the author. In the present improved state of topogra- 
phical knowledge, and since Dr. Borlase's excellent publi- 
eations relative to the county of Cornwall, the value of Mr. 
Garew's " Survey*' must have been greatly diminished. 
Mr. Gougb remarks, that the history and monuments of 
this county were faintly touched by Mr. Carew; but it is 
added, that he was a person extrfemely capable of descri- 
bing them, if the infancy of those studies at that time had 
afforded him light and materials. Another work of our 
author was a translation from the Italian, but originally 
written by Huarte in Spanish, entitled " The Examination 

1 Lysons't fioTironsj vol L; to which we are indebted for the whole of thi» ar- 
ticle, aod where there is a fiae portrait of sir Nicholas, and maay particulars of 
Hie fhmiJy, 

C A R E W. 239 

«f Men's Wits. In which, by discovering the variety of 
natures, is shewed for what profession each one is apt, and 
how far he shall pro6t therein." This was published at 
London in 1594, and afterwards in 1604; and, though 
Richard Carew^s name is prefixed to it, has been princi- 
pally ascribed by some persons to his father. According 
to Wood, Mr. Carew wrote also " The true and ready way 
to learn the Latin Tongue," in answer to a query, whether 
the ordinary method of teaching the Latin by the rules of 
grammar, be the best mode of instructing yotitbs in that 
language i This tract is involved in Mr. Samuel Hartlib'g 
book upon the same subject, and with the same title. It 
is certain that Mr. Carew was a gentleman of considerable 
abilities and literature,and that he was held in great estima- 
tion by some of the most eminent scholars of his time. He 
was particularly intimate with sir Henry Spelman, wha 
extols him for his ingenuity, virtue^ and learning. Amongst 
his neighbours he was celebrated as the most excellent 
manager of bees in Cornwall. He died Nov. 6, 1620, and 
was buried with his ancestors, in the church of St. Anthony, 
where a $plen,did monument, with a large inscription, in 
Latin, was erected to his memory. In an epigram writ- 
ten upon him he was styled " another Livy, another 
Maro, another Papinian,*' epithets somewhat too high for 
his real merit. An English translation of " Godfrey of 
Bulloigne," from Tasso, by him, was published in 159^4, 
4to. Of this an ample specimen has lately been given iii 
the Bibliographer. * 

CAREW (Thomas), an English poet, was the younger 
brother of sir Matthew Carew, a. zealous adherent to the 
fortunes of Charles I. and of the family of Carews in Glou* 
cestershire, but descended from the more ancient family 
of that name in Devonshire. He is supposed to have been 
born in 1589* According to Anthony Wood, he received his 
academical education at Corpus Christi college, Oxford,^ 
but was neither matriculated, nor took any degree. After 
leaving college he improved himself by travelling, accord- 
ing to the custom of the age, and by associating with men 
of learning and talents both at home and abroad ; and 
being distinguished for superior elegance of manners and 
taste, be was received into the court of Charles I. as gen- 

^ Bipg. Brit.-~-Faller'8 Worthies.<-*Ath. Qx« vol. I.^Bibliographer, vol. U 
jf. 30. — Gou^h's Topography, vol, t 

240 C A R E W. 

tieman of the privy-chamber, and sewer in ordinary. His 
wit had recommended him to his sovereign, who, however. 
Clarendon informs us, incurred the displeasure of the 
Scotch nation by bestowing upon him the place of sewer, 
in preference to a gentleman recommended upon the in- 
terest of the courtiers of that nation. He appears after this 
appointment to have passed his days in affluence and gaiety. 
His talents were highly valued by his contemporaries, par- 
ticularly Ben Jonson and sir William Davenant. Sir John 
Suckling only, in his Session of the Poets, insinuates that 
his poems cost him more labour than is consistent with the 
fertility of real genius. But of this there are not many 
marks visible in his works, and what sir John mistakes for 
the labour of costiveness, may have been only the laudable 
fare he employed in bringing his verses to a higher degree 
of refinement than many of his contemporaries. His death 
is said to have taken place in 163^9, which agrees with the 
information we have in Clarendon's Life. *^ He was a 
person of a pleasant and facetious wit, and made many 
poems (especially in the amorous way) which for the sharp- 
ness of the fancy, and the elegance of the language in 
which that fancy was. spread, were at least equal, if not 
superior to any of that time. But his glory was, that after 
j^ty years of h\s life spent with less severity or exactness 
than it ought to have been, he died with great remorse for 
that licence, and with the greatest manifestation of Chris- 
tianity, that his best friends could desire.'' It is pleasing 
to record such ampl^ atonement for the licentiousness of 
some of his poems, which, however, most of his editors 
have persisted in handing down to posterity. 

It does not appear that any of his poems were published 
during his life-time, except such as were' set to mtisic. 
The first collection was printed in 1640, 12mo, the second 
in 1642, the third (not in 1654 as Cibber asserts, but) in 
1651, and a fourth in 1670. In 1772 Mr. Thomas Davies 
published an edition, with a few notes, and a short cha- 
racter, in which the writer has taken for granted some 
particulars for which no authority can be found. Carew's 
Coelum Britannicum, at one time erroneously attributed 
to Davenant, was printed with the first editions of his 
poems, and afterwards separately in 1651. Langbaine, 
and Cibber after him, say that our author placed the La- 
tin motto on the front, when printed, but no edition printed 
in his life-time is now known. The distich, however, might 

C A R E W. 241 

* > 

fcav6.been prefixed to the music of the masque. Oldys, in 
bis MS^ notes on Langbaine, informs us, that ^' Carew\ 
sonnets were more in request than any poet's of hi^ time^ 
that is, between 1630 and 1640. They were many of 
them set to music by the two famous composers, Henry 
Und William Lawes, and other eminent masters, and sung 
at coilrt in their masques.'* It may be added, that Carew 
t^ras one of the old poets whom Pope studied, and from 
tvhom he borrowed. Dr. Percy honours him with the com« 
pliment of being an " elegant, and almost forgotten writer, 
whose poems deserve to be revived." But no modera 
critic appears to have estimated his merit with more libe- 
rality than Mr. Headley : his opinion, however, is here 
copied, not without suspicion that his enthusiasm may be 
thought to have carried him too far. 

** The consummate elegance of this gentleman entitles 
him to very' considerable attention. Sprightly, polished^ 
and perspicuous, every part of his works displays the man 
of sense, gallantry, and breeding; indeed many of his 
productions have a certain happy fiqish, and'bQ.tray a dex- 
terity both of thought and expression much superior to 
any thing of his contemporaries, and, on similar! subjects, 
rarely surpassed by his successors. Carew has tfie ease 
without the pedantr^^ of Waller, and perhaps les^ conceit. 
He reminds us of the best manner of lord Lytteltoq, Wal- 
Ifer is too exclusively considered as the first man* who 
brought versification to any thing like its present standard. 
Carew's pretensions to the same merit are seldom suf- 
ficiently either considered or allowed. Though love had 
long before softened us into civility, yet it was of a formal j 
ostentatious, and romantic cast ; and, with a very few ex- 
ceptions, its effects upon composition were similar to those 
on mannet-s. Something more light, unaffected, and al- 
Ihring, was still wanting : in every thing but sincerity of 
ifitefition it was deficient. Panegyric, declamatory and 
nauseous, was rated by those to whom addressed. On thd 
principle of Rubens's taste for beauty, by its quantity, 
not its elegance. Satire, dealing in rancour rather than 
reproof, was m6r6 inclined to lash than to laugh us out ojf . 
our vices ; and nearly counteracted her intentions by her 
^ant of good manners. Carew and Waller jointly begaa 
to remedy these defects. In them, gallantry, for the first 
time, was accompanied by the graces, the fulsomeness of' 
panegyric forgot its gentility, and the edge of satire r€p«" 

yoL,viiu K ' 

242 C A R E W^ 

dered keener in proportion to its smoothness. Suckling, 
says of oilr author, in his Session of the Poets, that 

• ' * the issue of his hrain 
Was seldome brought forth but with labour and pain.* 

*^ In Lloyd's Worthies, Carew is likewise called * elabo-' 
rate and accurate/ However the fact might be, the in- 
ternal evidence of his poems says no such thing. Hume 
has properly remarked, that Waller's pieces * aspire not to 
th^ sublime, still less to the pathetic' Carew, in his 
beautiful masque, has given us instances of the former; 
and, in his Epitaph on Lady Mary Villiers, eminently of 
the latter.*' * 

CAREY (Henry), earl of Monmouth, was the eldest 
son of Robert, the first earl of Monmouth, who died in 
1639, and whose ** Memoirs," written by himself, and 
containing some curious particulars of secret history of the 
Elizabethan period, were published from a manuscript in 
the possession of the late earl of Corke and Orrery, in 
1759; 8vo. Henry, his son, was bprn in 1596, admitted 
d fellow commoner of Exeter college, Oxford, at the age 
of fifteen, and took the degree of B. A. in 1613, after 
'which he was sent to travel into foreign countries. In 1616 
he was made a knight of the bath at the creation of Charles 
prince of Wales. In 1625 he was known by the name of 
lord Lepington, his father's title before he was created earl 
of Monmouth,'' and was noted. Wood says, as " a person 
well skilled in modern languages, and a general scholar." 
This taste for study was his consolation when the depres- • 
sion of the nobility after the death of Charles I. threw many 
of them into retirement. He died June 13, 1661. lu' 
Chauncey's Hertfordshire is the inscription on his monument, 
in the church at Rickmanswortb, which mentions his livings 
forty-one years in marriage, with his countess, Martha, 
daughter of the lord treasurer Middlesex. He was a 
most laborious writer, but chiefly of translations, and,^ as 
l6rd Orford observes, seems to have distrusted his abilities,, 
and to have made the fruits of his studies his amusement 
rather than his method of fame. Of bis lordship's publica- 
tions we have, 1. '^ Romulus andTarquin ; or De Principe 
et Tyraniio," Lond. 1637, 12mo, a translation from Mai- 
rezzi, in praise of which sir John Suckling has some versea 

^ niog. Brit.-*^Cibber'g Lives, vdl. I.— Censura Literaria, vol. III. and IX. 
*-*Elti9'8 SpecimenB. — Ath. OtL, t«1. l.-^Headley'i BeauUeL-^Johttion wni Ghai« 
Herd's Englifb PoeU, ISIO. 

CAREY. 243 

hi his " Fragmenia Aurea," and others were prefixed by 
Stapylton, Davenant, Carew, &c. It came to a third edi* 
tioii in 1648. 2. ** Speech in the house of peers, Jan. 
30, 1641, upon occasion of the present distractions, and 
of his Majesty's removal from Whitehall," London, 1641. 

3. <* Historical relations of the United Provinces, aiid of 
Flanders,*' London, 1652, fol. translated from Ben tivoglio, 

4. " History of the Wars in Flanders," ibid. 1654, fol. fronn 
the same author, with a portrait of the translator. 5. ^^ Ad- 
vertisement from Parnassus, in two Centuries: with the 
politic touchstone,^* ibid. 1656, fol. from Boccalini. 6. 
" Politic Discourses, in six books," ibid. 1657, fol. 7. 
" History of Venice," ibid. 1658, fol. both from Paul Pa* 
ruta, a noble Venetian. 8. ** The use of Passions," ibid. 
1649 and 1671, 8vo, from the French of J. F. Senault. 9. 
" Man become guilty ; or the corruption of his nature by 
sin," ibid, from the same author. 10.* " The History of 
the late Wars of Christendom,*' 1641, fol. which lord Or- 
ford thinks is the same work with his translation of ** Sir 
Francis Biondi's History of the Civil Wars of England, 
between the houses of York and Lancaster." 1 1. *' Ca- 
priata's " History of Italy," 1663, fol. His lordship began 
also to translate from the Italian ." Priorato's History of 
France," but died before he could finish it. It was com- 
pleted by William Brent, esq., and printed at London, 
1677. » 

CAREY (Henry), a musical composer and poet, once 
of great popular reputation, was an illegitimate son of 
George Savile, marquis of Halifax, who had the honour of 
presenting the crown to William IIL Car^y is said to 
have received an annuity from a branch of that family till 
the day of his death, and he annexed the name of Savile 
to the Christian names of all the male part of his own family. 
At what period he was born is not known. His first lessons 
in music he had from one Lennert, a German, and had some 
instructions also from Roseingrave and Geminiani, but he 
liever attained much depth in the science. The extent of 
his abilities seems to have been the composition of a ballad 
air, or at most a little cantata, to which he was just able 
to set a bass ; yet if mere popularity be the test of genius, 
Carey was one of the first in his time. His chief employ- 

1 Ath. Ox. vol. U. Park's Royal and Nohle Authors. -^Lloyd's MemoirSt 
Ibl. p. 650. — Ccnsura Ut. vol. II. and III. 

K 2 

^44 e A R E Y. 

ment was teaching the boarding-schools, and aiiu)i»g peo*. 
pie of middling rank in private families, before tradesmen's 
daughters, destined to be tradesmen's wives> were put 
under the tuition of the first professors. 

Though Carey bad but little skill in music, he had a 
prolific invention, and very early in his li£e distingntsbed. 
himself by the composition of spngs, being the author both 
of the words and music. One of these, beginning ^^ Of all 
the girls that are so smart,'* and since its late revival, known 
by the name of ^ Sally in our alley,'' be set to an air so 
very pleasant and original, as still to retain its popular cfaa« 
racter. Addison praised it for the poetry, and Geminiani 
for the tune. In 1715 he produced two farces> one of 
which, '^ The Contrivances," had considerable success. In 
1720 he pub lilted a small collection of '^ Poems;" and ia 
1722, a farce called ^* Hanging and Marriage." In 1732 
he published six ^^ Cantatas,*' written and composed by 
himself; and about the same time composed several songs 
for the ^' Provoked Husband" and other modern coiftediea* 
In 172^, he published, by subscription, bis poems much 
enlarged, with the addition of one entitled ^' Namby 
Pamby," in ridicule of Ambrose Phillips^s lines on the in- 
iknt daughter of lord Carteret. Carey's talent lay in broad, 
burlesque humour ; and in ridicule of the bombast of mo- 
dern tragedies, he produced his ^^ Chrononhotontliologos," 
in 1734, which will always be in season, as long as extras 
vagance and bombast^ are encouraged on the stage. He 
also wrote a farce called the ^ Honest Yorkshireman,^ 
which was very successful : two interludes, " Nancy," and 
^ Thomas and Sally ,'^ and two serious operas, ^^ Amelia,'* 
set to music by John Frederic Lampe, and ^^ Teraminta," 
by John Christopher Smith, Handel's disciple, friend, and 
successor, in superintending the performance of ora** 
torios. The year 1737 was rendered memorable at Covent- 
garden theatre by the success of the burlesque op^ra of th^ 
** Drstgon of Wantley," written by Carey, and set by 
Lampe, '^ after the Italian manner." This excellent piec« 
of humour had run twenty-two nights, when it was stopped^ 
with all other public amusements, by the death of her ma* 
jesty queen Caroline, November 20, but was resumed 
again on the opening of the theatres in January fellowing, 
and supported as many representations as the Beggar'a 
^pera had' done, ten years before. And if Gay's original 
intention in writing his musical drama was to ridicule the 

c A R I; Y. us 

* opera, the execution of hi* plan was not so happy as that 
of Carey ; in which the mock heroic, tuneful monster, reci- 
tative, splendid habits, and style of music, all conspired to re- 
mind the audience of what they bad seen atid heard at the lyric 
theatre, more effectually than the most Tdlg^ir street tunes 
could do ; and much more innocently than the tricks and 
transactions of abandoned tliievcs ana prostitutes. Lampe's 
music to this farcical drama, was not only excellent fifty 
years ago, but is still modern and in good taste. In 1738^ 
** Margery, or the Dragoness," a sequel to the " Dragon 
of Wantley," written with equal humour, and as well set 
by Lampe, came out ; but had the fate of all sequels. 
When the novelty of a subject is faded away, and the 
ebaracters have been developed, it is difEcult to revive the 
curiosity of the public about persoris and things of which 
opinions are already formed. The " Dragoness" appeared 
but few nights, and was ne^'er revived. 

As Carey was an entertaining companion, he shaded the 
fate of those who mistake the roar of the tabl^ for friend- 
ship. At first, however, he was not altogether disappointed. 
The publication of his songs in 1740 in a collection en- 
titled **The Musical Century," and of his dramatic Works in 
1743, in a small quarto volume, was encouraged by a nu- 
merous subscription. But he who administered to the 
mirth of others, was himself unhappy; afid whether from 
embarrassed circumstances, domestic uneasiness, or, as has 
been supposed, the malevolence of some of his own pro- 
fession, he sunk into despondency, and put an end to his 
life by a cord, Oct. 4, 1743, at his house in Warner-street, 
Cold Bath Fields. Carey's humour, however low, was never 
offensive to decency, and all his songs have a moral or 
patriotic tendency. As to his claim to the honour of hav- 
ing composed our great national air of *^ God save the 
King," which his son, the subject of the next article, fre- 
quently brought forward. Dr. Burney is of opinion that it 
wa* of prior date, written for James II. while the prince 
of Orange was hovering over the coast ; and when th^ lat- 
ter became king, was forgot. It is certain that in 1745, 
when Dr. Arne harmonized it for Drury-lane theatre^ and 
Dr. Bumey for Covent- garden, the original author of the 
melody was wholly uukuowu. — ^The wTiter of a " Succinct 
Account" of Carey, says that be wa^be principal pro- 
jector of the fund for decayed musicians, which was held. 

246 C A HE y. 

when first established^ at the Turk's head in Gerrard-street^ 
Soho. * 

CAREY (George Savile), son of the above, inherited 
a considerable portion of his father's taste and spirit, and 
much, of his misfortunes. He was intended for a printer, 
but his ** stage-struck mind" led him to the theatres, in 
which he had little success^ yet enough to give him a wan- 
dering unsettled disposition. For forty years, he employ- 
ed himself in composing and singing a vast number of 
popular songs, chiefly of the patriotic kind, in which there 
was not much genuine poetry, or cultivated music. These 
he performed from town to town, in what he called '^ Lec- 
tures.*' He wrote also from 1766 to 1792, several farces, 
a list of which may be seen in the Biographia Dramatica, 
and by the performance of which he earned temporary 
supplies. Like his father, he excluded every thing inde-> 
cent or immoral from his compositions. Besides these 
dramatic pieces, he wrote, 1. ^^ Analects in prose and 
verse," 1771, 2 vols. 2. ** A Lecture on Mimickry," ^ 
^alent in which he excelled, 1776. 3. ^^ A Rural Ramble," 
1777 ; and 4. " Balnea, or sketches of the different Water- 
ing-places in England," 1799. He died July 14, 18©7, 
aged sixty-four, being born the year his father died, and 
was buried by a subscription among his friends, having 
never realized any property, or indeed having been ever 
anxious but for the passing hour. ' 

CARITEO, whose family name has been lost in his 
poetical appellation, was a distinguished literary ornament 
of Naples in the fifteenth century. He is said to have 
been a native of Barcelona, and was related to Corvinus, 
bishop of Massa, who was also a member of the academy 
of Napl«;^. Of his friendly intercourse with the first scho- 
lars and chief nobility of Naples, and even with the indi- 
viduals of the reigning family there, his works aiford innu- 
merable instances, whilst in those of Sanazzarius and Pon- 
tanusj, he is frequently mentioned with particular affection 
and commendation. His writings, which are wholly in 
the Italian tongue, were collected and published by his 
surviving friend Peter Summonte, at Naples, 1509, 4to ; 
but before this were published ^* Sonetti e Canzoni del 

** Hawkins and Btimey's Hist, of Music, and the latter in Rees's Cyclopaedia* 
-»4!^Dt. Ma|^. vol. LXV, - p. 544. — ^Biographia Dramatica. 
9 Biog. Dramatica.— Gent Mag. voL LXXVLt 


C A R I T E O. 247 

Gbariteo intitolati : Endimione a la Liina,'' Naples, 1506, 
4to; Venice, 1507, 8 vo; and in 1519, appeared "Opera 
nuova, e amorosa composta, &c.'* 8vo, a very rare book. His 
writings are characterised by a vigour of sentiment, and a 
genuine vein of poetry; and without rivalling the ele« 
jgance of the Tusoan poets, they possess a considerable 
share of ease and harmony. One of his Canzone may be 
seen in our authority. * 

CARISSIMI (GiACOMO, or Jam£s), a Roman musical 
composer of the seventeeo^ century, whose productions 
were not only the delight of his contemporaries, but are 
still sought and hoarded by the curious as precious relics, 
was, \ety early in life, appointed master of the cha- 
|>el to the Getman college at Rome, in preference to all 
other candidates. Alberto delle Valle, an excellent judge 
of music, speaking of the compositions of Carissimi, which 
he heard at Rome, without knowing his name, says, that 
he had heard the vespers performed on Easter Monday, by 
the niins only, at the church dello Spirito Santo, in florid 
music, with such perfection ^ he never in his life had 
heard before ; and on the last Christmas-eve, in attending 
the whole service at the church of St. Apollinare, where 
every part of it was performed agreeably to so solemn an 
occasion ; though, by arriving too late, he w^ obliged to 
stand the whole time in a very great crowd, he remained 
(here with the utmost pleasure, to hear the excellent music 
that was performed. In the beginning, lie was particularly- 
enchanted by the " Venite exultemus,^' which w^as more 
/exquisite than words can describe. ** I know not," says 
Valle, '^ who was the author of it, but suppose it to halve 
been the production of the Maestro di Capella of that 
church." There was no master in Italy at this time, 1640, 
whose compositions this description will so well suit, as 
those of the admirable Carissimi, who was now, in all pro- 
bability, the Maestro di Capella in question. It was in 
composing for this church that he acquired that great and 
extensive reputation which be enjoyed during a long life, 
and which his offspring, or musical productions, still de- 
servedly enjoy. * 

Kircher, in his Musurgia, (tom.i. p. 603.) after de- 
scribing his music and its effects in terms of high panegyric, 
ppesks of him as a master then living, 1 650, who had long 

' Roscoe*8 Life of l^eo. 


filled the j)lace ,of composer to the CoUegio ApoIUnariB wiU| 
great reputation, and according to Mattheson, he was living 
IQ 1672. His sacred and secular cantatas, and motets^ 
have always had admission into every collection of goo4 
music. It has been often asserted by musical writers th^t 
vhe vvas the inventor of cantatas ; but these monodies had 
a pore early origin. Carissimi, however, must be allowed 
not only the merit of transferring the invention from the 
chamber to the church, where he first introduced cantatas 
on sacred subjects, but of greatly improving recitative in 
general, rendering it a more expressive, articulate, and 
intelligible language, by its approximation to speech and 
declamation. Many of Carissimi^s works are preserved in 
the British Museum, and in Dr. Aldrich^s collection at 
Christ church, Oxford. * 

CARLETON (Sir Dudley), Lord Dorchester, aq 
eminent statesman in the beginning of the seventeenth 
century, the eldest surviving son of Anthony Carleton, esq. 
of Baldwin Brightwell, near Watlington,Oxon. was born at his 
father^s seat, March 10, 1573. He was educated at West- 
ininster school, and at Oxford, where he became a student 
of Christ church about 1591, and distinguished as a young 
man of parts. From hence, after taking a bachelor's de- 
gree in 1595, he set out on his travels, and on his return 
to Oxford, was created master of arts in July 1600. Iq 
the same year we find him appointed secretary to sir Tho- 
mas Parry, our ambassador in France ; and in 1 603 he served 
in the same capacity in the house of Henry earl of Nor- 
thumberland. He probably became afterwards a courtier^ 
as he speaks in one of his letters of holding the place of 
gentleman usher. In the first parliament of James I. he 
represented the borough of St. Mawes in Cornwall, and 
ivas considered as an active member ^nd an able speaker. 
In April 1605, he accompanied lord Norris into Spain, but 
in the latter end of that year was suifimoned to £ngland| 
;:nd on his arrival imprisoned, as being implicated in th<^ 
gunpowder treason ; but his innocence being proved, be 
was honourably discharged. In 1 607 he married a piece 
of sir Maurice Carey, with whom he resided some time iii 
Chancery -lane, and afterwards in Little St. l^artholomew's, 
near West Smith field. At this period he appears to have 
been unprovided for^ as in one of his letters h,e complain^ 

' Hawkini and Burney'i Hitt of Moste, a»d Dr. Burj^ey in Re€i*f Cyclopadia. 

• p A H L 5 T O N. «» 

p{ aa " luripy ff difficmHips, » (Jisajr yf»r« a pldgi^y towo, a 
growing wife, a.iwj a poor pui^." Atltf r ]^eing4i9ftpppiBttedi, 
/rpm political reasons, in two ;prQsqpf<^, that pf going to 
IreJanjci^ ap.d th^t of goiiig to J^rvsseis, in ao official ca^ 
pacitjy he \^:as nominated to the eipt^assy at V^nipe, and 
.before setting out, in Sept. 1610, received die botiaiir of 
,!knigbthood. Tiie functions of this apppiiHiaisnt h^ 4is^ 
charged with great ability, and 4^oon proved tWt he w^ 
qualified for diploanatic affairs. In 1615, h^ returaed to 
England, ^ir Henry Wotton being appointed in hi^ roon^ 
and on bU arrival found all ministerial ppyver and favour 
/^entered in sir Qeorge Vitliers, afterwards duke of Bu^ki- 
ingham. Soon after, on the recommendation of sir Kalph 
Winwood, one of the secretaries of atat^, he was employed 
in what was then one of the most important embassies ift 
the gift of the crown, that to th^ States Gieoeral of Hc^Und^ 
and in this he continued from 1616 to 1|S26, and was the 
}ast English minister who had the honour of sitting in the 
council of state for the United Provinces, a privilege wbieb 
queen Elizabeth had wisely obtained, when she undertook 
the protection of these provinces, and.whiqiji wa^ aonesied 
jl;o the possession of the pautipn^^ry tpWQ$. 

On his arriv^ in Holland, h^ wa$ sppa involyed m ibe 
disputes which then raged between the Ara^Qiani audi 
Calvinists; and as the Frenc)i supported t.h0 pemaio^arf 
Baruevelt, sir Dudley topk the part pf pripee MaUriicew 
His situation liere, owing to the poli|;ic§ of tk^ d^ike of 
Buckingham and other events, which belong to the hi»i)ory 
of the tunes, was one of peculiar delicacy aod dif^uUy ; 
yet he appears to have conducted himself as aoftba^sador 
from England, fA^ith great; wisdoni, fir^m^cts, and prudooice. 
Tbinl^ing tlxat such services merited some reward, and aa 
every thing of that kind depended on the duke of Buckings 
bam, sir Dudley addressed his grac^ on tb^ subject in a 
strain of servility and adulation, which might diminish our 
respect (ox his character, if we were to forget the relative 
state of the parties. We do npt find, hpwever, that hia 
application w£^ at this time successful. 

In December 1625, soon after his return to England, he 
was appointed vice chamberlain of his m^esty's household^ 
^nd at the same time was joined with earl lioliaod in am 
embassy to France, respecting the restitutiop of the ships, 
yi^hich had been lien t to Louis XIII. and w^re employed 
f gs^nst the Ilocbeller^ ; tp obtai^i i^ p^ce fojr the Frenohi 

850 C A R L E T O N. ' 

protestants agreeably to former edicts, and to obtain the 
French accession to the treaty of the Hague. Although all 
these objects were not attained in the fullest intention^ yet 
the ambassadors were thought entitled to commendation 
for their firm and prudent management of the various con* 
ferences. On their return in March 1625*6, they found 
the parliament sitting, and the nation inflamed to the 
highest degree at tha mismanagement of public affairs* 
At this crisis, sir Dudley Carleton, who represented Has- 
tings in Sussex, endeavoured to mitigate the violence of 
the commons in their impeachment of the duke of Buck- 
ingham ; but his arguments, although not well suited to 
the humour of the times, were acceptable at court, and 
immediately after he was called up to the house of peers 
by the style and title of Baron Carleton of Imbercourt in 
the county of Surrey : and his next employment was more 
fully adapted to his talents. This was an embassy-extraor- 
dinary to France to justify the sending away of the queea 
of England's French servants^ which he managed with his 
usual skill. 

In March 1626-7, he was ordered to resume his cha- 
racter of ambassador in Holland, where our interest, from 
various causes, was on the decline, and required all his 
address and knowledge to revive it. He had many con- 
versations with the states on the existing differences, his 
conduct in all which received the approbation of his royajl 
master, but he had not the same influence with the States 
as on former occasions ; and returned in May or June 1628, 
leaving as his deputy, Mr, Dudley Carleton, his nephew, 
i¥ho had discharged that trust before during bis absence, 
with diligence and capacity. Soon after his arrival in 
England, king Charles bestowed an additional mark of his 
approbation, by creating him viscount Dorchester; and 
in the mean time he continued to attend the court in his 
office of vice chamberlain, and was employed in foreign 
affairs of the most secret nature, as assistant to the duke 
of -Buckingham. »* When that minister set out for Ports- 
mouth to take the command of the fleet and army, which 
was preparing for the relief of Rochelle, lord Dorchester 
accompanied him, and was entrusted by Contarini, the 
Venetian Ambassador here, to manage the, first overtures 
of an accommodation with France, which was. interrupted 
by the murder of the duke of Buckingham. King Charles 
then declared be would, for thefuturej be his own first 

C A R L E T O N. 251 

minister, and leave the executive part of the administraw 
tion to every man within the compass of his province. The 
iirst question of importance which came before the coun- 
cil was, whether the parliament should sit on the day ap- 
pointed, the 20th of October. Some were of opinion, that 
it would be the most probable method of restoring a happy 
union between the king and his people ; but his majesty 
declared his pleasure for a further prorogation till the 20th 
of January, 162S«9, which lord Dorchester, says he thought 
the wisest course. 

The king was now determined to give the seals of se- 
cretary of $tate to lord Dorchester ; and as the measure 
was taken, though, not yet divulged, of making peace as 
soon as possible bota with France and Spain, he judged it 
of the utmost consequence to have one in that department, 
whosp judgment and skill in negotiation had been exercised 
in a long course of foreign employment. Lord Conway 
hful for several years discharged tdat great trust, ac- 
cording to the earl of Clarendon's expression, with notable 
insufficiency, s^nd a$ old age and sickness were now added 
»to his original incapacity, the court and nation must with 
great satisfaction have^seen him succeeded by so able a 
minister as lord Dorchester, but the parliament, when it 
met 00 the day appointed, agreed no better with the court 
^an it had done in the preceding session. The lord trea- 
surer Weston, and Dr. Laud, bishop of London, were 
become as great objects of national dislike as Buckingham 
had ever been, while the commons shewed their aversion 
to Westpn in the state, and to Laud in the church, by 
Warm remonstrances against the illegal exaction of tonnage 
and poundage, and the increase of Popish and Arminian 
doctrines ; on which account the king dissolved the house 
on the 10th of March. According to some writers, lord 
Dorchester in this parliament proposed the laying an ex- 
jcise upon the nation, which was taken so ill, that though 
he was a privy counsellor, and principal secretary of state, 
he with difficulty escaped being committed to the Tower. 
Of this story, which we believe originated in Howel's let- 
ters, and is referred to in Lloyd's State Worthies, we find 
no traces in the parliamentary history, or in the lords and 
commons journals. It is, however, generally inferred from 
the authority of the ^arl of Clarendon, that lord Dorchester 
was better acquainted with the management of foreign af- 
fairs,, than with the gonstitution. Laws, and customs of his 

P*8 CARL Et on; 

jown country. In his capadty of secretary of statei he w^ 
a chief agent in carrying on and completing the treaties 
with France and Spain ; and besides these, be directed in 
the course of the years 1629 and 1630, the negociations 
of sir Henry Vane in tiolland, and sir Thomas Roe in 
Poland and the maritime parts of Germany. The former 
was sent to the Hague, to explain to the States the motives 
of our treaty with Spain, and to sound their dispositions 
•about joining in it; and the latter was employ^ as me- 
dicitor between the kings of Sweden and Poland; after 
which he was very instrumental in persuading the heroic 
Gubtavus Adoiphus to undertake his German expeditioif. 
Lord Dorchester appears, likewise, to have kept up a pri- 
vate correspondence with the queen of Bohemia, who rising 
superior to her misfortunes, he used the best ofiEices in his 
power to prevent misunderstandings between her and the 
king her brother ; and he gave her advice, when the occa- 
sion reqtiired it, with the freedom and sincerity of an old 
friend and servant. 

Lord Dorchester did not live to see an end of the per- 
plexed negociations on the affairs of Germany, and the 
restitution of the Palatinate; for« having long struggled 
with the disorders occasioned by frequent returns of the 
stone and gravel, he died Feb. 15, 16S1-32, in the fifty- 
ninth year of his age, and was interred in Westminster- 
abbey. Having no heirs, his title became extinct, but 
was revived in 1786, in the person of general sir Guy 
Carleton, of another family. 

With regard to the general abilities and character of 
lord Dorchester, it appears from all his political remains, 
that he was a judicious, faithful, and diligent noinister, and 
better qualified for his department than any who were his 
immediate predecessors or i^uccessors in the same office* 
King Charles himself, who wa^ a good judge of bis ser- 
vants' abilities, used to say, as sir P. Warwick relates ia 
his jyiemoirs, ^^ that he had two secretaries of state, the 
lords Dorchester and Falkland ; onQ of whom was a dull 
man in comparison of the other, and yet pleased him the 
best ; for he always brought him his own thoughts in his 
own words ; the latter cloathed them in so fine a dress, that 
he did not always know them again/* Allowing for some 
defects of stiffness and circumlocution, which are commoa 
to all the writings of that time, lord Dorchester's dispatches 
fure drawn up in th^t plain, perspicuous, and unaffected 

C A R L E T O N; »5* 

slile which was fittest for basiness. Domestie concetnsr 
were ik) part of his proTUice, but entively managed by the 
Iprd ureasurer Westoa and archbishop Laud. He held the 
pen singly in foreign sifFairs, and was regretted by those 
Tpho were used to receive the instructions of govern meut 
from a secretary of 'state^ upon whom they could depend 
that he would make a just report of their services, and tbeft 
he would not mislead or misrepresent the ministers with 
whom he corresponded. That he died much lamented by 
the public in general, and with the reputation of an honest 
and, well- deserving statesnany is declared by sir Thomas 
Hoe^ in a manuscript letter to a friend in Holland. The 
earl of Clarendon's assertion^ that lord Dorchester was 
unacqnaiuted with the government, laws, and customs of 
his own country, and the nature of the people, is disputed 
by Dn.Birchv mhis ** Review of the Negociations," who 
considers it as absohitely incompaitible with the experience 
wUeh he must have acquired in the house of commons. 
Biut^ not to mention that the noble historian, who had no 
pvcgiudice against his lordship, could not well b^ deceived 
iu the fact, it is, we think, confirmed by the figure he 
made in the parliament of 16*29, and by his acquiescence 
in all the obnoxious measures of Buckingham, Weston, 
and Laud. The following articles are attributed to his 
pen, by Anthony Wood and lord Orford : 1. " Balance 
pour peser en toute equit^ & droicture la Harangue fait 
vagiteres en P Assemblee des illustres & puissans Seignoures 
Messeigneurs les Estats generaux des Provinces Unies du 
Pjaisbas, &c." 1618, 4to. 2, «* Harangue fait au Counseile 
de Mess, les Estats generaux des Provinces Unies, tou- 
chant le Discord & te Troubles de TEglise & la Police, 
€ius6s par la Doctrine d'Arminius," 6 Oct. 1617, printed 
with the former. 3. Various Letters in the ^^ Cabala, or 
Strinia sacra,^* London, 1663, fol. 4. Various ^Letters to 
<Jeoi^e, duke of Buckingham, in " Cabal$i, or Mysteries of 
State,** London, 1654, 4to. 5. Several French and Latin 
Letters to the learned Vossius, printed in " Ger. Jo. Vossii 
& clarorum Virorum ad eum Epistolae,"^ London, 1690, foL 
6^ Several Speeches in Parliament, in 1626, in Rush- 
worth's Collections. 7. Several Letters in the three vo- 
lumes of ** Sir Ralph Winwood*s Memorials," published at 
London, in folio, 1725. 8. A Letter to the earl of Salis- 
bury, printed in " Howard's Collection." 9. Memoirs 
for Disjpatches of political Affairs relating to Htdland and* 

«64 G A R L E T O N- 

England, ann« 1618; with several Propositions made to tbe 
States. — Manuscript. 10. Particular Observations of the 
military Affairs in the Palatinate, and the Low Countriesi 
annis 1621, 1622. — Manuscript. 11. Letters relating to 
State Affairs, written to the king and viscount Rochester^ 
from Venice, ann. 1613. — Manuscript. The manuscript 
pieces here, mentioned, are probably no more than parts of 
the collections preserved in the Paper office. : The letters 
from and to sir Dudley Carleton, during his embassy in 
Holland, from January 1615-16, to December 1620, pro- 
perly selected, and as occasion required, abridged, or only 
noted, 'Were published by the late earl of Hardwicke, in 
1757, in one vol. 4to, with an historical preface. The se- 
cond edition of the same work, with lar^e additions to the 
historical preface, appeared in 1775, and has been twice 
reprinted since. These letters, if some allowances be made 
for parjy violences and prejudices, contain more clear, 
accurate, and interesting accounts of that remarkable pe- 
riod of Dutch history to which they relate, than are any 
where extant. There are, likewise, discussed in the 
course of them, many points of great importance, at that 
time, to the English commerce. Lord Hardwicke's excel- 
lent preface has furnished the materials of the present 
sketch. * 

CARLETON (George), a learned bishop in the seiven- 
teenth century, son of Guy, second son of Thomas Carle- 
ton, of Carleton-hall, in Cumberland, was born at Norham, 
in Northumberland, of whose important castle his father 
was then governor. By the care of the eminent Bernard 
Gilpin, he was educated in grammar-learning ; and when 
fit for the university, sent by the same generous person to 
Edmund-hall in Oxford, in the beginning of the year 
1576, and was by him chiefly maintained in his studies. 
On the 12th of February 1579-80, he took his degree of 
B. A. at the completing of which, he exceeded all tliat 
performed their exercises at that time. ^ The same year 
he was elected probationer fellow of Merton-coUege, and 
remained in that society above five years before he pro- 
ceeded in his faculty, not taking the degree of M. A. till 
June the 14th, 1585. While he remained in college, he 
was esteemed a great orator and poet, and in process of 

1 Preface as above.— Biog. Brit. —Lloyd's SUte Worthies.— Ath. Ox. rol. I. 
Birch's View of the Negociatiohs, and Life of Prince Henry.— Park's Royal and 
Noble Author8.-^larendoB's Hist 

C A R L E T O N. 25ft 

time became a better disputant in divinity, than he had be*i* 
fore been in philosophy^ What preferments he had, is not 
mentioned, nor does it appear that he was possessed of any 
dignity in the church till he became a bishop. After 
having continued many years in the university, and takea 
the degree of B. D. May 16, 1554, and that of Doctor, 
t>ecember 1, 1613, he was advanced to the bishopric of 
LandafF, to which he was confirmed July 11,, 1618, and 
consecrated at Lambeth the next day. The same year he 
was sent by king James I. with three other English divines. 
Dr. Hall, afterwards bishop of Exeter, Dr. Davenant, af- 
terwards bishop of Salisbury, and Dr. Ward, master of 
Sidney-college, Cambridge, and one from Scotland, Dr* 
Walter Balcanqual, afterwards dean of Durham, to the 
synod of Dort ; where he stood up in favour of episcopacy, 
and behaved so well in every respect to the credit of our 
nation, that after his return he was, upon. the translatioa 
of Dr. Harsnet to Norwich, elected to succeed him in 
the see of Chichester, Septembers, 1619, and confirmed 
the 20ih of the same month. He departed this life in May 
1628, and was buried the 27th of that month in the choir 
of his cathedral church at Chichester, near the altar. He 
was a person of solid j,udgment, and of various reading ; 
well versed in the fathers and schoolmen ; wanting nothing 
that could render him a complete divine ; a bitter enemy 
to the Papists, and in the point of Predestination a rigid 
Calvinist.' "I have loved him," says Mr. Camden, "for 
his excellent proficiency in divinity, and other polite parts 
of learning.'' Echard and Fuller also characterize him in 
very high terms. 

He perhaps wrote upon a greater variety of subjects 
than any other clergyman of his time. Among his works 
are enumerated : 1. " Heroici characteres, ad illustriss. 
eijuitem Henricum Nevillum," Oxon. 1603, 4to. Several 
of his Latin verses are also in the university-book of verses 
made on the death of sir Philip Sidney, in " Bodleiom- • 
nema," and in other books. 2. ^^ Tithes examined, and 
proved to be due to the Clergy by a Divine Right," Lond. 
li606, and 1611, 4to. 3. ^Jurisdiction Regal, Episcopal, 
Papal : Wherein is declared how the Pope hath intruded upon 
the jurisdiction of Temporal Prince8,and of the Church, &c.'* 
I^ond. 1610, 4to. 4. ^^ Consensus Ecclesiss Catholicae con- 
tra Tridentinos, de Scripturis, Ecclesia, fide, & gratia,'* 
«fec. Lond. 1613, Svo. 5. ^^ A thankful! Remembrance of 

656 C A R L E T O M; ^ 

GocPs Mercy. In an MistoricaU CfoHectidri of t\\€ gt^il 
and niercifuil Deliverances of the Church arid State of 
England, since the Gospel beganne here to flourish, from 
me beginning of queene Elizabeth," Lond. 1614 ; the 
third edition came out in 1627, and the fourth in 1630. 
The historical part is chiefly extracted from Camden's 
Annals of queen Elizabeth ; and the latter editions are 
adorned at the beginning of each chapter, with figures en- 
graved in copper, representing the most material things 
contained in the ensuing description. 6. ^^ Short Direc^ 
tiotis to know the true Church,'* Lond. 1615, &c. 12mo. 
7. *^ Oration made at the Hague before the prince of 
Orange, and tlie Assembly of the high and mighty lords, 
the States General,'' Lond. 1619, in one sheet and a half, 
4ta. 8. ** Astrologimania- ; or, the Madness of Astro- 
logers ; or, an Examination of sir Christopher Heydon's 
book entitled * A Defence of judicial Astrology*," written 
aboat the year 1604, and published at Londop, 1624, 4to, 
by Thomas Vicars, . B. D. who bad manied the author's 
daughter. It was reprinted at London, 16^1. 9. ^^ £xa« 
raination of those things wherein the Author of the late 
Appeal (Mimtague afterwards bishop of Chichester) 
holdeth the Doctrine of Pelagian^ and Anninians, to be 
the Doctrines of the Church of England," Lond. 1626, 
and 16S6, 4«o. 10. " A joy nt Attestation, avowing that 
the Discipline of fhe Church of England was not im« 
peached by the Synod of Dort," Lond. 1628, 4to. 11. 
*< Vita Bernardi Gilpini, viri sanctiss. famaque apud Anglos 
aquilontres celeberrimi,** Lond. 1626, 4to, inserted in Dr. 
W. Bates's Collection of Lives, Lond. 1681, 4to. . It was 
also published in English, under this title, ^' The Life of 
Bernard Gilpin, a man most holy and renowned among 
the Northerne English,'* Lond. 1629, 4to, and 1636, Svo. 
12, " Testimony concerning the Presbyterian discipline 
in the Low-countries, and Episcopal government in Eng- 
land," printed several times in 4to and Svo, and at Lon- 
don in particular, in 1642, in one sheet 13. Latin Letter 
ko Mr. Camden, containing some Notes and Observatioas 
on his Britannia. Printed by -Dr. Smith amongst " Cam- 
deni Epistolie," N° 80. 14. Several Sermons. 15. He 
had also a hand in the Dutch Annotations, and in the new 
translation of the Bible, undertaken by order of the Synod 
of Dort, but not completed and published till 1637. Two' 
o£ bis letters to sir Dudley Carlcton, are in lord Hai-d- 

C A R L ^ T O N. 257 

wicke's publication of sir Dudley's correspondence. By 
his first wife, Anne, daughter of sir Henry Killegrew, knt. 
and widow of sir Henry Neville, of Billingbere, in Berk- 
shire, he had a son, Henry, who was chosen representative 
for Arundel, in Sussex, in the short parliament which met 
at Westminster on the 13th of April 1640. Mr. Henry 
Carleton embraced the cause of the house of commons in 
the civil war with king Charles the First, accepted a cap- 
tain's commission in the parliamentary army, and in other 
respe&ts did no honour to his father.^ 

CARLETON (Sir Guy), late lord Dorchester, de- 
scended from an ancient northern family, which removed 
to Ireland, was the third son of Christopher "Carleton, of 
Neivry, co. Down, esq., who died in Ireland about 1738, 
leaving a widow who became the third wife of the rev. 
Thomas Skelton, brother to the late rev. Philip Skelton, 
and died in 1757. Mr. Carleton was born at Strabane, in 
Ireland, Sept. 3, 1724, and, according to the biographer 
of Philip Skelton, owed his future eminence in a great 
degree to the care which his step-father took of his educa- 
tion. Having embraced a military life, he entered into the 
guards, in which corps he continued until the year 1748, 
when be was promoted to be lieutenant-colonel of the 72d 
regiment. In 1758 he embarked with general Amherst 
for the siege of Louisburg, where, and at the siege of 
Quebec, in the following year> he was distinguished for 
his bravery and good conduct. He was afterwards wounded 
for the first time, at the siege of Belleisie, where he acted 
as brigadier- general. In Feb. 1762, he was promoted to 
the rank of colonel in the army, 'and soon after embarked 
for the siege of the Havannah, where he was likewise dis- 
tinguished for his bravery, and was wounded in investing 
the Mdro castle. In Nov. 1766 he was appointed colonel 
of the 47th regiment of foot In April 1772 he arrived jtt 
the rank of major-general, and in May following \Vas ap- 
pointed governor of Quebec, and was supposed to have 
been instrumental in passing the celetfrated Quebec bill, 
for the government of that settlement. 

In 1775, when the American war broke out, general 
Carleton had an ample field for the display of his military 
talents. The American congress, having resolved to resort 

. 1 9i<^g; Brit-^FoUet^t Worlhkfl.— £cbard'» Hist, of £D|f1and>— A^i. Ox. 
vol. I. 

Vol. VIII. S 

25g C A R L E T a K 

to arms, began soon to turn their eyes to Canada, where 
they knew the late acts were very unpopular, not only 
among the British settlers, but the French Canadians them- 
selves, who having experienced the ditference between a 
French and British constitution, gave t^e preference to the 
latter. To co-operate with the disaffected in Canada, and 
to anticipate the probable and suspected designs of general 
Carletou, the congress formed the bold project of invading 
this province. General Montgomery, their commander^ 
headed the expedition, and proceeded with such vigour^ 
that he compelled the fort of St. John's to surrender at 
discretion on the 2d of November. Hence, crossing St. 
Laurence, he proceeded to Montreal, which being inca- 
pable of defence against the American force, general 
Carleton evacuated it, and retired to Quebec. ' Having 
taken possession of Montreal, Montgomery made disposi- 
tions for advancing to besiege the capital of Canada, and 
there were several circumstances favourable to his hopes of 
success. The works of the town had been neglected for a 
long time of peace ; the garrison did not exceed 1 100, of 
which few were regulars, and tho majority of the inha- 
bitants were disaffected to the framers of their new consti- 
tution, and particularly to general Carleton, who was 
supposed to have had a chief hand in that measure. While 
he was endeavouring to defend Quebec amidst all these 
disadvantages, the American generals Montgomery and 
Arnold summoned him to surrender, wbidi he treated with 
contempt, and refused to hold any correspondence witli 
rebels. The inhabitants too, displeased as they were with 
their new constitution, joined the British troops with cor- 
dial unanimity, and the American commander, unprepared 
for a regular siege, endeavoured to take the place by storm* 
In this attempt Montgomery fell at the head of his troops, 
whom the garrison, after an obstinate resistance, drove 
from the town with great loss; and although. Arnold en- 
camped on the heights of Abraham, where he fortified 
himself, and continued tbe siege of Quebec in the following 
year, 1776, he thought proper to retire on the arrival of 
an English squadron. General Carleton being now rein- 
forced by troops, which, added to what he had, formed a 
body of 13,000, prepared for offensive operations, and tbe 
Americans evacuated their conquests, stationing themselves 
at Crown Point, whither the British commaijtder did dq| 
follow them for the present. , 

C A R L E T O N. , 659 

Ab armament was now prepared for crossing Lake 
Champlain, in order to besiege Crown Point and Ticon* 
derago. The Americans had a considerable' fleet on Lake 
Champlain, whereas the British had not a single vessel. 
The general, therefore, used every effort to procure the 
requisite naval force ; but October was begun before this 
was ready to oppose tlxe enemy. On Oct. 11, the British 
fleet, commanded by capt. Pringle, and under the general 
direction of Carleton, discovered the American armament; 
and engaging them, the conflict continued on both sides 
for several hours with great intrepidity, but a contrary 
wind preventing the chief British ships from taking a party 
and night comjng on, it was thought prudent to discontinue 
the action, and Arnold took advantage of the night to re- 
treat. The British pursued them the next day and the 
following, and overtook them a few leagues from Grown 
Point; where, after a furious battle of two hours, they 
yielded to our superior force and skill. General Carleton 
remained at Crown Point till Nov. 3, and as the winter was 
commencing, did not think proper to besiege Ticonderago. 
He returned therefore to St. John's, whence he distributed 
his army into winter quarters. 

In the following year, 1777, an expedition being plan- 
ned from Canada, to effect a co-operation with the prin** 
cipal British force, the command of the armament wasf 
conferred on general Burgoyne. Sir Guy Carleton (for 
be had been made knight of the Bath in July 1776), from 
his official situation in Canada, his conduct, and espe-* 
cially his defence of Quebec, might have reasonably ex* 
pected this appointment; he was an older general, of 
mote military experience, and better acquainted with the 
country, its. inhabitants, and resources. His character 
commanded greater authority than Burgoyne's had hitherto 
established, and as no military grounds could be alleged 
for superseding Carleton to make room for Burgoyne, his 
pi*oraotion was imputed to parliamentary influence more 
than to his official talents. Carleton, disgusted with a 
preference by no means merited, as soon as he heard of 
the appointment, resigned his government, in which he 
was succeeded by general Haldimand, but before he de- 
parted, exerted himself to the utmost to enable Burgoyne 
to take the field with advantagre. 

In August 1777, sir Guy was made a lieutenant-general 
ill the army, and in 1781 was appojnted to succeed , sir 

s 2 

tea C A R L E T OT N. 

Henry Clinton as commander in chief in America, where 
be remained until the termination of the contest, when, 
after an interview with general Washington, he evacuated 
New-York, and returned to England. In April 1786, h« 
was once more appointed governor of Quebec, Nova Scotia, 
and New Brunswick, and, as a reward for his long services, 
was in August following raised to the peerage, by the title 
of lord Dorchester, of Dorchester in the county of Oxford. 
His lordship remained in this extensive government for 
several years ; and returning at length to England, passed 
his old age in the bosom of his family ; first at Kempshot^ 
near Basingstoke, in Hampshire, and afterwards at his seat 
near Maidenhead. He died Nov. 10, 1808, aged eighty- 
five, at which time he was colonel of the fourth regiment 
of dragoons, and a general in the army. In 1772 his lord- 
ship married lady Maria, third daughter of Thomas Howard 
earl of Effingham, by whom he had a numerous issue, and 
was succeeded in titles and estate by his grandson Arthur 
Henry Carleton, a minor.' 

CARLONI (John Baptist), an eminent painterof history, 
was a native of Genoa, and having prosecuted the study of 
his art at Rome, and in the school of Passignano at Florence^ 
he became one of the most fertile, original, and seducing 
machinists of Italy. The most splendid works of this artist, 
and of his brother John, are the frescoes of the cathedral 
del Guastato at Grenoa, which exhibit a wonderful effect of 
colouring. He survived his brother 50 years, and distin- 
guished Ibimself by this novel style in the churches and 
collections of Liguria and Lombardy. It is not easy to 
conceive why a painter should not have acquired greater 
celebrity, who united with so many opportunities so many 
diverging powers ; who had equal felicity in oil and fresco, 
' colour and design, velocity and correctness, and had in- 
cessant employment, and unrivalled diligence and perse- 
verance. After a prolonged life of 86 years, he died in 
1680. » 

CARLYLE (Rev. Joseph Dacre), B. D. vicar of New- 
castle-upon-Tyne, chancellor of Carlisle, professor of 
Arabic in the university of Cambridge, chaplain to the 
bishop of Durham, and F. R. S. E. was born at Carlisle in 
1759, where his father was a physician, and after receiving 

. \ Sir £. Brydges's edition of ColHns's Peerage. — Bardy's Life of Skelton, 
p«42. ? jyAr^euviWe, vol. IL--Pilkington. 

C A R'L Y L E. 261 


bis early education at the grammar-school of his native 
city, was in 1775 entered of Christ's-coliege, Cambridge, 
whence after two years he removed to Queen's, took his 
bachelor's degree in 1779, and was elected a fellow. Be>. 
sides an industrious and successful application to the usual 
branches of study, he entered upon that of the Arabic lan- 
guage with unusual avidity, availing himself of a very fine 
collection of Arabic writings in the university library, and 
assisted hy David Zamio, who, Mr^ Carlyle informs us, 
was born at Bagdad, and resided with him some time at 
Cambridge. Mr. Carlyle, after taking his master's de- 
cree in 1783, left college, married, and obtained some 
church preferment in his native city. In 1793 he took his 
degree of B. D. and succeeded Dr. Paley (by resignation) 
in the chancellorship of Carlisle. Jn 1794 he was elected 
Arabic professor in the university of Cambridge. 

In 1799, he was appointed chaplain of lord Elgin's em- 
bassy to Constantinople, an office which afforded him an 
opportunity of inspecting the libraries of that city, and 
afterwards of travellipg through Asia Minor, and through 
countries generally unknown to Europeans; and before 
his return he made a tour through the principal parts of 
Italy, and through Tyrol and part of Germany, and landed 
in England in Sept. 1801. After his return he was pre- 
sented by the bishop of Carlisle to the living of Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, which he did not long enjoy. His health had 
probably been injured by the fatigues of his travels, and 
he laboured for a considerable time under a painful and 
distressing malady, which proved fatal April 12, 1804. 
He was known to the learned world by, 1. " Maured Al- . 
latafet Jemaleddini Filii Togri-JBardii, sen rerum JEgyptia- 
carum Annales, ab anno Christi 971 usque ad annum* 
145?. E codice MS Bibliothecae Acad. Cantab." Arab, et 
Lat. 4to, 1792, a work which unquestionably evinced a 
laudable desire in Mr. Carlyle to revive the study of Arabic 
literature, but in itself contains little information, and 
throws very little light on a period darkened by ignorance 
and superstition. 2. ** Specimens of Arabic poetry, from 
the earliest time to the extinction of the Khalifs ; with 
some account of the authors," 4to. In this too the commend- 
able industry of the author is perhaps more apparent than his 
success, in. persuading his readers to an equal admiration 
of Arabic poetryi The work, however, is amusing, the 
ac(!:ounts of the authors constitute a very useful part, and 

262 , ,e A R L Y L E. 

the. translator's skill in selection has been allowed by those 
who are acquainted with the original. Since his death has 
been published, ** Poems, suggested chiefly by scenes in 
Asia-Minor, Syria, and Greece; with prefaces extracted 
from the author's journal, embellished with two views of 
the source of the Scamander, and the aqueduct over the 
Simois," 1805, 4to. This elegant volume will form a 
lasting monument of the author's learning and taste. The 
poems with which the collection opens are particularly at- 
tractive. They relate to striking scenes in the East, and 
are prefaced by extracts from his journal, which, it has 
been justly remarked, if further improved by the author's 
hand, might have formed such a volume of travels as is 
rarely seen. The premature death of the author is indeed 
to be regretted on many accounts. He was, among other 
. important undertakings, engaged in a correct edition of 
the Arabic Bible, at the request of a society of eminent 
persons, among whom the present bishop of Durham is 
one of the most active ; and he had likewise projected a 
complete edition of the New Testament in Greek, which 
was to contain the various readings collected by Mill, Ben- 
gelius, Wetstein, Griesbach, &c. and also those of more 
than thirty Greek manuscripts, which he had collected 
during his travels, together with a new and accurate col- 
lation of the Syriac and other ancient versions. The loss 
of such a lAan at any age will be felt ; but in the prime of 
life is deeply to be regretted. ^ 

CARMICHAEL (Geurhom, M. A.) was born at Glas- 
gow in 1682, and educated in the university of that city, 
where he took his degrees, and was ordained minister at 
Monidiail in Fifeshire. In 1722 he was promoted to be 
professor of moral philosophy in the university of Glasgow ; 
and for the use of his students wrote some learned notes 
on " PufFendorfi de officiis hominis." He intended to 
have published a system of moral philosophy on a new 
plan, but did not live to see it completed, as he died at 
Glasgow in 17?8, aged 56, His son Frederick Carmi- 
CHAEL was born at Monimail in 1708. He received his 
education in the Marischal college, Aberdeen, where he 
took his degrees, and was ordained minister at Monimail 
in 1737, on the presentation of the earl of Leven. In 
1743 he was translated to Inveresk; and in 1747 he was 

1 Gent, Mag. l804,«**M<mth, Rer. and British Critio» &c, . 

C A R M I C H A E L, 2« 

elected one of the ministers of Edinburgh, having pre- 
viously declined an offer made him of the divinity chair in 
the Marischal college, Aberdeen. Jn 1751 he was seized 
with a fever, which put an end to bis life, aged 45. He 
has left one volume of sermons, which in justness of senti- 
ment and elegance of expression are equal to the best dis- 
courses in the English language. * 

CARNE, or KARNE, or KERNE (Sir Edward), an 
eminent civilian of the sixteenth century, was of a Gla-» 
morganshire family, and educated at Oxford. Here he 
chiefly studied the civil law, of which he took the degree 
of doctor in June 1524, being about that time principal of 
Greek-hall in St. Edward's parish. He was admitted at 
Doctors' Commons Nov. 13, 1525,' and his talents being 
known at court, he was sent abroad on public affairs, and 
received the honour of knighthood from the emperor 
Charles V. In 1530 he was joined in a commission with 
archbishop Cranmer and others, the purpose of which was 
to argue the matter of king Henry VIII.'s memorable di- 
vorce at the courts of France, Italy, and Germany. Sir 
Edward Carne afterwards remained at Rome as a sort of 
standing agent for Henry, and appears likewise to have 
continued there during the reign of Edward VI. and had 
no concern in the reformation. During queen Mary'g 
reign, he was her agent in the same situation ; but on the 
accession of Elizabeth, the pope ordered him to relinquish 
that employment. When he was recalled by the queen, 
with offers of preferment, he thought proper to remain at 
Rome, and was employed by the pope as director of the 
English hospital in that city. He was so far a patriot a« 
to inform ElizabjCth of the machinations of the catholic 
powers against her, but he continued inflexible in his at- 
tachment to popery, and died iii that communion Jan. 18, 
1561. — Several of his letters relating to the divorce are in 
Burnet's " History of the Reformation." Wood remarks 
that sir Edward Oarne was accounted the last ambassador 
of the kings of England to the pope, until Roger earl of 
Castlemain was sent to him by king James II. ' 

CARNEADES, a celebrated Greek philosopher, was* 
ap African, a native of Cyrene, and is. supposed to have 

1 From the l^st edition of thi^ Dictionary. 

* Wood's Fasti, vol. I. — Dodd's Church Hist.— Coote's Catalogrueof Civilhnj. 
— Strype*8 Cranmer^ p. 9.— Camden's Annals of Eliz. sub anno \55S. — Fullers 

264 C A R N E A D E S. 

been Ijprn in the third year of the 14 1st olympiad, orB. C- 
214. He was first instructed by Diogenes the stoic, and 
afterwards becoming a member of the academy, he at- 
tended upon the lectures of Egesinus, and by assiduous 
study acquired great skill and readiness in the method of 
disputing, which Arcesilaus had introduced. He suc- 
ceeded Egesinus in the chair, and restored the declining 
reputation of the academy. With Diogenes the stoic, 
find Critolaus the peripatetic, he was sent on an embassy 
from Athens to Rome, complaining of the severity of a 
fine inflicted upop the Athenians, under the authority of 
the Romans,, by their neighbours the Sicyonians, for hav-, 
ing laid waste Oropus, a town in Bceotia. The three phi- 
losophers whom they entrusted with their embassy, whilst 
they were in Rome, gave the Roman people many speci- 
mens of Grecian learning and eloquence, with which till 
then they had been unacquainted. Carneades excelled in 
the vehement and rapid, Critolaus in the correct and 
elegant, and Diogenes in the simple and modest kind of 
eloquence. Carneades particularly attracted the attention 
and admiration of his new auditors, by the sul^tlety of his 
reasoning, and the fluency of his language. Before Galba^ 
and Cato the censor, be harangued, with great variety of 
thought, and copiousness of diction, in praise of justice. 
The next day, to establish his doctrine of the uncertainty 
of human knowledge, he undertook to refute all his former 
arguments. Many were captivated by his eloquence ; but 
Cato, apprehensive lest the Roman youth should lose their 
military character in the pursuit of Grecian learning, per- 
suaded the senate tp send back these philosophers, without 
further delay, to their own schools. 

Carneades obtained such high reputation in bis school, 
that other philosophers, when they had dismissed their 
scholars, frequently came to hear him. In application to 
study he was indefatigable. So intensely did he fix his 
thoughts upon the subject of his meditations, that even at 
meals he frequently forgot to take the food which was set 
before him. He strenuously opposed the stoic Chrysippus, 
, but was always ready to do justice to his merit. He used 
to say, that if there were no Chrysippus, there would be 
no Carneades; intimating, that he derived much of his 
reputation as a disputant from the abilities of his opponent. 
His voice was remarkably strong, and he had such a habit 
of vociferation, that the master, of the gymnastic exarcisesi 

C A R N £ A D E S. 265 

in the public field, desired him not to speak so lou4: in 
return, he requested some measure to regulate his voice ; 
to which the master very judiciously replied, you have a 
measure, the number of your hearers. As Carneades grew 
old, he discovered strong apprehensions of dying; and 
frequently lamented, that the same nature which had com- 
posed the human frame could dissolve it. He paid the 
last debt to nature in the eighty-fifth, or, according to 
Cicero and Valerius Maximus, in the ninetieth year of 
his age. 

It was the doctrine of the new academy, that the senses, 
the understanding, and the imagination, frequently deceive 
us, and tlierefore cannot be infallible judges of truth; but 
that, from the impressions which we perpeive to be pro- 
duced on the mind, by means of the senses, we infer ap- 
pearances of truth, or probabilities. These impressions 
Carneades called phantasies, or images. He maintained, 
that they do not always correspond to the real nature of 
things, and that there is no infallible method of determin- 
ing when they are true or false, and consequently that they 
afford no certain criterion of truth. Nevertheless, with 
respect to the conduct of life, and the pursuit of hap- 
piness, Carneades held, that probable appearances are a 
sufficient guide, because it is unreasonable not to allow 
some degree of credit to those witnesses who commonly 
give a true report. Probabilities he divided into three 
classes; simple, uncontradicted, and confirmed by accu- 
rate examination. The lowest degree of probability takes 
place, where the mind, in the casual occurrence of any 
single image, perceives in it nothing contrary to truth and 
nature ; the second degree of probability arises, vwhen 
contemplating any object in connection with all the cir- 
cumstances associated with it, we discover no appearance 
of inconsistency, or incongruity, to lead us to suspect that 
our senses have given a false report ; as, when we con- 
clude, from comparing the image of any individual man 
with our remembrance of that man, that he is the person 
we supposed him to be. The highest degree of proba- 
bility is produced, when, after an accurate examination of 
every circumstance which might be supposed to create 
uncertainty, we are able to discover no fallacy in the re- 
port of our senses. The judgments arising from this 
operation of the mind are, according to the doctrine of the 
new academy, not science, but opinion, which is all th^ 


knowledge that the human mind is capable of attaining! 
Carneadesi as Cicero has related at large, strenuously op- 
posed the doctrine of the Stoics concerning the gods, and 
was likewise desirous of refuting their doctrine concerning 
fete. On this subject, he assumed on the ground of eiL- 
perience, the existence of a self-determining power in man, 
and hence inferred that all things did not happen, as the 
stoics maintained, in a necessary series of causes and 
effects, and consequently, that it is impossible for ths gods 
to predict events dependent on the will of man. As the 
foundation of morals, he taught, that the ultimate end of 
life is the enjoyment of those things, towards which we are 
directed by the principles of nature. Such, according to 
Brucker, is the general idea which the ancients have left 
w concerning the doctrine of Carneades : but after all, it 
DDust be owned, that his real tenets are not certainly known. 
Even his immediate successor, Clitomachus, confessed that 
he was never able to discover them.' » 

CARO (Hannibal), an Italian poet, was born in 1507, 
at Civita Nova, in the march of Ancona, of poor parents. 
After his first studies he obtained the patronage of the 
illustrious house of Gaddi in Florence, a branch of which, 
John Gaddi, legate of Romania, appointed him secretary 
of legation, and retained him in his service, with some 
interval, until his death. On this event Caro determined 
on a life of independence ; but unable to resist the liberal 
offers of Peter Loiiis Farnese, accepted the place of con- 
fidential secretary in 1543. While with him, Caro had an 
opportunity of forming a very fine collection of medals, 
and wrote a treatise on the subject. Such was his repu- 
tation tit this time that Onufrius Panvinius dedicated his 
work " De Antiquis Romanorum nominibus" to him, as the 
ablest antiquary in Italy. With the study of medals, Caro 
united that of the sciences, the belles lettres, languages, 
and the Italian particularly, which owes great obligations to 
him. He composed in that language several works of the 
light kind, such as the " Ficheide del P. Siceo (i. e. Francis 
Maria Molza) col Commento di Ser Agresto (Annibal Caro) 
sopra la prima Ficata,'* 1539, 4to ; " La diceria de nasi ;'* 
and a prose comedy, " Gli Straccioni,*' Venice, 1582, 
12mo. These works procured him the friendship of per- 
sons of rank at Rome, and the esteem of the learned 

I Geo. Dict.^— Bruoker. 

C A R O. 267 

-throughout Italy. All the academies were opened to him, 
and the mo^t celebrated poets acknowledged hinsi as their 
master. Sonnets being then the fashionable poetry of 
Italy, Caro acquired great reputation by his performances 
in this style, and was cojnpared to Petrarch and Bembo. 
Nor were his talents less conspicuous as a negociator. In 
154-4 he executed a very important commission of this 
kind, with which be was intrusted by the house of Farnese 
at the court of Charles V. After the death of his patron 
Peter Lewis Farnese, the cardinals Alexander and Ranu- 
tius, and the duke Octavius Farnese, Vied with each other 
in presenting him with ecclesiastical preferments, and even 
with the order of Malta, of which he was made commander. 
It was on this occasion, in order to pay his court to cardi- 
nal Alexander Farnese, that he composed an ode in honour 
of the royal family of France, which was almost universally 
applauded. Castelvetro the critic, however, attacked it 
with much asperity, and Caro answered him with spirit ; / 

but the controversy unfortunately became personal, and 
Caro, in 1548, published a gross and scandalous attack oa 
Castelvetro, and even denounced him to the inquisition, 
from which he narrowly escaped, as will be noticed in his' 
life. After this dispute which did so little honour to either 
party, Caro resumed his studies, and at the request of 
cardinal St. Croix, afterwards pope Marcellus II. translated 
some parts of the worjcs of Gregory Nazianzen and St, 
Cyprian. He likewise translated Aristotle's Rhetoric, but 
infirmities coming upon him, and being tired of a court 
Jife, he requested permission of bis patrons to retire, and 
the cardinal Ranutius gave him a small house at Frescati, 
to which he removed his library. In this retreat he medi- 
tated the composition of an epic po*m, but was diverted 
from the design by his friends, and made a translation of 
Virgil into bhmk verse, which has been very much ad- 
mired. He had scarcely finished this when he died, Nov. 
21, 1566. After his death his works were published by 
bis nephews ; his poetry and the translations frOm Gregory 
of Nazianzen and St. Cyprian in 1568; Aristptle*s Rhe- 
toric in 1570; and his letters, vol. I. and II. in 1572 and 
1575, much admired for ease and elegance. The trans- 
lation of Virgil was not published until 1581. One of the 
best editions is that of Paris, 1765, 2 vols. 8vo; and in 
1725, his " Letters" were reprinted at Padua, with a life 
of the author, by Alexander Zalioli, and notes by the edi- 

268 CAR O. 

tor^ 2 vols. 8vo ; but the most complete edition is in 6 voldl 
Padua, 1765. Caro also translated the Pastorals of Lon-, 
gus, of which Bodoni printed a 6ne edition at Parma in 
1786, 4to. Among his unpublished works are a translation 
of Aristotle's " History of Animals," and his treatise above 
mentioned on medals. ^ 

f BENSTEIN), one of the reformers, was born at Carlolostadt, 
a town in Franconia, founded by Charles the Bald in the 
year 875. The time of his birth is not stated. He was 
partly educated at home, but studied afterwards in various 
celebrated schools, and after going through his divinity 
course at ][lome, was admitted doctor of divinity at Wittem- 
berg in ] 502, and was appointed professor of the same, 
and held a canoury and archdeaconry. In 1512, while be 
was dean of the college, Luther was admitted to his doc- 
tor's degree, which appears to have led to their intimacy, 
as in 1517, we find Carolostadt one of Luther's most zealous 
adherents in opposing the corruptions of popery. In 1519, 
he held a disputation at Leipsic with Eckius, on free will, 
in the presence of George duke of Saxony, ^Luther, and 
Melancthon, and acquitted himself with so much credit, 
that Eckius could think of no other retaliation than by ap- 
plying to the court of Rome, which suspended Carolostadt 
irom all communion with the church. 

Thus far Carolostadt appears'in a light which was accept* 
able at least to the friends of the reformation ; but about 
1521, when Luther was in retirement, he betrayed a vio- 
lence of temper which has been equally censured by catho- 
lics^ and protestants. Not content with promoting in a 
legal and quiet way the auspicious beginnings of reforma- 
tion which had already appeared at Wittemberg, in the 
gradual, omission and rejection of the private mass and 
other popish supierstitions, he headed a multitude of un- 
thinking impetuous youths, inflamed their minds by popu- 
lar harangues, and led them on to actions the most extra- 
vagant and indefensible. They entered the great church 
of All Saints, broke in pieces the crucifixes and x>ther 
images, aqd threw down the altars. He also went so far 
as to assert that human learning was useless, if not inju- 
rious to a student of the scriptures ; frequented the shops 
of the lowest mechanics, and consulted them about tha 

1 Aforeri. — Diet. Hist-^Haym Bibl. Italiana. 

C A R O L X) S T A D T. 263 

meaning of the scriptures. He would be called no longer 
by the appellation of Doctor, or any other honourable 
title, but emplojfed himself in rustic occupations^ and main- 
tained that thinking persons stood in no need of learning, 
and had better labour with their hands. In consequence 
of such example and conversation, the young academics of 
Wittemberg left the univeirsity, and ceased to pursue their 
studies, and even the schools of the boys were deserted. 
Such was his pride at the same time, that he avowed to 
Melancthon that he wished to be as great and as much ' 
thought of as Luther. 

In 1524, when the controversy took place among the 
friends of the reformation respecting the body and blood 
of Christ in the eucharist, Carolostadt became the open 
antagonist of Luther, and approached nearer to the senti- 
ments held now by the majority of protestants ; but his 
previous intempevate conduct at Wittemberg had so lower- 
ed his reputation, tB^t he found it expedient to retire to 
Orlamund, a small town of Thuringia ii^ the electorate of 
Saxony, where, without legitimate appointment, though 
with the consent of the inhabitants, he became their spi- 
ritual pastor. Here he not only soon broached his opinion 
of the eucharist, but raised new disturbances by bis furious 
discourses concerning the abolition of images. He appears 
also to have boasted of having been favoured with super- 
natural communications, and was represented as a partizan 
of the turbulent fanatic Thomas Munzer. The university 
of Wittemberg summoned him to return back, and dis- 
charge in person the ordinary duties enjoined him by the 
statutes in their school and church. Carolostadt promised 
to obey, provided he could obtain the leave of his pa- 
rishioners of Orlamund, whom, however, at the same time 
he is said to have excited to arrogate to themselves the 
divine right of appointing their own pastor. The elector 
of Saxony was so disgusted with the insolent letters which 
they wrote on this occasion, treating the academical claim 
as a papistical encroachment, that he peremptorily com- 
manded both them and their teacher to submit to the legal 
authority of the university and the chapter. Luther was 
also sent to Orlamund ; but this appears to have only in- 
flamed Carolostadt's ^eal to a greater height of imprudence,' 
and his violent proceedings at last provoked the elector 
and his brother to expel Carolostadt from their territories. 
Carolostadt, after his departure, Wrote letters to his people, 

270 C A H O L a S T A -D T. 

which were read in full congregation upon the toll of the 
bell, and were subscribed thus, " Andreas^Bodenstenius 
Carolostadt, unheard, unconvicted, banished by Maftia 
Luther.^' Mosheim and bis translator have yielded too 
easily to this calumny against Luther, which appears to 
have been wholly unmerited on the part of that great re* 
former, who about five months afterwards interceded, 
although ineffectually, for him. 

Carolostadt now wandered from place to place through 
the higher Germauy, and at length made a pause at Ro- 
tenburgh, where, as usual, he soon raised tumults, and 
incited the people to pull down the statues sind paiiitings. 
When the seditious faction of the peasants, with Munzer 
their ringleader, was effectually suppressed, lie became in 
the greatest difficulties, and even in danger of his life from 
his supposed connection with these enthusiastic rebels, and 
he narrowly escaped, through being let down by the wall 
of the town in a basket. Thus reduced to the last extre- 
mities, he and his wife incessantly intreateJ both the 
elector and Luther that they might be allowed to return 
into their own country. He said, he could clear himself 
of having had any concern in the rebellion ; and if not, he 
would cheerfully undergo any punishment that could he 
inflicted upon him. With this view he wrote a little tract, 
in which he takes much pains to justify himself from tha 
charge of sedition : and he sent a letter likewise to Luther, 
in which he earnestly begs his assistance in the publishing 
of the tract, as well as in the more general design of estab- 
lishing his innocence. Luther immediately published Ca- 
Tolostadt's letter, and called on the magistrates and on the 
people to give him a fair hearing. In this he succeeded ; 
and Carolostadt was recalled about the autumn of I525y 
and then made a public recantation of what'hef had ad- 
vanced on the sacrament, a condescension which did not 
procure a complete* reconciliation between him and the^ 
other reformers, and indeed affords but a sorry proof of 
his consistency. We find Carolostadt, after this, at Zurich 
and at Basil, where he was appointed pastor and professor 
of divinity, and where he died with the warmest effusTonft 
of piety and resignation, Dec. 25, 1541, or 1543. He was 
a man of considerable learning, but his usefulness both a$. 
a reformer and writer was perpetually obstructed by the 
turbulence of his temper, and his misguided zeal in endea-i^ 
vouring to promote that by violence which the other re« 


formers projected only through the medium of reason and 
argument. That he should be censured by Moreri, Bos- 
suet, and other Roman catholic writers, is not surprising, for 
be afforded too much ground of accusation ; but it is more 
inexcusable in Mosheim, Beausobre, and some other eccle- 
siastical historians, to throw the blame of his banishment 
and restless life on Luther, and highly absurd to insinuate 
that the latter was jealous of his fame. The comparative 
merits of the conduct of Luther and Carolostadt through*- 
out their whole connection^ have been examined with great 
candour and perspicuity by Milner. — One singularity in 
Carolostadt's character still remains to be noticed, namely,^ 
that he was the first protestant divine who took a wife. Hia 
works were numerous, but^are now fallen into oblivion. 
His followrers, who for some time retained the name <st 
Carolostadtians, were also denominated Sacramentarians^ 
4md agree in most things with the Zuinglians.^ 

CARPENTER (George LoRDJ,l?aron of Killaghy in the 
kingdom of Ireland, descended from an ancient and good 
family in Herefordshire, was born at Pitchers Ocul in that 
county, February 10, 1657. His father was Mr. Warncomb 
Carpenter, sixth son of Thomas Carpenter, esq. of the 
Homme or Holme, in the parish of Dilwyn in Hereford* 
shire. His mother was daughter to Mr. Taylor of the same 
county, and widow to Mr. John Hill, by whom she had 
one son. George lord Carpenter was the youngest of seven 
children, whom his father left at his death, and was edu-* 
cated at a private school in the country. In 1672 he went 
into the third troop of guards as a private gentleman, and 
was afterwards appointed quarter-master to the regiment 
of horse commanded by the earl of Peterborough, and. went 
through the several posts of cornet, lieutenant, captain, 
&c, till he was advanced to that of lieutenant-colonel of 
the regiment, in which commission he continued thirteen 
years^ though the regiment was almost constantly in ser- 
vice. In 1693 he married Alice, daughter of William lord 
viscount Charlemont, who having a considerable jointure 
from her first husband James Margetson, esq. by the feale 
of part of it for her life he was enabled to purchase the 
regiment of dragoons which he commanded till his death. 
He served in all the first wars in Ireland and Flanders, and 

^ Melchior Adam. — ^Freheri Theatrum. — Moiheim : but principally Milner'g 
Church Hrstory, vol. V. p. 602, 773, 794, 809.— -A Life of bim wai published i«^ 
Ci«mau by Fueslifli Leipfic, 177^ 8ro.-^S%^i Onomast. 


the last in Spftio^ with ttablemished honour and reputation, 
and distinguished himself to great advantage by his cou- 
rage, conduct, and humanity. At the unfortunate batde 
of Almanza in Spain he commanded the rear, and brought 
up the last squaulron in the retreat, which saved the bag<- 
gage of the army. At the battle of Almenara he was 
wounded, but received the compliments of Charles then 
king of Spain, and afterwards emperor of Germany, for 
his conduct in the engagement. He was again desperately 
wounded in defending the breach at Britmega s^ainst tbe 
whole French and Spanish army, where they were at last 
.taken prisoners. In 1705 he was made a brigadier-general; 
in 1708 major-general; and in 17 10 lieutenant-general. In 
17 14 he was chosen member of parliament for Whitchurch 
Jn Hampshire ; and the year following was appointed en- 
,voy extraordinary and plenipotentiary to the emperor, 
whose personal regard and esteem he had gained while he 
serVed under that prince in Spain. But tbe rebellion 
breaking out that year, he was sent into the North, where 
he not only prevented the rebels from seizing Newcastle, 
and inarching into Yorkshire, but having overtaken them 
at Preston, where they were invested by major-general 
Wills, he, by altering the disposition which that general 
had madQ, cut oiF entirely both their escape and their re- 
ceiving any supplies, which immediately reduced them to 
a capitulation. In the beginning of February 1715-16 he 
sent a challenge to general Wills, but they were prevented 
from fighting by the interposition of the dukes of Marlbo- 
rough and Montague. In 1716 he was appointed governor 
of Minorca, and commander in chief of his majesty's forces 
in Scotland; and in 1719 was created baron Carpenter of 
KiUagby iti the kingdom of Ireland. In 1722 he was cho- 
sen member of parliament for the city of Westminster, and 
upon all occasions voted for what he thought to be the 
real good of his country, without any regard to party. la 
October 1731 being near seventy-four years of age, he 
began to labour under the failure of appetite, and h9,ving 
bad a fall, by which his teeth were loosened on that side 
which had not been wounded, he ^as capable of taking 
but little nourishment, which together with old age, and a 
decay of nature, put an end to his life February 10, 1731-2. 
He was interred near bis beloved wife in the chancel of the 
parish church of Owselbury in Hampshire, where a monu- 


ment of marble was erected to \A% meniory by bis son, thd 
kte lord Carpenter, who was the only issue he left. 

General Guest used to flatter lord Carpenter on account 
of his conduct at the battle of Almanza, and to put him in 
mind particularly of his horse Crop, which he rode in that 
battle, and his lordship was not a little pleased with being 
reminded of a circumstance that brought fully to his recol- 
lection an event which he regarded as one of the most 
glorious actions of his life. It has been said, that lord 
Carpenter^s chief merit consisted in his skill as a quarter- 
master-general, and in his industry in providing for the 
subsistence of the troops. 

Mr. Jonathan Richardson, jun. as an instance that th^ 
poor never fairly forgive the rich their conveniencies and 
superiority, but seize every opportunity of exerting their 
own pride, and little temporary boast of power, relates 
that lord Carpenter, at a Westminster election, where the 
event of the contest was very doubtful, could not prevail 
^Q four sturdy butchers to poll as he would have them, but 
by letting them ride in his coach, whilst he himself walked 
at the horses* heads afid led them. ^ 

CARPENTER (Nathaniel), an English clergyman of 
great learning and parts,- was born in the parsonage-house 
of North- Lew (not Northlegh, as Wood says), iiearHather- 
legh, in Devonshire, Feb. 7, 1588. His father, John Car- 
|>enter, a native of Cornwall, was at that time rector of 
this place, and author of some sermons enumerated by 
Wood. His son, after a private education, was entered of 
Edmund hall, Oxford ; and in 1607, by the casting vot^ 
of the vice-chancellor, was elected fellow of Exeter college, 
to which he removed, and became distinguished as alo^ 
gician, mathematician, and philosopher. He took his de- 
gree of B. A. in 1610, of M. A. in 1613, and of B. D. ill 
.1620, and soon after completing his master's degree, en- 
tered into holy orders, and had the reputation of a very 
{>opular divine. About 1626 he became acquainted with 

^ 1 Gen. Dict.^-Biog. Brit. — Richarclsoniana, p. §59. 8ae also an aecovnl of 
his conduct in Scotland in " A true relation of the Pursuit of the Rebels in the 
Korth. and of their Surrender at Preston to lieiitenant*genaral Carpenter, com* 

ttonant-ipeneral Carpenter and lAaj^r-senera) WHls*" See likewise «* The Poll<» 
ical SUte of Great 3nUia'' for F«h. I71S.1«, v«l« ^. pp. 119 e^ if qq. 

Vol. Vllf. . T ' ' 


archbishop Usher, then at Oxford, who admired his talents 
and piety, took bim with bim to Ireland, and made him 
one of bis chaplains, and tutor to the king^s wards in 
Dublin. These king^s wards were the sons of Roman ca- 
tholics who had fled for their religion, leaving them in 
their minority ; and JVlr. Carpenter's charge was to bring 
them up in the protestant religion. Soon after he came 
to Ireland he was advanced to a deanery, but what deanery 
is not mentioned. He died at Dublin in 1635, according 
to Fuller, or in 1628, according to Wood. Dr. Robert 
Usher, afterwards bishop of Kildare, and brother to the 
archbishop, preached his funeral sermon, and gave a high 
character of him, which seems to be confirmed by all his 
contemporaries. He published, 1. ^' Philosophia libera^ 
tripUci exercitationum decade proposita," Francfort, 162 1, 
under the name of Cosmopolitanus ; London, 1622, Svo, 
with additions, Oxford, 1636, 167o. This was considered 
as a very ingenious work, and one of the earliest attacks 
on the Aristotelian philosophy. Brucker, who has giyeu 
our author a place among the " modern attempters to 
improve natural philosophy,'' adds^ that he has advanced 
inany paradoxical notions, sufficiently remote from the rer 
ceived doctrines of the schools. 2. " Geography," in 
two books, Oxford, 1625, and corrected and enlarged 
1635, 4to. In the latter part he maintains that mountain* 
ous people are more stout, warlike, and generous than the 
inhabitants of flat countries, and supports this doctrine by 
an appeal to his countrymen in Devonshire. 3. " Achito- 
phel ; or the picture of a wicked Politician, in three parts,'* 
Dublin, 1627, 8vo, Oxford, 1628, 4to, 1640, 12mo. These 
three parts are t]^e substance of three sermons on 2 Sam« 
xvii. 23. which he had formerly preached at Oxford. Sonae 
objections beins^ made to several passages against (not, as 
Mr. Malone says, in favour of) Arminianism (for Car- 
penter was a Calvinist), the book was castrated by arch* 
bishop Laud in various places. " The scene," says the 
writer in a dedication to archbishop Usher, ** wherein I 
liave bounded my discourse, presents unto your grace a 
sacred tragedy, consisting of four chief actors, viz. David, 
an anointed king; Absalom, an ambitious prince; Acbi- 
tophel, a wicked politician ; and Cushay, a loyal subject : 
9, passage of history, for variety pleasant, for instructioa 
useful, for event admirable.'* He inveighs in general 
against the inordinate ambition and subde practices of 

C A R P E N T E R. il^ 

dourts'and courtiers. Mr. Malone takes more pains than 
necessary to prove that Dryden adopted no hint from it 
for bis " Absalom and Achitophei." 4. " Chorazin and 
Bethsaida's woe and warning," Oxford, 1640. He wrote 
also a " Treatise of Optics," of which there were some 
imperfect copies in MSS. but the original was by some 
means lost. * 

CARPENTER (Richard), a divine and poet of the se- 
venteenth century, was educated at Eton college, and 
thence elected scholar of King's college in Cambridge, in 
1622. About three years after, he left England, and 
studied in Flanders, Artois, France, Spain, and Ijtaly ; and 
at length received holy orders at Rome from the hands of 
the pope's substitute. Soon after', having taken upon him 
the order of St. Benedict, he was sent into England to 
.make proselytes; in which employment he continued 
somewhat above a year, then returned to the protestant re- 
ligion, and, through the archbishop of Canterbury's in- 
terest, obtained the small vicarage of Poling by the sea- 
side, near Arundel castle, in Sussex. Here he was ex- 
posed to the insults of the Romish party, particularly jone 
Francis a S. Clara, living in that neighbourhood under the 
name of Hunt, who used to expose him to scorn before 
bis parishioners. In the time, however, of the civil war, 
he quitted his living, retired to Paris, and reconciling 
himself to the Romish church, he made it his business to 
rail against the protestants. Afterwards, returning to Eng- 
land, he settled at Aylesbury in Buckinghamshire, where 
he had some relations ; and, being once more a protestant, 
he would often preach there in a very fantastical manner, 
to the great mirth of his auditors. He was living there in 
1 670 ; but before his death he returned a third time to 
popery, causing his pretended wife to embrace that per- 
suasion ; and in that faith he died. He was generally 
esteemed a man of an absurd character, one that changed 
his opinions as often as his cloaths, and, for his juggles 
and tricks in religion, a theological mountebank. 
' He published the following sermons: 1. " The perfect 
Law of God, being a sermon 'and no sermon, preached 
and yet not preached," 1652, 8vo. 2. ** Astrology proved 
harmless, useful, pious; on Gen. i. 14. 'And let theni be 

. » Prinee's Worthiai of Devon.-i^uUer's WorthieB.->Ath. Ok tot. I.— 'Ma* 
loae'g Dryden^ vol, L p. 139. 

T 2 

876. e A R P E'n T E R. 

tor 8ign$%*' Lond. 1657, 4to; dedicated to Elias Aslmiole* 
At the end of the epistle dedicatory is Richard Carpenter^s 
picturei with a face looking towards himi out of the mouth 
of which issues 9. ^erpeOt, and out of the serpent's mouth 
i^re. Underneath are written these words: '* Ricardus 
Carpenterus porcello cuidam Geraseuorum, scilicet in om- 
nia prcecipiti, fluctibusque devoto, cidem porco loquaci 
pariter et minadi mendacique indicit sileutium, et obmu- 
tescit." 3. " Rome in her fruits," preached the 1st of 
November 1662, near the Standard in Cheapside; in an- 
swer to a pamphlet entitled Reasons why the Roman Ca- 
thoiics should not be persecuted/' Lond. 1663, 4to, on 
IVIatth. vii. 16. There is extant by the same author, a trea- 
tise entitled " Experience, History, and Divinity, in five 
books," Lond. 1642, 8vo, dedicated to the parliament then 
fitting ; with his picture before it. This book was repub- 
lished in 1648, under the title of " The Downfall of An- 
tichrist.'* It contains several particulars of his personal 
history, and e^'poses many of the practices of the Romish 
missionaries, but the style, as in all his works, is quaint 
and extravagant. Granger thinks he must have studied the 
Spanish roma\ices to produce the following beauty, pre* 
fixed to the list of errata : " I humbly desire all clean- 
hearted and right-spirited people, who shall reade this 
book (which- because the presse was oppressed, seems to 
have been suppressed, when it was by little and little ina- 
-pressed ; but now at least hath pressed through the presse 
into the publicke) first to restore it by correcting the fol- 
lowing errata." His comedy, called " The praghiatical 
Jesuit," came out after the Restoration. The picture be- 
fore it represents him in a very genteel lay-habit ; whereas 
that before his " Experience," &c. exhibits him in the dress 
of a formal clergyman, with a mortified countenance. M]r« 
Langbaine speaks with some commendation of this play. ^ 

CARPENTER (Richarb), confounded by Langbaine 
with the former, but a, divine of a very different character^ 
and prior in order of time, was a Cornish man, and became 
a batler in Exeter college in Oxford, ia 15^2, and four 
years after fellow oS that house, being then B* A. By 
the advice and direction of the rector, Dr. Holland, be ap- 
plied himself to theological studies, and, in a few yeai^s, 

* Bio^. Brit.— »0iaK. I>rAmiiticA*<^AUi. Oi« T^. I.— Alaouii Eton. p. 223*-» 
€jr»iigcr. — ^i>u(i4's Cburcli UisiQTj, 

te« A*i«i»fl 


|>roved a learned divine and an excellent preacher. Iri 
1611 he was admitted to the reading of the sentences; and 
about that time was made rector of Sherwill, and of Lox- 
hore adjoining, in Devonshire; and afterwards obtained 
the benefice of Ham near Sherwill. He died Dec. 18, 
1627, aged fifty-two, and was buried in the chancel of the 
church of Loxhore. He published some sermons : 1. "The 
Soul's Centinel," preached at the funeral of sir Arthur 
Acland, knt Jan. 9, 1611, on Jobxiv. 14." Lond. 1612, 8vo. 

2. " A Pastoral Charge, faithfully given and discharged at 
the triennial visitation of W. Bishop of Exon, at Barn- 
Staple, Sept. 7, 1616, on Acts xx. 28." London, 1616, 8vo. 

3. " Christ's Larum-bell of Love resounded," &c. on John 
XV, 12. Lond. 1616, 8vo. 4. " The conscionable Christian," 
&c. being three assize sermons at I'aunton and Chard in 
Somersetshire, 1620, on Actsxxiv. 16, Lond. 1623, 4to.* 

CARPENTIER (John le), a native of Abscons in Ostre- 
vant, was a regular canon in the abbey of St. Aubert at 
Canibray, but retired into Holland with a lady by whom he 
had several children, according to Foppen, in his Bibl. 
Belgica, and died there at ah advanced age, about 1670. 
He maintained himself by drawing up genealogies, which 
are in his ^^ Histoire deCambray et du Cambresis," Ley- 
den, 1664, 2 vols, 4to, a work which his countrymen say 
must not be depended upon too much. There is only one 
edition of this book, but some have the titles of 1668. In 
the copies thus dated, is a short supplement, which con- 
tinues the third part of the book to page 1110, instead of 
1096, where it originally ended. There is also a plan of 
the estates of Cambresis, and some separate genealogies, 
the expence of which was defrayed by the families. ' 

CARPENTIER (Peter), prior of Doncheri, was born 
At Charleville in 1697, and entered early into the congre- 
gation of St, Maur, where he acquired great esteem for his 
learning ; but being presented to a rich benefice by the 
abb^ de Pompone, and patronized by the ministry, be 
went into the order of Cluni. He passed his time at Paris 
without attaching himself to any religious house, culti- 
vating literature, and examining the archives and libraries. 
He died in D^c. 1767, aged seventy. He is partly author 
of the edition of the glossary of Du Cange, 6 vols, folio, 
and entirely of the <* Supplement" in 4 vols. fol. 1766, 

> Atli. Ox vol. L" < Dict.'Hi«t.— -L^Advocat.— ^axU Ononufit. 

278 C,A R P E N T I E R. 

» , 

sometimes bound in two, which in point of learned research 
places him on an equality with his predecessor. He com- . 
piled also " Alphabetum Tironianum, seu Notas Tironis 
expiicandi metbodus, cum pluribus Ludovici Pii chartis 
quae notis tisdem exaratoB sunt." Paris, 1747, fol. ' 

CARPI (Hugo da), a native of Italy, who flourished about 
the beginning of the sixteenth century, was not in any 
degree considerable as a painter, but is justly entitled to 
fame as an engraver on wood. He was not, however, the 
first engraver on that material, as some have asserted, but 
certainly invented that species distinguished by the name 
of chiaro-scuro, in imitation of drawing. This he per- 
formed by using three blocks : the first for the outline and 
dark shadows ; the second for the lighter shadows *, and the 
third for the half tint. His prints, though slight, are usu- 
ally very spirited, and in a masterly style. They prescrvei 
at least, a bold, striking resemblance of the sketches of the 
great painters from whose designs they are taken. Strutt, 
and, before him, Vasari, mention the following : viz. "A 
Sibyl reading in a book, with an infant holding a flambeau 
to light her;" *^ The burning of Troy, with ^Eneas saving 
his father Anchises ;" " A descent from the cross ;" ** Da- 
\id cutting off the head of Goliah ;'' all from Raphael ; 
and a " Magician seated on the ground, with a book open 
before him, and in the back-ground a bird with its foathers 
plucked off," from Parmigiano. This species of engraving 
was carried to great perfection by Andrea Andriani, and 
also by Balthasar Perezzi of Siena, and Parmigiano*. 

CARPI (GiROLAMO 0e)^ an artist, who was born at Fer- 
rara, in 1501, became a disciple of Garofalo, and proved 
the best artist of all those who studied in that academy ; 
but when he quitted that master, he devoted his whole 
time, thoughts, and attention, to study the works of Cor- 
reggio, and to copy them with a critical care and observation. 
In that labour he spent several years at Parma, Modena, 
and other cities of Italy, where the best works of that 
exquisite painter were j)reserved. He succeeded to admi- 
ration, and acquired such an excellence in the imitation of 
Correggio's style, and copying his pictures, that many 
paintings finished by him were taken for originals, and 
were eagerly purchased by the connoisseurs of that time. 
Nor is it improbable, that several of the paintings of 

\ Diet Hist— Saxii Onomast . * StruU.r-Pilkingtom * 


Girdamo da Carpi pass at this day for the genuine worJb 
of Correggio. He died in 1556. ! •* 

CARPOCRATES,'or CARPOCRAS, of Alexandria, a? 
famous heretic of the second century, is reported to have 
carried the Gnostic blasphemies to an enormous degree of 
extravagance. He maintained that matter was eternal; 
that the world was created by angels ; that God formed 
^uman souls, which were imprisoned in bodies of malignant 
matter; that Jesus was but. a mere man^ the son of Joseph 
and Mary, and distinguished from others by his superior 
greatness of soul ; that none can obtain everlasting salvation 
by him, unless, by committing all manner of crimes, they 
fill up the measure of their wickedness ; that human lusts 
and passions, being implanted by God, ought to be gra* 
tified; that all actions are in themselves indifferent,, and 
become good or evil, only by the opinions of men, or tlttf 
laws of the state ; and that women, and every thing else^ 
ought to be common property. Such are the opinions 
imputed to him by ecclesiastical historians, which are said 
to have produced a corresponding practice among his foW 
lowers. Dr. Lardner only has taken considerable pains to 
defend Carpocrates ; and his conjectures are at least in- 
genious, akhough he has' not been able to render > tbW 
heretic an object of much interest or admiration. ' 

CARPZOVIUS (Benedict), the first of a learned family 
in Germany, was born in 1565 in the marquisate of Bran- 
denburgh. As he excelled in the study of jurisprudence, 
he was enrolled among the number of lawyers at Wittem- 
berg in 1592, where be lectured on the institutes in 1599 
and 1601. He was afterwards appointed chancellor and 
assessor of appeals to Sophia, the widow of Christian I. 
elector of Saxony, and after residing, some years at that 
court, obtained permission to return to Wittemberg, where 
be died in 1624.' 

CARPZOVIUS (Benedict), one of the sons of the 
preceding, was born in 1595, succeeded to his father's 
employments, which he held for forty-six years, and died 
in 1666. He was accounted one of the ablest lawyers and 
law-writers of bis time, and may likewise be praised as a 
legal antiquary, as he rescued from the archives, where 
they were unknown or forgot, many constitutions and de- 
cisions of great curiosity and impdrtanoe. In his latter 

 Ptlkingtoo.  • 

» Mosheim.— Lardner's Hist, of Heretics, Works, vol. .IX.—'Dupiik 
? Moreri.-*Freberi TheatnuD. 



4i9^yB h^ retired lo LeipsiQ, ud devoted his time entirely 
to the study of the Bible, which he is said to have read 
over fifty-three times, besides making notes as he went 
00, and conanltiDg the commentators. The chief of his 
j^biished works ase, 1. ^^ Practica rerum criminalittm,^* 
:|635, fol. often reprinled» and abridged by Suerus, Leipsic, 
)$35, 4to, 1669., 8vo. 2. f< Deftnitioues forenses,'* 1638, 
foL; also often reprinted, and abridged by Schroterus, 
^th the author's consent, Jena, 1664, 4to, and 1669, 8vo. 
S« '^ Copnnent. ad legem regiam Germanoram," 1640* 
4' ^ Besponsa juris Electoralia,'' 1642, foL 5. << Defini- 
Stones ecclesiasticse,'' 1649. 6. <^ Decisiooes Saxonicae," 
1646—16^4, St vols, folio, often reprinted. 7« '^ Processus 
Juris Saxonici,'' 1657, folio. Other branches of this 
&mily acquired distinction as divines and philologists ; but 
our accounts of them are too imperfect to be interesting, 
^ud those in the Diet. Historique evidently erroneous. The 
bst upon record, Johon" Benedict Carpzovius, was a very 
eminent classical scholar and critic. He published an ex« 
cellent edition of Musasus, Gr. and Lat. in 1775 ^ . 

CARR (GsoaoE), a clergyman of the episcopal church 
.in Scotland, was bom at Newcastle, Feb. 16, 1704, and 
educated at St John's college, Cambridge, where be took 
the degree of bachelor ^f arts. Soon after his return to 
Newcastle he went into orders, and in 1737 was appointed 
senior clergyman of the episcopal chapel at Edinburgh^ 
^here he spent the remainder of his days, and officiated 
for the space of thirty-nine years. On the morning of 
Sunday, August 18, 1776, as he was preparing to go to. the 
4^hapel, he suddenly expired. Three volomes of bis '^ Ser« 
xnoos'^ were published in the following year, 12i»o, by sir 
William Forbes^ bact. who undertook the task of selecting 
^lese from his numerous, manuscripts. Oo his private and 
public character, sir William lived to express, himself with 
3eal and affection thirty years after the decease of his 
friend, and says of his ^ Sermons,*' that although they do 
qot contain the profound reasonings of Butler, nor the 
^Icffant discussions of Sherlock ; neither the learning of 
Tilktson, nor the declamation of Seed, they exhibit the 
most useful and important truths of the gospel, net only 
with plainness and perspicuity, but in language always 
elegant and seldom incorrect. Dr. Beattie, on tjio oocasioii 
of his death, said^ that *^ to bis merits as a preacher, great 

> Moreri.-- SazH OnoniMliooiir ^ 

C A R R. 281 

ais they were, the lustre of his private charadtor was still 
superior,^' ainl that ^^ the death of such a man was. a real 
loss to society. ^ 

CARR (John), LL. D. many years an eminent school- 
master at Hertford, and known to the literary world as the 
translator of Lucian, was born at Muggleswick, in the 
coonty of Durham, in 1732; His father was a farmer, and 
had a small estate of hia own, which the doctor possessed 
at his death. He was first educated at the village school, 
said privately by the rev. Daniel Watson, who was then a 
young man, and curate of that place. Afterwards he was 
sent to St. Paul's school, where he continued longer than 
boys usually do, as his father could not afford to send him 
to either of the universities. He is supposed to have beeit 
once a candidate for the mastership of St. PauPs, but the 
want of a degree was fatal to his application. When stilt 
young, however, he became usher to Dr. Hurst, who W9^ts 
master of the grammar-school at Hertford, and succeeded 
him in that situation, which he held for many years with 
the highest credit He was honoured with the degree of 
LL. D. from the Mariscbal college^ Aberdeen, by the in« 
fluence of Dr. Beattie. He died June 6, 1807, after ex-^ ' 
periencing a gradual decay for nearly a year before, but onf 
the day of his death was, as he supposed, in much bettier 
health than usual. He was buried in St. John's church, 
Hertford, with an epitaph in Latin, written hy himself, in 
which he seems to reflect a little on time lost, ^* studiis 
inanibus." This may probably allude to his ^* Translation 
oi Lucian," on which be employed many of his leisure 
hours, and which was published in 5 vols. 8vo. from 1773 
to 1798. It procured him considerable fame, which', how^ 
ever, has been diminished, m the opinion of many, since 
the appearance of Dr. Francklin's more classical translation. 
Br. Carr's other publications were trifles, on which himself 
perh^s set no very high value: "Vol. III. of Tristram 
Shandy,*' in imitation of Sterne, but soon detected, 1760 ; 
*^ FiUal Piety," a mocfc heroic, 1763, fol ; « Extract of a 
^Private Letter to a Critic," 1764, fol.; and ** Eponina, a 
Dramatic £}ssay, addressed to the ladies," 1765.^ 
' CARRA (John Lewis), one of those French philoso* 
phers and statesmen to whom the revolution gave a short* 
lived importance, was born at Pont-de-Vesle in Dombes, 

i ' , ... 

1 Sermons as above. — ^Forbes^s Life of Dr. Beattie, vol. If. 4to, p. 3, 404, 
f Nicbol»*s Bowy«ri voU* Xll.<— Gent, Mag. Siipp« 191S. Part II. 

2S2 C A R R A. 

of poor parents. He early discovered an impetuous and 
ttngovernable temper, and even his youth is said to have 
been stained with crimes. He travelled into Moldavia and 
Walacbia, and wrote an account of those countries, which 
is the most unexceptionable of his works. On the com* 
xnencement of the revolution he came to Paris, with all 
the talents requisite to give him consequence, a violent 
hatred of the royal family, and confused and ill-digested 
notions of political freedom. Mirabeau, during his short 
life, appears to have discerned and despised his character ^ 
but in 1792 he acted without controul, and was one of the 
chiefs of the revolt on the 10th of August, and gloried in 
having laid the plan of that fatal day. When the unhappy 
king was brought to trial, he was among the most active in 
preventing any change in the sentence, or any access to 
the voice of clemency. His triumph, however, was very 
short Having fallen out with Robespierre and his col- 
leagues, he joined the party of the Gironde, was impli- 
cated in their fete, and guillotined Nov; 1,>1793. The 
convention afterwards honoured him as a martyr to liberty, 
but his countrymen now seem disposed to revive his real 
character. As a writer, they tell us, he first acquired 
notice by some bad articles in the Encyclops&dia. His 
separate publications were, 1. " Systeme de la Raison," a 
.declamation against royalty ; said to have been printed a| 
London in 1773. 2. *^ Esprit de la Morale et de la Philo^ 
Sophie,"- 1777, 8vo;. in which the principles of infidelity 
are unblushingly brought forward. 3. " Histoite de la 
Moldavie et de la Valachie," 1778, 12mo. 4. " Nouveauif 
principes de Physique,'* 1782, 2 vols. Svo, a work in 
which he has pretty nearly ascertained bow far the imagina- 
tion, without the aid of knowledge or ex-periment, can 
carry conjecture and paradox. 5. ^^ Essai sur la nautique 
aerienn^," 1784, in which he assumes the merit of a plan 
to guide air-balloons with, safety and speed ; which in point 
of utility may be classed with the following : 6. " Examen 
physique du magnetisme animal," 1785, 8vq. 7. " Dis- 
sertation elementaire sur la natnre\ de la Jiimiere, de la 
chaleur, du feu, et de Pelectricit6," 1787, 8voi 8. " Uii 
m6t de reponse a M. de Calonne, sur sa Hequete au roi.'* 
9. ^^ L'Orateur des Etats-Generawx," 1789, 8vo. 10. " An^ 
Dales politiques," a sort of newspaper, if we mistake 
not, at the time when every party had its newspaper* 

C A R R A. 2SS 

11. ** Memoires historiques sur la Bastille," 1790, 3 Vols, 
^Vo; and many anonynaous pamphlets. ^ 

CARRANZA (Bartholomew), a Dominican, bora ia 
1 504 at Miranda in Navarre, appeared with great distinc-* 
tion at the council of Trent, where he composed a treatise 
on the residence of bishops, which he held to be of divine 
right, treating the contrary opinion as diabolical. Philip 11. 
king of Spain, having married queen Mary in 1554, took 
Carranza with him into Kngland, who laboured to restore 
the Catholic religion there, and pleased Philip so much^ 
that he appointed him archbishop of Toledo. 1 557. This 
illustrious prelate was, however, accused before the Inqui- 
sition, 1559, and carried as a heretic to Rome, where he 
was thrown into prison, and ^suffered greatly during t^ii 
years, notwithstanding the solicitations of his friend Na- 
varrej who openly undertook his defence. ' At length the 
Inquisition declared by a sentence passed 1576, that there 
was not any certain proof that Carranza was a heretic^ 
They condemned him j^evertheless to abjure the errors 
which had been imputed to him, and confined him to la 
Minerve, a monastery of his order, where he died the same 
year, aged 72. His principal works are, 1. ** Summary 
of the Councils" in Latin, 1681, 4to, which is valued. 

2. " A Treatise on the residence of Bishops," 154-7, 4to. 

3. "A Catechism" in Spanish, 1558, fol. ; censured by 
the Inquisition in Spain, but justified at, the council of 
Trent in 1563.* 

CARRE' (Lewis), was born in 1663, in the province of 
Brie in France. His father, a substantial farmer, intended 
him for the church. But young Carre, after going through 
the usual cour<^e of education for that purpose, having an 
litter aversion to it, refused to enter upon that function ;, 
by which he incurred his father's displeasure. His re- 
^ources being thus cut off, he was obliged to quit the 
university, and look out into the world for some em- 
ployment. In this exigency he had the good fortune 
to be engaged as an amanuensis by the celebrated 
father Malebranche ; by which be found himself trans- 
ported at once from the mazes of scholanic darkness, to 
(he source of the most brilliant and enlightened ;pbilosophy. 
Under this great master he studied mathematics and meta- 
physics, and after seven years spent in this excellent school, 

^ Diet. Hi8t«<— Biog. Modernc—Por his philosophy, see Month. Rev. vol. 68^ 
B9, and 70. * Moreri. — Dopin.— Gen. Diet,— Freb«ri Tbeatrum. 

it* c A R R r. 

J , 

M. Carr£ found it necessary, in order to procure himself 
some less precarious establishment^ to teach mathematics 
and philosophy in Paris ; but especially that philosophy 
whicky on account of its tendency to improve our morals, 
he valued more than all the mathematics in the world. 
And accordingly his greatest care was to make geometry 
serve as an introduction to his well-beloved metaphysics. 
Most of M. Carr6*s pupils were of the fair sex. The first 
of these, who soon perceived that his language was rather 
the reverse of elegant and ccnrrect, told him pleasantly, 
that, as an Acknowledgment for the pains he took to teach 
ber philosophy, she would teach him French ; and he ever 
after owned that her lessons were of great service to him« 
In general he seemed to set more value upon the genius of 
'iPomen than that of men. 

' M. t!arr6, although he gave the preference to meta* 
physics, did not neglect mathematics ; and while he taught 
both, he took care to make himself acquainted with all 
the new discoveries in the latter. This was all that his 
constant attendance on bis pupils would allow him to do, 
till the year 1697, when M. Varignon, so remarkable for 
his extreme scrupulousness in the choice of his eleves, 
took M . Carr^ to him in that station. Soon af(er, viz. in 
1700, our author thinking himself bound to do sojnething 
that might render him worthy of that title, published the 
first complete work on the integral calculus, under the 
title of ** A method of measuring surfaces and soUds, and 
finding their centres of gravity, percussion, and oscilla- 
tion." He afterwards discovered some errors in the work, 
and was candid enough to own and correct them in a sub* 
sequent edition. In a little time M. Carr^ became asso* 
ciate, and at length one of the pensioners of the academy. 
And as tbis^was a sufficient establishment for one who 
knew so well how to keep his; desires within just bounds, 
be gave himself up entirely to study ; and as he enjoyed 
the appointment of Mechanician, he applied himself more 
particularly to mechanics. He took also a survey of every 
branch relating to music ; such as the doctrine of sounds, the 
description of musical instruments; though he despised the 
practice of music, as a mere sensual pleasure. Some sketches 
of his ingenuity and industry in this way may be seen in the 
Memoirs of the French Academy of Sciences. M. CarrS 
also composed some treatises on other branches of natural 
philosophy, and some on mathematical subjects ; all which 

C A R R ET. 2SS 

Ke bequeathed to that illustrious body ; though it does not 
appear that any of them have yet been published. It ia 
not unlikely that he was hindered from putting the last 
band to them by a train of disorders proceeding from a 
bad digestion, which, after harassing him during the space 
of five or six years, at length brought him to the grave in 
1711, at forty-eight years of age. 

His memoirs are printed in the volumes of the academy^ 
from the years 1701 to 1710.* 

CARRENNO DE MIRANDA (Don Juan), an emi- 
nent Spanish painter, descended from an ancient family, 
was born at Aviles, in 1614; and learnt the elements of 
art at Madrid, in the school of Pedro de las Cueva». He 
afterwards finished his studies with such success under Bar* 
tolom^ Roman, that he was soon considered as one of the 
best Spanish painters, and charged with decorating some 
apartments of the royal palace m frescos, which pleased 
Philip IV. so much, that he nominated him painter to the 
court, about 1651. In society with Francisco Ri:;i, he 
acquired a surprising facility of execution ; his design is 
tolerably correct, his colour brilliant and seducing ; it re* 
sembles the tones of Vandyke ; his conception was vigo*- 
rous, and his composition rich. Madrid, Toledo, Alcala 
de Henares, and Pamplona, possess the best of Miranda's 
works ; the patronage of Philip IV. was continued to hiol 
by Charles II., and be died at the head of a large school^ 
about 1685.' 

CARRIERA (Rosalba), an eminent female artist, was 
born at Chiozza, in 1675, and having shown an early, taste 
for painting, her father placed her with an artist from 
whom she learned to paint in oil, but she afterwards prac- 
tised, and carried crayon-paintdng to a high degree of 
perfection. Orlandi celebrates her miniatures. Her crayon 
painting arrives not seldom at the strength of pictures iii 
oil. Her portraits, spread over all Europe, are as elegant 
and graceful in conception and attitude, as fresh, neat^ 
and alluring in colour. Her Madonnas, and other sacred 
subjects, rise from grace to dignity, and even majesty* 
Equal and incessant application deprived her of sight 
during the last ten years of her life. She died at the ad« 
iranced age of eighty-^two, in 1757.* 


1 Moreri. — Martin's Biog. Philos.— Hutton'i Dictionary. — Eloge by Fonte- 
nelle, 1711, in " Hist, de I'Acade^kie dc Sciences, 
s Pilkington.— Di(6U Hist. « lbid;-^>ArgenTiU«. 

sne cJ A R R I o. 

CARRID or CARRION (Lewis), a learned critic, was 
of a Spanish family, but born at Bruges, in Flanders. He 
began to study at Louvain, where he had Lipsius for his 
school-fellow, of whom he often speaks with respect in 
various parts of bis " Antiquae lectiones,*' and his " Emenda- 
tione^," although it has been insinuated that be felt some 
degree of jealousy of the fame of Lipsius. He prosecuted 
bis studies at Doway and at Paris, and returning to Lou- 
vain, was made doctor of laws in 1586, and about the same 
time lectured on the Institutes of Justinian. He was after- 
wards appointed royal professor of law, and had sbme 
church preferment, but he died young at Louvaine, June 
23, 1595, being then president of the college of St. Ives. 
His classical and critical taste is displayed in 1. *' Histo- 
riarum Sallustii fragmenta,^' with notes, Antwerp, 1573, 
8vo. 2. " Censorinus de die natali,** with the fhagment 
of an unknown author on the same subject, attributed to 
Censorinus, but which Carrio proves was not his, Paris, 
1583, 8vo. Lindenbrog, in his own edition of Censorinus, 
Leyden, 1642, 8vo, bestows high praise on Carrio, and 
adopts most of his readings. 3. *^ M. A. Cassiodori de or^ 
tographia libellus," Antwerp, 1579, 8vo. 4. ** V. Flacci 
Argonautica, cum castigationibus,'* Antwerp, Svo, and 
16mo, and Lyons, 1617, 8vo. 5. " Antiquarum lec- 
tiouum libri tres," Antwerp, 1576, Svo, and inserted in 
Gruter's " Thesaurus'* as is his other work, 6. « Emenda- 
tionum et observationum Ubri duo," Paris, 4to.* 

CARRUCCI (Jacob), an artist who from the place of 
bis nativity was called Pontormo, had great natural inge- 
nuity, and was in his earliest works admired by Raphael 
and Michel Angelo. He had had a few lessons from 
Liouardo da Vinci ; after him from Albertinelli ; made 
some progress under Pier di Cosimo ; and finished by en- 
tering the school of Andrea del Sarto, whose jealousy and 
ungenerous treatment, from a scholar, soon turned him 
into a rival. With such talents he became the victim of 
inconstancy, roaming from style to style. The Certosa of 
Florence exhibits specimens of the three different manners 
commonly ascribed to him. The first is correct in design, 
vigorous in colour, and approaches the style of Andrea del 
Sarto. The second, with good drawing combines a languid 
tonc; and became the model of Bronzino and the subse- 

> Moi«n.-*Feppen Bibl. B9%. 


quent epoch. The third is a downright imitation of Albert 
Durer, and at present can only be found in some histories 
from the Passion in the cloister of that monastery, which 
are neither more nor less than copies from the prints of 
Albert. To these, perhaps, a fourth manner might be 
added, if the frescos of the General Deluge and Universal 
Judgment, on which he spent eleven years in S. Lorenzo, 
and his last work, had not been whitewashed, with the tacit 
acquiescence of all contemporary artists. In this labour 
he strove to emulate Michel Angelo, and to exemplify, 
like him, anatomic skill, which was then becoming the 
favourite pursuit of Florentine art. He died in 1558, aged 
sijcty-five. * 

CARSTARES (William), a politica.1 character of con- 
siderable fame in Scotland, was the descendant of an an- 
cient family, and bom in 1649 at Cathcart in Glasgow. 
He was educated in divinity and philosophy at Edinburgh 
and Utrecht, to which his father sent him that he might 
avoid the political contests which disturbed the reign of 
Charles II. but he had a zeal which prompted him to in- 
terfere in what regarded his country, although removed 
from it, and he must have given some proofs of a talent 
for political affairs at a very early period. When England 
was alarmed about the popish succession, Carstares was 
introduced to the pensionary Fagel, and afteirwards to the 
prince of Orange, and entrusted with his designs relating 
to British affairs. During his residence in Holland, his 
principles both in religion and politics, were sti'ongly con- 
iirmed ; and upon his return tp his native country he en- 
tered with zeal into the counsels and schemes of those no- 
blemen and gentlemen who opposed the tyrannical mea- 
sures of government; and although about this time he took 
orders in the Scotch church, his mind seemed to have ac- 
quired such a decided bias towards towards politics, that 
he determined to revisit Holland. On his way thither he • 
passed through London, and was employed by Argyle, and 
the other Scots patriots, in treating with the English, who 
were for excluding the duke of Vork from succession to the 
crown. Towards the close of 1682,^ he held various con- 
ferences with the beads of that party, which terminated in 
his being privy to what has been called the *^ Rye-house. 
ploC. Accordingly, be was committed to close custodjr 


} ArgenyiUe, Tol. L— ?iIkiii|ton« 

288 C A R S T A R E S- 

in the Gate-house, Westminster. After several exait]ifia<« 
lions before the privy council, he was sent for trial to Scot- 
land ; and as he refused to give any information respecting 
th^ authors of the exclusion scheme, he was put to the 
torture, which be endured with invincible firmness, but 
yielded to milder methods of a more insidious nature, and 
when a pardon was proposed, with an assurance that no 
advantage should be taken of his answers as evidence 
against any person, he consented to answer their interro- 
gatories. The privy-council immediately caused to be 
printed a paper, entitled, ** Mr. Carstares's Confession,'' 
which contained, as he said, a false and mutilated account 
of the whole transaction^ ,and in direct violation of their 
promise, they produced this evidence in open court against 
one of his most intimate friends.^ This treachery and its con« 
quences very deeply affected him ; but as soon as he was 
cleared, he obtained permission to retire to Holland, to- 
wards the close of 1684, or the beginning of 1685, wher« 
he was kindly received by the prince of Orange, who ap- 
pointed him one of his chaplains, caused him to be elected 
minister of the English protestant congregation at Leyden ; 
and when the prince determined to transport an army to 
England, Carstares accompanied him as his chaplain, anct 
continued about his person till the settlement of the crown. 
During the whole of this reign he was the chief agent be- 
tween the church of Scotland and the court, and contri- 
buted by his influence with the king to the establishment 
of presbytery in Scotland, to which his majesty was disin- 
clined, and to a degree of coalescence or accommodation 
on the part of the presbyterian clergy with the episco- 
palians. When an act was passed in 1693, by the Scots* 
parliament, obliging all officers, civil and ecclesiastical, to 
take an oath of allegiance, and also to sign an assurance 
(as it was called) declaring William to be king dejure^ as 
well as de/acto^ the ministers refused to sign th^ declaration^ 
and appealed to the privy council, who recommended to 
the king to enforce the obligation. Accordingly, mea-' 
sures were adopted for this purpose ; and the body of thcf 
clergy applied to Carstares, requesting his interference in 
their favour. The king persisted in his resolution ; orders 
Were renewed in peremptory terms, and dispatches were 
actually delivered to the messenger to be forwarded nexti 
{xiorning. In these critical circumstances Carstares has- 
tened to the messenger at night, demanded the dispatches^ 


trhich had been delivered to him in the king^s name, and 
instantly repaired to Kensington, where he found bis 
majesty gone to bed. Having obtained admission into his 
chamber, he gently waked him, fell on his knees^ and asked 
pardon for the intrusion, and the daring act of disobe- 
dience of which he bad been guilty. The king at first 
expressed his displeasure ; but when Carstares further 
stated the case, his majesty caused the dispatches to be 
thrown into the fire, and directed him to send such in- 
structions to the royal commissioners of the general as- 
sembly as he thought most conducive to the public good» 
In consequence of this seasonable interposition, the oath 
and assurance were dispensed with on the part of the 
clergy. By this timely service. Carstares acquired the 
confidence of the presb}'terian party to such a degree, and 
so successfully cultivated the friendship of the earl of Port- 
land, and other m^n of influence about the court, that he 
was regarded in the management of Scotch affairs, as a kind 
of viceroy for Scotland, though he possessed no public 
character. Ail applications passed through his hands, all 
employments,^onours, and offices of state, were left to his 
disposal ; and without public responsibilky, he engrossed 
the secret direction of public affairs. Few Scotchmen ob- 
tained access to the king, unless through his intervention ; 
and in his correspondence with every department^ says a 
late historian, it is curious to remark how the haughty no- 
bility condescended to stoop and truckle to a presbyteriaa 
clergyman, whom their predecessors in office had tortured 
and deceived. His moderation, secrecy, and a prudence 
apparently disinterested, recommended him to king Wil- 
liam, who once said of him, in the presence of several of 
his courtiers, ^^tbat he had long known Mr. Carstares; 
that he knew him well, and knew him to be an honest man.^* 
He is represented on the other hand, as a cunning, subtle^ 
insinuating priest, whose dissimulation was impenetrable ; 
an useful friend when sincere ; but, from an air of smiling 
sincerity, a dangerous enemy. * 

Although, after the death of king William, Carstares was 
not much employed in public affairs, queen Anne conti- 
nued him in the office of royal chaplain for Scotland, and 
obtained for him the offer of an appointment to the vacant 
place of principal of the university of Edinburgh; which 
he accepted in 1704, with the first professorship of divi- 
fiity. After this appointment^ whilst U^ refused any addi« 

voL.vnr. u 

990 ' C A R S T A R E S. 

tion to his own salary, he used his influence at court for 
augmenting the very small salaries pertaining to the re- 
gents in the several universities of Scotland ; and in the 
execution of his oflSce, as principal, he secured the affec- 
tion and respect of those that were subject to his authority^ 
by the dignified affability and gentleness of his deportment. 
In the year of his appointment to the principalship of the 
university, be was unanimously invited to the pastoral 
office in one of the parishes of Edinburghj which he per- 
formed with exemplary diligence ; and as moderator of the 
general assembly, which post he occupied four times ii> 
eleven years, he maintained great weight in its debates. 
When the union of tlie two'kingdoms was agitated, it en- 
gaged his cordial eoncurrerrce, and he was the principal 
instrument of preventing any public opposition from the 
presbyterian clergy. His efforts to controul the opinions 
ef this body rendered him unpopular; aud with a view 
of gaining their assistance, he accepted the office of one 
of the agents sent to London to oppose the bills for the 
yestoration of patronage in Scotland^ and for the toleratior» 
of the episcopal clergy ; though in the latter instance, at 
least, his opposition must have counteracted his principles. 
His excuse seems to have been an apprehension that the 
Scots episcopalians wished the exiled family to be restoji*ed. 
His eflbrts, however, whether they were sincere or not, 
proved unsuccessful. To the succession of the house of 
Hanover he gave his active support ; and he obtained frona 
the general assembly an address of congratulation ta 
George I. on his accession to the throne ; and in return 
for this service his office of royal chaplain was continued. 
His death happened soon after this event, in December 
1715. Some years ago was published a volume, entitled 
•* State papers and letters addressed to William Carstares^ 
confidential secretary to king William during the whole of 
his reign, afterwards principal of the university of Edin- 
burgh^ relating to public affairs in Great Britain, but 
more particularly in Scotland, during the reign of king 
William and queen Anne ; to which is prefixed the life 
of Mr. Carstares, published from the originals by Joseph 
M^Cormick, D. D» minister at Preston-pans," 1774, 4ta. 
This is unquestionably a collection of great importance 
in illustrating that period of the history of Great Britain, 
«nd particularly Scotland ; and the life of Mr. Carstares is 
4E^oth interesting aod ao^using^ We have already hinted 

CAR ST A R E Si 291 

that his character was not contemplated in^the most fa<* 
vourable light by all his contemporaries. It appears, how-^ 
ever, by his biographer's account, that his private cha- 
racter was, in every view of it, amiable and respectable* 
His religion was not tinctured with the extravagancies of 
enthusiasm, or debased by the rigours of superstition. He 
was distinguished for his discbarge of the dyties of hospi* 
tality ; and his charity was unbounded. Such of the epis** 
copal clergy as had been deprived of their livings at the 
Revohition, he always treated with peculiar tenderness 
and humanity. H^ often relieved their families when ia 
distress, and was solicitous to dispense his benefactions in 
the manner that would be the least offensive to the delicacy 
of their feelings. His ingenuity was sometimes exercised 
in devising methods of imposing upon the modesty and 
pride of such as would have rejected his good offices with 
disdain, if be had not disguised his intentions. Several qf 
the episcopal clergy, who were his annual pensioners, ne- 
ver knew from what channel their rehef flowed, till they 
found by his death that the source of it was dried up.^ 

CARTE (Samuel), an English divine, was the son of 
Thomas Carte, a clothier at Coventry, where he was bom 
October 21, 1652, or 1653, and in the free-school of whicTi 
place he received his grammatical education. He was af- 
terwards removed to Magdalen college, Oxford, where he 
took his degree of B. A. 1672 ; and M. A. 1675. After he 
entered into holy orders he had several preferments, the 
chief of which were, a prebend in the cathedi*al church o£ 
Litchfield, the rectory of Eastwell in Leicestershire, and^i 
Jast of all, the vicarage of St. Martin's, in the town of Leices- 
ter. It has been supposed that he resigned his preferments 
at the accession of king George the First, and that at one 
time he assisted the celebrated Jeremiah Collier, in preach- 
ing to a nonjuripg congregation in Broad-street^ London ; 
but this belongs to his son. It is certain that Mr. Samuel 
Carte spent the latter part of his life on his living at Leices- 
ter, where he died on the 16th of April, 1740, in the eighty- 
seventh year of his age. A high, and, we doubt not, a 
just character is given of him, in an inscription to his me- 
mory in the chancel of St. Martin's church. He published 
two sermons, and ^^ Tabula Chronologica Archiepiscopatuum 

1 Life prefixed to the State Papers.— Btog. Brit.--^Swift's Works, edit I8OI9 
vol. XVIII. p. 238.<*44iiDg'i Hist, of ScoUand. 

U 2 


C A It r E. 

ct Episcopatunm in Anglia et Wallia, Ortus, Dlvisioneff, 
Translationes, &c. breviter exhibens ; una cuni41ndice aU 
phabetico Nominum, quibus apud Authores insigniuntur,"' 
folio, without date. Part of a letter of his on a tesselated 
pavement at Leicester is in Phil. Trans. No. 331, and hid 
account of Leicester is in the Bibl. Top. Britannica. Those? 
eminent antiquaries, Dr. Willis and Mr. Stukeley, ac- 
knowledged his assistance and correspondence. * 

CARTE (Thomas), a very learned English histo;'ian, 
was born at Clifton, in Warwickshire ; at which place his 
father, the object of the preceding article, at that time 
resided as vicar ; and was baptized there by immersion, on 
April 23, 1686. If this account be exact, his progress in 
grammatical learning must have been very rapid and ex- 
traordinary ; for it appears that he was admitted a member 
of University-college, in Oxford, and matriculated on 
inly 4, 1698, having then not long entered into the thir- 
teenth year of his age*. He took his degree of B. A. 
Jan. 1702 ; after which he was incorporated at Cambridge^ 
where he became M. A. in 1706. 

In 1712 he made the tour of Europe with a nobleman, 
and on his return entered into orders, and was appointed 
reader of the Abbey-church at Bath ; where he preached 
a sermon on Jan. 30, 1714, in which he took occasion to 
vindicate Charles L from aspersions cast upon his memory 
^vith regard to the Irish rebellion. This drew Mr. Carte 
into a controversy with Mr. (afterwards the celebrated Dr.) 
Chandler, and gave rise to our historian*s first publication, 
entitled " The Irish Massacre set in a clear light," &c. 
which is inserted in lord Somers's Tracts. Upon the ac- 
cession of George I. Mr. Carte's principles not permitting 
him to take thetiaths to the new government, he assumed a 
]ay- habit, and at one time assisted the celebrated Jeremiab 
Collier, who preached to a nonjuring congregation in a 
iiouse in Broad -street, . London, and on a Sunday he used 
to put on his gown and cas$ock, and perform divine service 
in his own family. What particular concern he had in the 
rebellion of 1715 does not appear; but that he had some 
degree of guilt in this respect, or, at least, that be was 

« There i»ere matty instances of this ki6d at and previous to our anther** 
time. Mr. Nichols wa« informed that Carte removed from University to Brasea- 
Moce-ooUege. ' • . . 

« Biog. Brir. — Bnt chiefly Nicholses Bowyer,. inhere are many additional par* 

ticuUrs yt' Mr. Cane. 

CARTE. 99i 

strongly suspected of it by administratioJOi, is evident, from 
the king*&. troops having orders to discover and apprehend 
hioa. He had the good fortune to elude their search, by 
concealing himself at Coleshill, Warwickshire, in thf& house 
of Mr. Badger, then curate of that town. Mr. Carte hin.- 
self officiated for a time as curate of the same place 3 
after which, ho was some time secretary to bishop Atter- 
bury. This connexion threw him into fresh difficulties : 
so deeply was he thought to be engaged in the conspiracy 
ascribed to that eminent prelate, that a charge of high 
treason was brought against him ; and a proclamation was 
issued, Aug. 13, 1722, offering a reward of 1000/. for 
seizing his person. He was again successful in making his 
escape, and fled into France, where he resided several 
years, under the borrowed name of Philips. Whilst Mr. 
Carte continued in that country, be was introduced to the 
principal men of learning and family, and gained access to 
the most eminejit libraries, pubUc and private, by whicli 
means he was enabled to collect large materials for illus- 
trating an English edition of Thuanus. The collection was 
in such forwardness in 1724, that he consulted Dr. Mead, 
at that time the great patron of literary undertakings, on the 
mode of publication. The doctor, who perceived that the 
plan might be rendered more extensively useful, obtained 
Mr. Carte's materials at a very considerable price, and en« 
gaged Mr. Buckley in the noble edition completed in 1733^ 
in 7 vols. fol. Mr. Carte would probably himself have 
been the principal editor, if he had not been an exile 
at the time the undertaking commenced, but we find that 
the Latin address to Dr. Mead, prefixed to that work, and 
dated from the Inner-ttemple, Jan. 1733, is signed Thomas 
Carte. Whilst this grand work was carrying on, queea 
Caroline, whose regard to men of letters is well known, 
received such favourable impressions of Mr. Carte, that 
she obtained permission for his returning* to England in 
security; which he did some time between the years 172^ 
and 1 7 30. He had not long been restored to his own country 
before he engaged in one of the most important of. his 
works, " The history of the life of James duke of Ormonde, 
from bis birtb, in 1610, to his death, in 1688," 3 vols. foK 
The third volume, which was published first, came out in 
1735, and the^first and second volumes in 1736, Frpm a 
letter of Mr. Carte's to Dr. Swil^t, dated Aug. 11, 1736, it 
appears, that in writing the life of the duke of OrmQude, 

294 CARTE. 

he had availed hims<3lf of some instructions which he had 
derived from the dean *. In the same letter he mentions 
his design of composing a general bistory of England ; and 
finds great fault, not only with Rapin, but with Rymer^s 
Foedera ; but his accusations of that noble collection are in 
several respects erroneous and groundless. 

It is highly probable that the success and popularity of 
Rapines History gave considerable disgust to Mr. Carte, 
and other gentlemen of the same principles, and suggested 
the scheme of a new undertaking. It is evident, from 
some letters written about this time to Dr. Z. Grey by 
our author, that he laid a great stress upon that part of his 
Life of the duke of Ormonde which vindicated Charles I. 
in his transactions with the earl of Glamorgan, and which 
brought a charge of forgery against that nobleman, but in 
this it has since been proved he was mistaken. Some book- 
sellers of Dublin having formed a design of printing in Ire- 
land a piratical edition of the ** History of the duke of 
Ormonde," Mr. Carte recollected an order of the house of 
lords, made in 1721, which was full to his purpose. By 
this order, which had been issued upon occasion of CurlPs 
publication of the duke of Buckingham's writings, it was 
declared that whoever should presume to print any account 
of the life, the letters, or other works of any deceased 
peer, without the consent of his heirs or executors, should 
he punished as guilty of a breach of privilege of that house. 
An attested copy of the order was carried by our historian 
to the earl of Arran, and his lordship sent it to his agent 
in Dublin, to serve upon the booksellfers concerned in the 
pirated impression, and to discharge them in his name from 
proceeding in the design. But as this was a remedy only 
in Mr. Carte's case, and arising from the particular nature 
of his work, he was very solicitous that a new act of par- 
liament should be passed, to secure the property of au- 
thors in their writings, and drew up a paper recommending 
such an act. Lord Cornbury, at the instance of the uni- 
versity of Oxford, had procured the draught of a bill to 
he prepared, which was approved by the speaker of the 

* Lord Orrery, in a letter to Mr. name after his could not add to your 

Carte, from Dablin, writes to him in the satisfaction. But I may say, the 

following terms : ** Your history is in worthy and the wise are with you to a 

great esteem here. All sides seem t<^ man, and you have me into the bar- 

like it. The dean of St. Patrick's ho- gain." 
aours ypu with his approbation. Any 

CARTE. «»$ 

house of comtnons ; but we do not find that any farlber 
measures were pursued in 'the affair. In April 1738, Me. 
Carte published on a separate sheet, " A general account 
of the necessary materials for a history of England, of the 
society and subscriptions proposed for defraying the ex»- 
pences of it, and the method in which he intended to pro^ 
ceed in carrying on the work." In the following October 
he had obtained subscriptions, or the promise of subscript 
tions, to the amount of 600/. a year. Not long after, he 
was at Cambridge, collecting materials for his history, from 
the university and other libraries. Whilst he was thus 
employed, his head quarters were at Madingly, the seaft 
of sir John Hinde Cotton, hart, whose large collection of 
old pamphlets and journals, published during the civil wsfir 
between 1639 and 1660, he methodized, and procured to 
be bound in a great number of volumes now in the library 
there. March 8, 1744, a cause in chancery was deter- 
mined in his favour against his brother Samuel and bis 
sister Sarah, with regard to a doubt concerning their fa;* 
ther's will. Not many weeks after, our author fell under 
the suspicions of administration, and was tak^n into -cus- 
tody, together with a Mr. Garth, at a tiiue when the 
habeas-corpus act was suspended, in con9e<}uence of some 
apprehended designs in favour of the pretender. It is cer- 
tain that nothing material was discovered against him, for 
he was soon discharged out of custody. May 9, 1 744 ^. Tiiis 
event did not detract from his popularit}^, or prevent his 
receiving such encouragement in bis historical design, ab 
never before or since has been afforded, or expected m 
any literary undertaking. On July 18, the court of com- 
mon-council of the city of London agreed to subscribe 50/. 
a year for seven years to Mr. Carte, towards defraying the 
expence of his writing the history of England. In the 
next month was printed, in an 8vo pamphlet, ^* A collec- 
tion of the several papers that had been published by him 
relative to hisrgreat work." Oct. 18^ the company of 
goldsmiths voted 25L a year for seven years, towards de- 

* Whilst under examination, the walking in a heavy shower, he was 

duke of Newcastle asked him if lie was plied with ** A Coach, your Reve* 

not a bishop ? "No, my Lord Duke,'* rence !" — " No, houest friend," au- 

replied Mr. Carte, " there arc no bi- swered Carte, ** this is not a reign fqr 

shops in England but what are made me to ride in a coach." This story^, 

by your Grace j and I am sure 1 have l^pwevt-r, is told by dean Swift, qf 

no rea:ion to expect that honour.'-' — Daniel Purccll^ another nonjuror. 
Soon after the accession of George I., 



irajriog the expences of transcribing letters, negotiations) 
and other materials of the like nature ; and, in the De- 
cember following, the companies of grocers and vintners 
subscribed 25/. a year each to the same purpose ; and the 
chapter of Durham, 21/. The university of Oxford, and 
the societies of New«college, Magdalen, Brazen-nose, and 
Trinity, were contributors, but no mention is made of 
Cambridge in the dedication of the first vohime. Pro- 
posals for printing the history were circulated in 17^6, and 
the first volume of it was completed in December 1747 ; 
when the credit of a work which had been ushered into the 
world with so much preparation and expectation, and 
which had been supported by such ample subscriptions, was 
almost wholly overturned by a remarkable act of literary in^- 
discretion. Mr. Carte, having taken occasion to speak of 
the unction of our kings, and of the^great effects annexed 
to it, introduced in a note a story of one Christopher 
Lovel, a native of Wells, in Somersetshire, who is repre* 
aented as having been healed of the evil, at Avignon, in 
1716, by application to the pretender*. The indiscretion 
he had been guilty of was hurtful to his interest, und pro- 
duced the three following pamphlets: 1. ^^ Remarks on 
Mr. Carte's General History of England ;" 2. " A. letter 
to the Jacobite Journalist, concerning Mr. Carte's His- 
tory, by Duncan Mac Carte, a Highlander;" and 3. ^^ Some 
Specimens of Mr. Carte's History of England, with Re- 
marks thereon, by Donald Mac Carte." But this was not 
sAl : the corporation of London unanimously resolved, in 
April 1748, to withdraw their subscription; and the his- 

* The fad appears to have been, 
Hint the nan, by his journey and 
change of diet, and physic, was 1re- 
lieved ; but bis cure lasted only for a 
short time. His sores broke out again, 
with violence, in many other parts of 
bis body ; aiKl he returned, in hopes 
of the same success, to France, where 
be died miserably, before he reucbed 
Jlvignon. It has been alleged in ex- 
tenuation of our author's conduct, that 
the note concerning Christopher Lovel 
-was not in reality his own ; and that 
be was over-persuaded to insert it, after 
the sheet in which it was printed had been 
committed to the press. Bat he could 
not have been prevailed upon to intro- 
duee it, if he had not himself believed 
the fisct; and if he had hot at the same 
time been extremely solicitoos to lay hold 
CNf ooy circumstance which he thought 

would promote the cause of the exiled 
family. In the preface to his second 
volume, he continues to avow ibe 
truth of the story. He bad, accordioip 
to his own account of the matter, been 
an unbeliever with regard to the cure 
of the king's evil by the royal touch, 
till he was convinced of his mistake by 
Mr. Anstis, who furnished him with 
those proofs out of the English recon)a 
which attest the facts, and are printed 
in Taoker*8 Treatise on the subject, 
published in 1597. If, however, Mr. 
Carte had examined the narrations with 
a due degree of scepticism, he would 
not have been so easily misled. See oq 
this subject Barrington's Observations 
on the Statutes, p. 107. 108, notes , 
and Nichols's Bowyer, vol. II. foote^ 
p. 495, &c. 


tory fell into very general neglect *. It is to the honour 
of Mr. Carte's fortitude, that he was not discouraged from 
prosecuting his undertaking ; and perhaps he might re-» 
ceive private aid and support, though public assistance 
was withdrawn. Whatever may have been the case in that 
respect^ bis second volume, containing an account of all 
public transactions, from the accession of Henry III. in 
1216, to the death of Henry VII. in 1509, aj)peared in 
1750. The third volume, which extended to the marriage 
of the elector palatine with the princess Elizabeth, daughj^er 
of James I. in 1613, was published in 1752. The fourth 
volume, which Mr. Carte did not live to complete, ap« 
peared iu 1755. It was intended to have been carried on 
to the restoration, but concludes with the year 1654. I| 
was his design to have brought the narration down to the 
revolution, for which purpose he had been at uncommon 
pains to collect materials wherever they could be found* 
Notwithstanding our author's peculiar opinions and pre* 
judices, his general history is undoubtedly a work of great 
merit in point of information. It is written with eminent 
exactness and diligence, and with a perfect knowledge of 
original authors ; and has of late years risen considerably 
in reputation, as well as in price, especially since it was 
(discovered how much Hume was indebted to it. Mr. Carte 
died at Caldecot-house, near Abingdon, Berkshire^ April 
2, 1754, and was buried at Yattenden church, in a vault 
on the north side of the chancel. The disorder which car- 
ried him off, was a diabetes. At his decease, all his pam- 
pers came into the hands of his widow, daughter of colonel 
Brett, who afterwards married Mr. Jernegan, a gentleman 
intended for orders in the church of Rome. Mrs. Carte 
left the papers to her second husband for life, and after 
his death to the university of Oxford. They are now de- 
posited in the Bodleian library, having been delivered bj 
Mr. Jernegan to the university, 1778, for a valuable con- 
sideration. Whilst they were in this gentleman's posses** 
sion, the earl of Hardwicke paid 200/. for the perusal of 
them, and, it is said, might have purchased them for 
1500/. ; but we do not see how this can be reconciled withi 
. the terms of the will. It is certain, however, that as late 
as 1775, Mr. Jernegan advertised the tcse of them. For a 

* la 1749 the first volume was retailed to the public, in numbers, at !«. 
each, ia all thirty-six, by the booksellers Cooper and Strahaoi .and tiM 


298 CARTE. 

consideration of SCO/. Mr. Macpherson bad the use of them ^ 
who, from these and other materials, compiled his historj 
and state papers. Mr. Carte was a man of a strong consti* 
tution, and indefatigable application. When the studies 
of the day were over, he would eat heartily ; and in con*, 
versation was cheerful and entertaining ; but his external 
appearance was slovenly and uninviting. 

Besides the works mentioned, he was the author of the 
following publications: 1. " A collection of original letters 
and pjfpers, concerning the affairs of England, from 1641 
to 1660,V 1739, 2 vols. 8vo. 2. " The History of the Re- 
volutions of Portugal, from the foundation of that kingdom 
to the year 1567, with letters of sir Robert Southwell, 
during his embassy there, to the duke of Ormonde ; giving 
a particular account of the deposing don Alphonso, and 
placing don Pedro on the throne," 1740, 8vo. 3. " A full 
Answer to the Letter from a bystander," a pamphlet, 1742, 
8vo. 4. "A full and clear vindication of the full answer 
to a Letter from a bystander," ditto, 1743. The letter 
from a bystander, was written by the late Corbyn Morris, 
esq. 5. " Catalogue des roUes Gascons, Normans, et 
Francois, conserves dans les archives de la Tour de Londres; 
t\v6 d'apres celui du Gard^ desdites archives; & contenant 
la precis & le sommaire de tons les titres qui s*y trouvent 
concernant la Guienne, la Normandie, & les autres pro- 
vinces de la France, sujettes autres fois aux rois d'An- 
gleterre, &c." Paris, 1743, 2 vols, folio, with two most 
exact and correct indexes of places and persons. This 
valuable collection, being calculated for the use of the 
French, is introduced with a preface in that language. 
6. ^^ A preface to a translation, by Mrs. Thompson, of the 
history o( the memorable and extraordinary calamities of 
Margaret of Anjou, queen of England, &c. by the chevalier 
Michael Baudier," London, 1736, Svo. 7. ** Advice of 
a Mother to her son and daughter," translated from the 
French of the marchioness de Lambert. This has gone 
through several editions. 8, " Farther reasons, ' addressed 
to parliament, for rendering more effectual an act of queen 
Anne, relating to the vesting in authors the right of copies, 
for the encouragement of learning, by R. H." about 1737. 
Mr. Carte wrote, also, a paper (the MS. of which is in 
Mr. Nichols's possession), recommending a public library 
to be formed at the Mansion-house, and that the twelv^ 
great companies of the city of London should each of 

CARTE. 29§ 

thein subscfribe 2000/. for that purpose. No notice ap- 
pears to have been taken of this proposal at the time, but 
very lately, 1 806, in the mayoralty of sir James Shaw, bart. 
and at the suggestion of that magistrate, the foundation of a 
library at the Mansion-house was laid, and a fine collection 
of English classics deposited there, by a vote of the court of 
aldermen, under the direction of John Nichqls, esq. then s^ 
member of the corporation, who was assisted in the selec- 
tion by the late very learned professor Porson. A translation 
of Mr. Carte's General History of England into French, was 
undertaken by several gentlemen in conjunctign, but was 
never completed. Some parts of the translation were in Dr. 
Ducarel's possession. Mr. Carte left behind him, in MS. a 
Vindication of Charles I. with regard to the Irish massacre* 
In 1758 was published a book, partly upon the same subject, 
entitled " The case of the royal martyr considered with can- 
dour," in 2 vols. 8vo, the author of which acknowledges 
his obligations to Mr. Carte. It was written by the rev. 
J. Bosweil, M. A. a clergyman and a schoolmaster, at 
* Taunton, in Somersetshire, and the author of a " Method 
of Study, 6r a useful library," printed in 1733, in 8vo, a 
work of no distinguished merit; and of two pamphlets, 
called " Remarks on the Free and Cartdid Disquisitions,'* 
which appeared in 1750 and 1751. 

A singular circumstance yet remains to be noticed re- 
specting the conduct of the city of London towards our 
author. At a court of common council held Oct. 11, 1750, 
he petitioned that the subscription of 50/. per annurrij to- 
wards compiling a history of England, voted to him by 
that court in 1744, and taken off in 1748, might be paid 
him for the latter year, of which ten months were elapsed 
when the resolution of withdrawing that subscription was 
taken ; and it was agreed that the chamberlain should pay 
him the 50/. for that year ! 

Mr. Carte had two brothers, Samuel and John. Samuel 
Carte was admitted a scholar of Trinity-hall, Cambridge, 
on the 5th of May, 1704, and proceeded LL. B. He was 
afterwards a member of Symond's-inn, and practised as a 
solicitor in Chancery in 1708, in which profession he be- 
came eminent. He was also a learned antiquary. Most 
of his manuscripts and papers relative to antiquities are 
supposed to have been sold by his widow to the late sir 
Thomas Cave, bart. He assisted Mr. Jackson, school- 
master of Coventry, in his account of the benefactions and 
charities belonging to that city ;.and was the editor, though 

too CAR T.E. 

without his name, of Brewster^s '^ Collectanea Ecclesia^- 
tica,'* to which he added many learned notes. Mr. Samuel 
Carte was alive in 17 60, but died not long after. Several 
manuscript letters of his, relative to subjects of antiquity, 
were in Dr. DucarePs possession, and are now in that of 
Mr. Nichob. 

Mr. John CarYe was entered at Trinity-ball, Cam* 
bridge, Jan. 9, 1707, where b^was admitted to the degree 
of LL. B. Having taken holy orders,' be became first vicar 
of Tachbroke, in the county of Warwick, and Was after- 
wards promoted, by the dean and chapter of V/estminster, 
to the vicarage of Hinckley, in Leicestershire, with the 
rectory of Stoke annexed. At this place he resided, from 
the yjear 1720^ till his death, which was on the 17th of 
December, 1735. Mr. John Carte was very remarkable 
for his absence of mind. Some years before bis decease, 
he paid his addresses to Miss Dugdale, a descendant of the 
illustrious antiquary, and the wedding-day was fixed. But 
he forgot to go to the place appointed for the celebration 
of the marriage, till the day after the time agreed upon ; 
which the lady, as might justly be expected, resented so 
much, that she absolutely refused him her hand. Being 
perpetually absorbed in thought, he was careless in his 
dress, and destitute of oBconomy. His inattention to money 
matters he carried to such an excess, that, when the inha« 
bitants of Stoke have brought to him the tithes, which he 
never took the trouble to ask for, it was not unusual with 
him, if he chanced to be engaged with a book, to request 
that they would come at a future time, though perhaps he 
was the next hour obliged to borrow a guinea for his sub- 
sistence. The parsonage-house adjoins to the church- 
yard ; and yet he was frequently so engaged in study, that 
the sermon-bell used to ring till the congregation were 
weary of waiting, and the clerk was obliged to remind him 
of his duty. During the fifteen years in which he was 
vicar of Hinckley, he neglected to make any demand for 
tithes of the hamlet of The Hide, belonging to that parish, 
which afterwards involved the parish in a tedious law-suit. 
Mr. John Carte's unaffected piety, his learning, his inte* 
grity, his simplicity of manners, and we may probdbly add, 
his avoiding to insist upon his legal dues, are still remem- 
bered with veneration by his surviving parishioners. He 
was a most zealous assertor of the rites and ceremoqies of 
the church of England, which, he justly observed, were 

C ^ R T E. 801 


equally remote fram the extremes of popery and fanatidsro, 
and his opinions were founded on the firm basis of scrip- 
tare, with which he was so intimately acquainied, as to be 
able to repeat the greater part of the Bible. ^ 

CARTER (Elizabeth), an English lady of profound 
learning and genius, was the eldest daughter of the rev. 
Dr. Nicholas Carter, a clergyman iix Kent, who, with 
other preferment, held the cure of the chapel of Deal, 
where this daughter was born, Dec. 16, 1717, and edu- 
cated by her father. At first she discovered such a slow- 
ness' of faculties, as to make him despair of her progress in 
intellectual attainment, even with the aid of the greatest 
industry, and the most ardent desire, which characterized 
her efforts. She herself, however, though mortified and 
sorrowful at her own difficulties, resolved to persevere, and 
her perseverance was crowned with unexampled success. 
She early became mistress of Latin, Greek, French, Grer- 
man, and afterwards understood Italian, Spanish, Portu- 
guese, and Hebrew, and last of all acquired something of 
Arabic Before she was seventeen years of age, many of' 
her poetical attempts bad appeared, particularly in the 
Gentleman's Magazine for 1734, with the signature of 
Eliza. This extraordinary display of genius and acquire- 
ments procured her immediate celebrity, and the learned 
flocked about her with admiration. In 1738, when she 
was about twenty. Cave, the proprietor of the Gentleman's 
Magazine, published some of her poems in a quarto 
pamphlet, now little known, as it was published without 
her name. It is probable she did not think many of these 
worthy of her ; as in 1762, when she published a small col- 
lection with her name, she admitted only two from the for- 
mer publication, the <^ Lines on her birth-day,'' and the 
" Ode of Anacreon.'* 

In 1739, she translated "The Critique of Crousaz on 
Pope's Essay on Man ;" and in the same year gave a trans- 
lation of ^^ Algarotti^s Explanation of Newton's Philosophy 
for the use of the Ladies." These publications extended 
her acquaintance among the literati of her own country ; 
and her fame reached the continent, where Baratier be- 
stowed high praises on her talents and genius. In 174i, 
she formed an intimacy with Miss Catherine Talbot, niece 


1 Nichols's Bowyer. — Biog. Brit, ^be whole of which was furnished by Mr. 
Nichols.— C3ent. Masr. vol. VHI. IX. XIV. XVIII. XX. XXtV. See Index.— 
«^iu»toa'» UU, p. 358, 366. 

302 CART E R. 

to the lord. <:;hancellor Talbot, and a young lady of coi»U 
derable genius and most amiable disposition. This was an 
important event of Miss Carter's life on many accounts. 
The intimacy of tb^ir friendship, the importance of theic 
' correspondence, and the exalted piety of both, made it the 
main ingredient of their mutual happiness : and in additioii 
to this, it procured a friendship with Dr. Seeker, then 
bishop of Oxford, and afterwards archbishop of Canter-, 
bury, with whom Miss Talbot resided,- which' extended 
her knowledge of the world, cherished her profound learn-* 
ing, and exercised the piety of her thoughts. To this 
event is to be traced her undertsd^ing and completing the 
•work by which her fame has been most known abroad, and 
will longest be remembered by scholars at home, her 
*' Translation of Epictetus." It was not, however, till the 
beginning of 1749, that this translation was commenced. 
It ,was then sent up in sheets, as finished, to Miss Talbot, 
who earnestly pressed its continuance, which was further 
Urged by bishop Seeker, to whom her friend shewed it. 
Her biogr^ipher has given a minute account of its progress 
till its conclusion in December 1752. She then by the 
bishop's desire, added notes and an introduction, both ad- 
mirably executed ; and the work was sent to press in June 
1757, and finished in April 1758, in an elegant quarto vo- 
lume. At the entreaty of her friends, she permitted it to 
published by subscription (at the price of iL ls,)y and by 
their liberality, it produced her a clear 1000/. 

Mrs. Carter and Mrs. Montague had been acquainted 
from their earliest years. The latter, though not born in 
Kent, bad an earlj' connection with it, by her father's suc-t 
cession to the estate and seat at Horton near Hythe, where 
she passed many of her juvenile years. From 1754 their 
correspondence was regular and uninterrupted; and Mrs. 
Carter's visits to Mrs. Montague at her house in London, 
where she met an union of rank and talent, were constant, 
and at her seat at Sandleford in* the summer or autumn^ 
not unfrequent. The epistolary communication between 
these two celebrated women would unquestionably be 
highly acceptable to the public, and we trust it will not 
be long withheld. In 1756, sir George Lyttelton, after- 
wards lord Lyttelton, visited Mrs. Qarter at Deal ; and from 
thence a gradual intimacy grew up between them, which 
ended only with his life. About the same time she became 
acquainted with the celebrated William Pulteney, earl of 


Bath, who delighted in her society, and regarded her in« 
tellectual powers and acquisitions with unfeigned admira* 
tion. By his persuasion she published the volume of her 
poems, already noticed, 1762, 8vo, and dedicated them to 
him. They are introduced by some poetical compliments 
from the pen of lord Ly ttelton. 

In 1763, Mrs. Carter accompanied lord Bath, and Mr. 
and Mrs. Montague, with Dr. Douglas (afterwards bishop 
of Salisbury, but then lord Bath*s chaplaiu) to Spa. They 
landed at Calais June 4 ; and after visiting Spa, made a 
short tour in Germany ; and then proceeded down the 
Rhine into Holland ; whence through Brussels, Ghent, 
Bruges, and Dunkirk, they came again to Calais, and re- 
turned to Dover Sept. 19. Lord Bath's health seemed 
improved by this tour ; but appearances were fallacious, 
for he died in the summer of 1764. His death gave Mrs. 
Carter deep concern. In' August 176$, she had an addi- 
tional loss in the death of her revered friend and patron 
archbishop Seeker. Two years after she sustained a more 
severe deprivation in the loss of her bosom friend Miss 
Talbot, of whom, among other praises dictated by sense 
and feeling, she says, *^ Never surely was there a more 
p^fect pattern of evangelical goodness, decorated by all 
the ornaments of a highly-improved understanding ; and 
recommended by a sweetness of temper, and an elegance 
and politeness of manners, of a peculiar and more enga- 
ging kind than in any other character I ever knew." 

She was indeed now arrived at a time of life when every 
year was stealing from her some intimate friend or dear 
relation. In 1774, she lost her father, in his eighty- 
seventh year, to which late period he had preserved all 
his faculties unimpaired, except that his hearing was a 
little difficult. She had passed the greater part of her life 
with him. The house in which they latterly resided was 
bought by her; and their affection had been uninterrupted. 
Half the year she was in the habit of passing in London ; 
the other half was spent together in this house. 

In 1782 an event occurred, which once more disturbed 
the uniformity of Mrs. Carter's life : she had been under 
great obligations to sir William Pulteney, who very libe- 
rally settled on her an annuity of 150/. a year, which it 
had been expected by her friends that lord Bath would 
have done. She therefore complied with his wishes to 
accompany his daughter to Paris, though she was now iu 

804 C A R T E R, 

ber sixty-fifth year. She was only absent sixteen days, of 
which one week was spent at Paris. Mrs. Carter was not 
insensible to the fatigues and inconveniencies of her jour- 
ney, but her sense of them yielded to her friendship. At 
home, however, she was able to enjoy summer tours, which 
doubtless contributed to her health and amusement. la 
1791, she had the honour, by the queen's express desire, 
of being introduced to her majesty at lord Cremorne'a 
bouse at Chelsea, an incident which naturally reminds us 
of a, similar honour paid to her friends, Dr. Johnson at 
Buckingham-house, and Dr. Beattie at Kew. Afterwards, 
when the princess of Walesr occupied lord Keith's house in 
the Isle of Thanet, she called on Mrs. Carter at her house 
at Deal; and the duke of Cumberland, when attending 
bis regiment at Deal, also paid her a visit. Such was her 
reputation many years after she had ceased to attract pub- 
lic notice as an author, and when the common mass of 
readers scarcely knew whether such a person existed. 
* About nine years before her death, she experienced an 
alarming illness, of which she never recovered the effects, 
in bodily strength, but the faculties of her mind remained 
unimpaired ; and her heart was as warm as ever. In the 
summer of 1803, her weakness evidently increased. As 
the winter approached, and the time of her annual journey 
to London, which she never omitted, drew near, her 
strength and spirits appeared to revive. On the 23d of 
December, she left Deal for the last time, having six days 
before completed her eighty -eighth year, and on the 24th 
arrived at her old lodgings in Clarges-street. For some 
days she seemed better, and visited some of her old friends, 
particularly her very intimate friend Lady Cremorne. On 
Jan. 4, she exhibited symptoms of alarming weakness, 
after which all her strength gradually ebbed away, till 
about 3 o'clock in the morning of Feb. 19, 1806, when 
she expired without a struggle or groan. She lies interred 
in the burial-ground of Grosvenpr chapel, under a stone 
on which is a plain prose epitaph, reciting the dates of 
birth, &c. A mural monument was afterwards erected to 
ber memory in the chapel of the town of Deal. 

The year following her death were published " Me- 
moirs of her \U'e, with a new editioix of her poems, some 
of which have never appeared before : to which are added, 
some Miscellaneous Essays in prose, together with Note* 
on the Bible, and Answers, to Objections coDcernipg the 

C A ft 1i H R. 305 

Christian religion. By tbe Rev. Montague Pennington^ 
M. A. Vicar of Northbourn in Kent, her, nephew and 0xer 
cutor," 4to, and since published in 2 vols. 8 vo. 

In this interesting volume a more perfect portrait is ex-^ 
hibited of Mrs. Carter than can be admitted in any skejfoH 
like the present. With respect to genius, she had unques- 
toonabiy a considerable portion, but she had it not casill* 
atcommand; it did not precipitate her into any of tho^ef 
dazzHAg^ productions which are admired even f6r their 
£uilts. What she accomplished was the fruit of labour, bui 
it was labour which amply made up for the time it c6ti^ 
somed. Her poems, the only productions which c^h ti^ 
considered under this head, are distinguished' for ele- 
gance of style and sentiment, often for sublimity arid' a£ 
peculiar vigbur of thought Her versification is hdrnioniousdj 
and her language pure and forcible. But the more rei? 
markable qualities of her character must be 'sought in a 
mind ouhh'uted with the highest degree of care, and '^n^* 
riched with a greater fund of various learning thap.f^lj t^' 
the lot. of many of her contemporaries; of the o^^^r sex; 
Mfs. Carter was a learned lady in the most honourably 
sense, and appears uniformly to have applied it to tbe.cnos| 
valuable purposes. In the sexual rivaiship she was not am- 
bitioUS'to attain either equality or superiority by affetting' 
iHSiv discdveries in religion, morals, or politics, yet, attained 
a higher and more enviable rank in the literary world thaii 
any of thoseunsexed females, in whose case the world has 
lately beeh^^b(ig^d t^ add pity to its ^ admiration^ and to 
withhold esteem. Her principles, on all the great leading 
topics that are interesting to human beings, were sounds 
the result of examination and conviction; and while,, by 
aflhering to them,, she secured her own happiness^ sli^ 
added to that of others by example and precept. 
.'The year following the publication of the Life of ^Mr§, 
Garter, the same editor published ** A Series^ of Letters 
between her and Miss Catherine Talbot, &c.** 2 vols. 4to, 
m which the talents, various knowledge, vivacity, and 
spirit of these ladies, as well as of Mrs. Vesey, anbthec 
female* of taste and learning, are displayed to great ad-^' • 
vsmtage. These, as well as the ' life, have been sincei 
reprinted, and are among the books without which n.9 lady '5. 
libigiry [can be complete;* , / 

1 Life, ubi supra.— Sketch by sir £. Brydges, in Cens. Lit. vol. V.— -Gent* 
Mag. ; see InckiXi^F^bes'f JUlls of fielttti^^-rXaitiper's Woi'ktf^ vol. ^ VIL-^Bm* ' 
welPs Life of Johasoiu . . - * ' 

Vol. VIII, X 

$0« C A R T E R. 

CARTER (FiiANCfs), F.S. A.. Of this gentleman ir# 
have little, information. He was author ot a ** Journey, 
from Malaga to Gibrattar/' 1776, 2 voU. 8vo, with platen 
^old separately ; reprinted io 2 vuU. 8vo, 1778, with the 
plates iuseried. The many coins engraved in this work 
\^re from the collection of the celebrated Spanish medallist 
Flores, whose cabinet Mr. Carter had purchased on luf. 
heathy and disposed of the duplicates to Dr. Hantejnr 
Mr. Carter died August 1,. 178'i, when he bad jq^t.^otviHr 
pleted (and had actually printed the first sheet of) .^^ AxK 
historical and critical aecouat of early .printed 8p|ipi$b« 
Vooks;^* in which, to use his own words, his intent W9^. 
*^ to write an historical and critiqal account of tbe;;. 
most early printed volumes in the Spanish Ungui^ge^. 
which bad fallen into my , possession during t)iirty yean 
diligently collecting tbeniy botb in Spain, Francei 9n4 
j^n^land.** Of the lives of the autborsr be proposed to ^ive. 
a summary account, wit^ occasional .speoimeo^ of thi^ s^yte 
fod manner of their writings, .^^ strictures on tbe, 9X^ip 
* and progress of learning and poetry, ,fjrom the, days .of 
John 11. king of Castile down to the prftsent age : tQ ap- 
pearance an humble and easy tasky but which will be fpuud 
in the execution to require no sipaH Ubour, judgment^ 
#nd experience, and be. evidently pf. great, advantage to, 
those who wish to enrich their, librariea wilb the beat Spar, 
nish works, and be informed of the reput^'tioHv V^Ot, auds. 
rank, each, author holds ip the.liteofy^fWQrl^•. ^We h«)fye 
to lament that this was never finished. JL ^pecimea of it 
mty be seen in our authority..^ 

CARTERET (SiV Georgb), a loyalist in the time of 
Charles I. of uncommon firmness and brayery, the de-^^^ 
scendant of an ancient family, originally from Normandy^ 
but afterwards settled at Guernsey ana Jersey, was bora.: 
at Jersey in 1599, bis father Uelier Carteret^ esq. beipg., 
at that time deputy gx^vernor of the island. He eoteredi . 
early into the sea service, and had acquired the cha^racter . 
of an experienced officer, when |(iug Charles J. ascenrd^d 
the thfone>. . This circumstance recommending him to the * 
notice and ^steem of the duke of Buckingham, he .waa - 
appointed, in 1626, joint governor of Jersey, with Henry,.. . 
afterwards lord Jermyn ; and, in 1639, he obtained a gnuat ..' 
#rthe office and place of comptroller of all his Majesty'*^ .; 

^ QfnU Utig. Mai UU.-^msk^i^Bvttfv, ^> Itfi 

ffitp!l. At the commencement of the civil war, ^heil thcl 
jj^arliatnent resolved to send odt the earl b( Warwict ai 
Admiral of the fleets they also fesolved, that captain Car-* 
li^ret should be vice-admiral. But be, thinking that h^ 
(iugbt not to accept the command without knowing tlie. 
i^yai pie^sufe, addressed himself to the king for direction^ 
timb ordered him to decline the employment ; ahd captaia. 
Battevi, surveyor-generalj was substituted in h\k place* 
His Majesty was probably mistaken in this advice; for, if 
^d^tiaiia Carteret had accepted of th6 qhargCi be might* 
jiVbbably have prevented the greater part of the fleet front 
^gaging in the cause of the parliament. Captain Car- 
tferet, however, like\vise quitted the post of compti-oller, and. 
rei&'ed^ with his family, to the island of Jersey, the inha-. 
l^t&hts of Which were confirmed by him in their adherencd^ 
to ^he king; and tlesirous of more active servic^^ be trani-^-^ 
pbirt^ himself into Cornwall,' with the purpose of raising a 
tfbob of hbt^i AVheh he arrived in that country, finding^ 
tflite vi/2L^ a ^reat'w^ht of powder, he went into France tcL 
pi^ctitb that and other tiecessary supplies ; and was so suc-*^ 
ct3sful, that,' through the remainder of the war, tiie Coic-, 
nfeb'army was never destitute of ammunitibn. This was so : 
iitipdrtant and seasonable a servibe, that the king acknow- 
ledged it by particular approbatiorl ;*and by conferring 
Vp'bh'' him', at Oxford, the honour of knighthood^ which. 

' was^ speedily followed by his* being advanced, on the 9t\K, 
of May ^ 1 6 45, to the dignity of a baronet. Returning the I 
safa^^e^V'intb^ Jersey,' he found thkt several of theinha-'J 
bitauts had been induced to embiUce the cause of the par** ^ 
lilihienl:, oh Which account he threw soaie of them into . 
coiiBneim'ent^ 'This vgSLS so alartning arid offensive to the . 
members at Westminster, that atl bVder was made, that if^ \, 
fot the'ftrtmte; he should piit to d'eatth any of the island * 
wfeom he ^hoiild tak0 prisoners, for every one so slain^* 
ihiree'of the king's' men should l>e hung up. From the '. 
w6ffehere iiseJ, it seems. impliiSd' that sir George Carteret 
Md'aSttially cxeetiteU sbttie'bne or hiore of the people oft 

J^Ti^y' who had appeared for the IParliatnent ; a st^p highly^, 
iiijudicl6tis, tVhence, ih ail the subsequent propositipns foi ,. 
peace iifitfr the king, i^r GebVi^^ was excepted from pardon* 
Vrtif^tf the brinctj of Wkles, and rnany persons of distinc- 
ti^Vt^fth him, 't*dtne4ht6' Jersey irr 1646, and brought' with 
tJatem very little for their subsistence, tliey were aII chear* 

308 CART E R E T. 

fully entertained, and at a large expence, by sir George 
Carteret; Vvho, beine: sensible how mucb it behoved him 
to take care for supplies, equipped about half a score small 
frigates and privateers, which soon struck a terror through 
the whole channel, and made a number of captures. Upon 
the prince's leaving the island, at the positive command of 
the queen, several of the council chose to stay with sir 
George ; and the chancellor of the exchequer (afterwards 
earl of Clarendon) resided with him above two years. 
After the death of the king, sir George Carteret, though 
the republican party was completely triumphant, and 
though Charles II. was at the Hague in a very destitute con- 
dition, immediately proclaimed him at Jersey, with all 
his titles. Some months afterwstrds his Majesty determined 
to pay a second visit to the island of Jersey, and arrived 
in the latter end of September 1649, accompanied by his 
brother the duke of York, with several of the nobility. 
Here they were supplied by sir George with all necessaries. 
The king, when prince of Wales, had procured his father's 
Jeave for making sir George Carteret his vice-chamberlain, 
and he now appointed him treasurer pf his navy ; which how- 
ever, at this time, chiefly consisted of the privateers that sir 
George had provided, and of the noen of war with prince Ru- 
pert. Charles II. staid in the island till the latter end of March 
1650, when he embarked for HoUajid, in order to be more 
commodiously situated for treating with the Scots, who had 
invited him into that kingdom. This defiance of sir George . 
Carteret in harbouring the king, and taking many of theii: 
trading vessels, enraged the republicans so much, that they 
determined to exert every n.erve for the reduction of Jersey. 
A formidable armament being prepared, it put to sea in 
October 1651, under the command oT admiral Bjkke, and 
major-general Holmes, to^tbe last of whon^ the charge of 
the forces for the descent was -committed. In this crisis, 
sir George Carteret prevented the. Jftoding of the repub- 
lican army as long as possible ; and when that was effected, 
and the remaining forts of the island were taken, he retired 
into Elizabeth castle, resolving to hold it out to the last extre- 
mity. The king being safely arrived in France, after thp 
fatal battle of Worcester, sir George informed Him. of the. 
state of the garrison, but the kin^ not being able to assist 
him, he advised sir George Carteret, rather to accept of a . 
reasonable composition, than, by too obstinate a defence,. 

C A -R T E "R E T. '309 


to bring himself and the loyal gentlemen who were with 
him into danger of being made prisojiiers of wai?. Sir 
George wa^ ambitious that Elizabeth castle should be the 
last of the king's garrisons (as was in fact the case) which 
should yield to the prevailing powers. He determined^ 
therefore, to conceal his majesty's permission to treat, that 
the knowledge of it might not renew the cry for a sur- 
render. But, at length, provisions growing scarce, the 
number of defenders lessening daily by death and deser- 
tion, and there being no possibility of supplies or recruits, 
Elizabeth castle was surrendered in the latter end of De- 
cember, and sir George went first to St. Maloes, and 
afterwards travelled through several parts of Europe. To 
facilitate his reception at tne different courts and places he 
might be disposed to visijt, he obtained from his royal 
master a very honourable and remarkable certificate of rer 
commendation. In 1657, sir George had given siich offence 
to Oliver Cromwell, by some hostile design or attenipt 
against the English vessels trading to the French p>orts^ 
that, by the Protector's interest with cardinal Mazarine, h^ 
was committed prisoner to tfie Basjtile; from which he Was, 
after some time, released by the intercession of bis friends, 
iipoh condition of his quitting France. Jn 1659, however, 
we find him at Rheims, from whence he repaired to the 
king at Brussels, and followed him to Breda. Upon • his 
inajesty's being restored to his kingdoms, sir George Car- 
teret rode with him in his triumphant entry into the city oi 
London, on the 2yth of May 1660, and next day hp was 
declared vice-chamberlain of the houshold, and sworn of 
the privy council. He was also constituted treasurer of 
the navy ; and at tBfe coronation of the king, he had the 
honour of being almoner for the day. In the first parlia- 
nient called by Charles II. in May, 1 66 1, sir George Carteret 
was elected representative for the corporation of Ports- 
mouth ; and it appears, that he was an active member of 
the house. When the duke of York, 1673, resigned the 
office of high admiral of England, sir George was. consti- 
tuted one of the commissioners of the aidmiraity; anc} in^ 
1676, he was appointed one of the lords of the Committee 
of trade. He was also vice-treasurer of Ireland, and 
treasurer of the military forces there. At length, incon- 
sequence of his merit and services, the king determined 
to raise him to the dignity of a peerage ; but before the 
design could be accomplished, he departed this life, on the 

hd C A il T E Id E T^. 


T4th of January, 1679, being nearly eighty years of agq. 

X)n the 1 1 th of February following, a royal warrant w8^ 

issue^, in which it is recited, " That whereas sir George 

XJarteret died before his patent for his barony was sued ou'tf, 

liis Alajesty authorizes Elizabeth, his Widow, and her 

ypungest children, James Carteret, Caroline^ wife of .sir 

Thomas Scot, kiit. and Louisa, wife of sir Rotert Aikina, 

.lent, to enjoy their precedency and pre-^einihency, as if tl^ 

said sir George Carteret had actually been created a baroii^ • 

*Sir George*s eldest son, by his lady Elizabeth, who was nu 

cousiji-german, being the daughter of sir Philip Carterdt, 

was named Philip after his grandfathe|r. This gentlenaan 

/eminently distinguished himself in the civil wars, and wag 

Icuighted by Charles II. on his arrivjil in Jersey. After the 

king's restoration, sir Philip Carteret married Jemima, 

daughter of Edward Montague, the first earl of Sandwicp, 

and perished with that illustrious nobleman,, in the ^eat 

. sea-fight with the Dutch, in Solbay, on the 28th of May, 

1672.' Sir Philip determined, whilst many'others leH:' tjl|e 

chip, to share the fate of his father-in-law. His eldest son 

George was the first lord Carteret, and father to the subject 

of the following article.* . r 

' CARXERET (Jo^N), earl Granville, one of ttie most 

distinguished orators and statesmen of the last century, 

.was, born on the 22d of Apri'i l^i^O, "His father was George 

lord Carteret, baron Carteret, of Hawnes in the county of 

- Bedford, haying been so created on the l^Uiof OctoWr J 68f I, 

when he was^ only fifteen years of age; and his mother vyas 

' Jady Grace, yoqngest daughter of John earl of Bath. , He 

^jpucceeded his father when only in his fifth year, Hejyas 

^ educated at Westminster school, from whicli he wa? |;e- 

idoved to Christ-churcb Oxford; in both which places 

he made such, exjtraordinjary inpproTementsi that he Be- 

. came one of the qaost lej^rned young, noblemen of nis 

] tiine ;, and he retained to .^he last hi8.knQ\Vledgq ancl I^ve 

of literature. Dr. I^wift humorously asserts, that ^e carried 

"away, from Oxford, with a singularity scarcely to be jn|ti- 

.Jfie,d,\inore Greek, Latin, . and philosophy, than propj^rly 

./became a person of his ra^k.; indeed, niucl;i'moije of ^jich, 

than most of those who ar^ f^orced to live liy tiieir lejirr^g 

.. will be at the unnecessary , pains to load th^jc heads wi|b. 

, B^ing tl^us accomplished, lord Carteret wsU (juali^^^ 

/ ' . .' . ■.»■'. .'.4,. •••'>>|-'^(j*r 9^t:^ -'^' '^i'-i '-''•.* ii*i<'/ &t«l A 


make an early figure in life. As soon as he was introduced 
into the house of peers, which was on the 25tb of ^Way^ 
1711, he distinguished himself by his ardent zeal for the 
protestant succession, which procured hioi the eariy notice 
of king George I. by whom he was appointed, in 1714, one 
of the lords of the l>ed-chamber ; in 1715, bailiff of the 
island of Jersey ; aiid in 1716, lord lieutenant Imd cUstoa 
taiuiornm of the county of Devon; which last office he 
held till Aup:tist I'Til, when he resigned it in favoUr'of 
Hugh lord Clinton. His mother also," lady Grace, vras 
created nscountess Carteret and countess Granville, by 
letters patent, bearing date oh the first of January, 1714-15, 
with limitation of these honours to her son John lord Ckrteiret, 
His lordship, though still young, became, from the early 
part of king George the First's reign, an eminent speaker 
in the house of peers. The first instance of the display 6f 
.his eloquence, was in the famous debate on the bill for 
lengthening the duration of Parliaments, in which he sup* 
ported the duke of Devonshire's motion for the repeal of 
/fche triennial act. On the 18th of February, 1717-18, he 
' irpoke in behalf of the bill for punishing mutiny and deser- 
*^ don ; and in the session of parliament which mei on the' 
11th of November following, he moved for the address of 
thanks to the king, to congratulate his majesty on the sea- 
sonable success of his naval forces ; and to assure him, 
that the house would support him in the pursuit df those 
prudent and necessary measures he had taken to secure the 
trade and quiet of his dominions, and the tranquillity of 
J^urope. In Jan. 1718-19 he was appointed ambassador 
extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to the queen of 
Sweden, with whom his first business was to remove the 
difficulties which the British subjects had met with in their 
commerce in the Baltic, and to procure satisfaction for the 
losses they had sustained ; and in both he completely sue* 
ceeded. On the 6th of November, 1719, lord Carteret 
, first took upon him the character of ambassador extra* 
ordinary and plenipotentiary; at which time, in a private 
audience, he offered his royal master^s mediation to make 
peace between Sweden and Denmark^ and between SWie-' 
den and the Czar; both of which were readily accepted by 
the queen, A peace between Sweden, Prussia, aiid Ha- 
nover, having been concluded by lord Carteret, it vi^aa 
'^ prodaimed at Stockholm on the 9th of Mirch, 1719-3a 
Tius was tb^ prelude to a re<:i>QCiliation between Sweden 

ii^ii. CJ A' R T E Bj 5^ IS 

idd D^nfii^rk^ which be also effected, s^nd ' the Ireaty W9tk 
signed July 3, 1 720. Xn August his lord&hip was appointed, 
tbjgelher with earl Stanhope and sir Robert Sutton, ambas* 
i^ador extraordinary and plenipotentiary at the congress of 
Catnbray \ but whether he acted iii this capacity does not 
dpbefir. FroiQ Denmark, however^ he arrived in JCngland Dec. 
£, ^nd a few weeks after took a share in the debates on the 
sts^te of the na;tional' credit, occasioned by the uQfortunate 
and iniquitous effects of the South-Sea scheme, maintain- 
ipg tb^t the estates of' the criminals, whether directors or 
iot dire.ctof9, ought to be confiscated. Whilst this affair 
vri^^'in agitation, he was appointed ambassador extraor- 
djuVxy to the court of France, and was on the point of 
a($|tting out, when the death of secretary Craggs induced 
hS^ niajesty to appioiut lord Carteret his successor, May 4,^ 
i721, and next day he was admitted into offi.c/$, and 
sjeprn of his ' majei^ty^s most honourable privy QOuaciL 
whijsit lord Carter^et was secretary pf state, he not only 
discharged the general duties of his epiploymeut to the sa-. 
I^fac^ion of his royal mastef, but ably ^defended in parlia- 
In^pl tfi^ jooceasjures of administration. This he did iu the 
Rebate concerning Mr. Law, the famous projector of the 
A||s^issippi scheme, whose arrival in SngUpd, in 17231) by 
the cpnnivance, as it was thought, and even under the 
Kahi^J^ion of tl^e ministry, excited no ,?m?dl degree of dis- 
^ilfty and he also took -a part on the sjde of government, 
in t^^ debate on the navy debt, and with regard to the va- 
i!i(}us' pth^r motions and bills of the session. In the liew 
p^xUainent, which met on the Uth of October, J 722, his 
lpjcl3hip, on occasion of Layers plot, sppke in favour of 
^j;;i.9penaiug the habeas corpus act for one year; ac* 
ioaaiuted the house with the bishop of Rochester's, lord 
l^fprth and Grey's, and the et^rl of Orrery's commitment 
to tl^e Tower; and c|ffei?ded th^ motion for the imprison- 
xipent of the duke of Norfolk. In all the debates concera- 
ing this conspiracy, and particularly with regard to Atter-* 
bii^y, lord Carteret vindicated the proceedings of the 
qourt ; as he did, likewise, in the case of the act for lay- 
ir^ au extraordinary tax upon papists. On the 26th of 
M^Yf 172.3., when the king's affairs called him abroad, his 
lordship was appointed one of the lords jioaticea of the 
Ki^igdom ;. but notwithstanding tbii?) he went to Hanover, 
iiV conj[unct\ou with lord Townshend, the othec secretary; 
t^x'i\ both thes^ ng^emyen, in tboir jreturn: to Eugtami) mi. 

.€'A K T FR ET. SiS 


sereral cofifel^nc^ at tbe Hague, with the principal per«. 
90118 of the DiUQh administration^ on subjects of import-^ 
ance. Ip the session of;pariiament, January, ] 72^*4, lord 
Carteret) in the debate on the mutiny bill, supported the 
necessity qf eightee^n thousand men hieing kept up, as the 
f^unnber of laftd-forcfes, in opposition. to lor(^ Trevor, who 
had moved that the four thousand additional men, who had 
been raised the year before, should be discontinued. Not 
many .days after this debate, several alterations took place 
at court. "Lord Carteret quitted the office of secretary of 
^te, in %¥hich iie was succeeded by the duke of New- 
castle; and on the same day, being the third of Apriiy 
1V24, he was constituted lord -lieutenant of Ireland, and 
in October airited att Dublin, where be was received with 
iHe usual solemnity. The Irish were at that time in a grjat 
fbraienV about: the patent for Wood's halfpence, which 
makes 00 signal a figure in the life and writings of Dn 
Siwift. Ovie of the lirat things ^6ne by the t^rd-lieutenant 
was to- publish a pmoiam^tioa, oflPering a re^vard of three 
hundred pounds Ibr fl discovery of the author of the Dra« 
pier's Letters. When he was aaked, by Dr, Swift, how 
Ke could concur in* the prosecutioit of a poor honest fellow, 
who had been 'guilty of no other crime thad that of writing 
three or ifour letters for rh^ good of his country, his excel- 
lency cpplied^ io the words of Virgil, 

— *— —   Regni novitae me talia cogit 

Lord Cartevet lived at Uiat very time in great friendship 
with the deai>; and^ therefore, if he suspected the real- 
author, CQu|d have no sincere wish that he might be dis- 
covered, Notwithstanding the measures Ins lordship was 
obliged. oi]^iaUy to pursue, he was sensible that Wood's 
patent ought not tq be supported ; and, accordingly, pro- 
cured iu bei^g. revoked ; . by which means, one of the most 
i^iives^al and remarkable ferments ever raised iu Ireland 
speedily subtsided. The lord< lieutenant used sometimes to 
converse with Di?. Swift on public affairs. The dean, on 
so^ne occa^KHij happening to dispute with him concerning 
the grievances suffered by the Irish, and tlie folly and non- 
sense of the English government in the management of 
Ireland, his exoelleBey replied with such mastery and 
strengt;b of reason, that Swift wiss incapable of supporting 
bis ajguaj^eBA* Being displeased at this, he cried out in a 

ti* C A R T B R E T. 

violent passion^ '^ What the vengeance brought yon among 
us ; get you gone, get you gone ; pray God Almighty send 
us our. boobieii back ag^n.'* At another time, Dr. Swift 
^having written two lines on a window of the castle, ia 
which his pride affected an absolute independence, lord 
Carteret gently rebuked his haughtiness, . by inscribing 
under them the following couplet : 

'' My very good Dean, none erer comes here. 

But who hath something to hojie^ or something to fear.** 

His lordship, bpwever, kept on good terms with Swif^ 
and obliged him by conferring preferment on Dr. Sheridan^ 
and others of his friends. Ev^n in the Drapier^s Letters, 
the d<?an expressed a very high opinion of the lord-lieute- 
naaL Besides revoking Wuod^s patent, lord Carteret's 
administration was, in oth^r respects, very acceptable auft 
beneficial to the Irish. He discharged the duties of h^ 
high, station, in general, with wisdqiii and fidelity, and tW 
people were happy under his governmefit. . ACter.-the close 
of the session in March, 1725-6, hi^ lordship having C0Q« 
stituted lords justices during. Iiis absence, embarked for, 
England, where he arrived in May,, i7il6, and received 

. his majesty't japprobation of his prudent conduct. On thie 
24th of January, 1726-7, lord Carteret ably defended 
the king's speech, which had beea wafmly animadverted 
upon by the opposition. On the 31st of May, 1727, be 
was appointed one of the chief justices during his majesty^s 
absence, and upon the decease of George L who died 
suddenly at Osnabrug, in his way to Hanover, on the 
11th of June, 1727, lord Carteret was one of the old 
privy council who assembled at Leicester house, where the 
new king was proclaimed. This was on the 14th of Jime^ 
and the same day he was sworn of his majesty's privy 
council. On the 29th of July following, he was again ap« 

' pointed lord lieutenant and chief governor of the kingdoih 
of Ireland, and having arrived there, the parliament lyas 
opened, by his excellency, Nov. 28, and the session con- 
tinued till the 6th of May, 1728, when be gave the royal 
assent to twent}^ public acts, and concluded with a speech, 
expressive of his high rcjgard for the welfare of the king-» 
dom. 4^fter this, he embarked for England, but in 1729, 
returned again to Ireland, and held another session of pav« 
liameut, which, began on the 23d of September^ and 
9pd^ on the I5th of April, 1730. His Iordship'^ second 

iO A R T E R £ T. tis 

S*d^6rehcy over the Irish nation was as populac, if not 
piote so, as the first His polite and sociable manners 
Were highly acceptable to all ranks of peopFe. , What par- 
ticularly recommended him was, his being above the little 
xiistinctions of party.- He maintained a good correspon* 
^dence with several of thp$e who were called or reputed 
lories, and occasionally distributed a few preferments^, of 
no great significance,, in that line. This having excited 
the complaint of some of the bigotted whigs, gave occa* 
slon to a facetious and sensible tract of Dr. Swift's, enti^ 
^iied, " A Vindication of his excellency John lord Carteret, 
from the charge of favouring none but Tories, High- 
church-men,. and Jacobites." With Dr. Swift the lord- 
Ijeutenant appears to have maintained a strict friendship ; 
and he wail solicitous to act agreeably to the dean's views 
of the interest of the kingdom. In one of his letters, 
written to the dean some years afterwards, he thus ex- 
presses himself; ^^ When people ask me how I governed 
Ireland ? I say, that I pleased Dr. Swift.'* The prefer- 
iOQents which his excellency bestowed, at the instance of 
^e dean of St., Patrick's, were conferred on learned and 
Svorthy men, who did not disgrace their recommender; 
knd whatever may be thought of the pride, petulance, and 
[peculiarities of Swift, it cannot rationally be denied, that 
%e was sincerely devoted to the welfare of the Irish nation. 
'^His lordship, having continued the usual time allotted to 
'Ilk high ofi^ce, quitted it in 1730, and was succeeded by 
the duke of Dorset 

J" We now come to a part of lord Carteret's life, including 

^nearly twelve years, from 1730 to 1742, during which he 

etigaged in the grand opposition, that was carried on so 

long, and with so much pertinacity, against sir Robert 

Walpole. In this opposition he tobk a very distiuguished 

part, and was One of its ablest and most spirited leaders. 

^There was scarcely any motion or question on which his 

eloquence was nbt displayed. His powers of oratory are 

, allowed to hdve been eminently great; and it is highly 

prbbab'le, that ihey were invigorated and increased by 

that superior ardour which naturally accompanies an attack 

upon the measures of government In the session of par-^ 

liament, 1730-1, he supported the bill against pensioners 

being permittefd to sit in that house ; and the motion for 

^discharging the twelve thousand Hessian forces in the pay 

of Grlbat Britain. In the subsequent session, which open^ 

81« C A ft T E tt £ T. 

On the 13th of Janu&ry, 1731 -2> besidies speaking iii 
tiv6tkt of the pension billj lord Carteret exerted his whole 
aUlity against the passing bf the act for reviving the salt 
diity. This tax he asserted to be grievous, pernicious, 
and insupportable ; opprefesdve to the loWer part of th6 
J>eople; and dangerons to public liberty, by the numerous^ 
dependefnts it would create upon the crown. In the next 
year, the grand objects that engaged the attention of the 
nfi^inority were, the motion for the reduction of the land 
forces ; the produce of the forfeited estates of the South- 
Sea directors in 1720; and the bill for granting eighty- 
thousand pounds for the princess-royars marriage settle- 
naent, and a sum out bf the sinking fund ; on which occa- 
iBions lord Carteret displayed his usruai energy and elo- 
qtieftce. In the session which began on the 17th of Ja- 
nuary, 1733-4, his lordship made the motion for an address 
to the king, to know who had advised the removal of the 
^ke of Bolton and lord Cobham from their regiments j 
ahd took the lead in the memorable debate ^hich arose 
jstpon that question, and an active part in the other mat- 
ters that Werfe agitated in this and the fbllowrng sessions. 
.It is observable that, about this tirtie, Dr. Swift had some 
doubts concerning lord Carteret^s steadiness in the caus6 
of opjyositioti, yet, in the session of parliament which 
opened on the 1st of February, 1736-7, his lordship dis- . 
IfiAguished himself greatly in thfe several questions cOn- 
ijerning the riots at Edinburgh,' and the affair of captain 
Porteus ; and he was the mover, in the house of peers, 
for the settleftfiteht of an hundred thofusand pounds a year, 
out of the civil list, u'poti the prince of Wales; a matter 
iVhich excited a very long and violent debate. He exer- 
c^^eti the same Vigour with regard to' all the i^otions and 
questions of that busy session ; and it is evident, from the 
r*<iords of the times, that h6 was the prinie leader of op- 
p*^t»on m the upper house. Thft character was preserved 
dJ^ loyd Cartei'et in- the parliament which met on the 15th 
of Noietober, 1739 ; and in the following session, when 
th6 minority exei'ted their whole strength to overturn the 
adftiiWiist ration, be made the motion in the house of peers, 
Feb. IS, 1740-1, to addiiess his majesty, that he would 
gfa<ilbusly be pleased to remove sir Robert Walpole from 
his pi<esenc^ and councils for ever, and prefaced his pro- 
posal with the lottgest, as well as thd ablest speech that he 
efei< appears to have delivered; A yeat after, when the 

views of oppo^itiop were attaipe4] s^.far as, related to tfae^ 
displacing oif sir Robert Walpole, loi:^. Carteret,^ 12, 
1741-42, was appointed p^e of bis^ majesty's principal. s&p. 
cretaries of state, and the^a b^gao to chapge bla.padia?: 
m^ntary lauguage, opposing, the luptioA for the^ coa)mil<^,. 
ment of the pension -bill, ai^d tl;\e bill to indemnify' 
evidences againjst Robprt earl of Orford, notconsbten^^iy^ 
although witb some reason. In September 1742, he.wa3< 
sent to the Statjes G^nj^ral, to concert mes^sures iditb tbem^ 
for the maintenance of the liberties of the Upit^d Pro-, 
vinces, and the benefit of the com^ion cause ; and sooa 
after his return, he opposed the. motion for discharging thi6k 
Hanoverian troops in British pay ; and distinguished him<- 
self in favpur of the bill for retailing spirituous liquors, Ia 
1743 he waited upon his majesty at Hanoyer, and attended 
hiim thh>ugh the whole interes^ting campaign of that year; 
and the king placed the greats confidence, in his counsels^ 
to which he was the more entitlted,. as he wast eminentlyc 
^l^illed in foreign affairs. On the . deaibt of bia mcdier^ 
upon the 18th of Ocxober^ 1744, he succeeded to the titles, 
of visqou|it Carteret and earl Granville, and a fewweelui 
after, resigned the seajs as secretary of state^ unabiato- 
ojppose the patriotic party, whpm be had suddenly for* 
saken, and the duke of Newcastle and bis brother, Mn 
Pelbam, who formed an alliance with them against faim« 
George XL however, with reluctance parted with a mi-^ 
nis|:er who had ga^ined his personal affection by ,his great 
knowledge of the affairs of Europe, by bis enterprising 
geinius, and, above all, by his ready compliance with the^ 
king*s favourite viejws. In the beginning of 1746, his. 
lordship made an effort to retrieve his influence in tbexa«- 
b\net, but the duke, of Newcastle and Mr. Pelbam, who 
knew his aspiring di^pp^itipn, refused to. admit him into 
administration, yet misms^naged; their intrigues so much, 
that at fir^t they were themselves obljiged to resign, aud 
earl Granville was fippoipted secrA^ry of state, and re^ 
sumed the reins. of adfninistration, ip February 1745*6.: 
fipding, however, that h^ could not counteract the accu*^ 
mulated. opposition that preponderated against him, he re*-, 
signecf the sea^ls.four days after tliM^y.had beeii put, into his* 
b^nd^^ Still lord. Granville's political antagonists wi^e not 
able to prevent hisi receiving personal. m^rka of » royal fa.^. 
your. On the 22d of June, 1749, he was elected at Ken^^ 
sington^ one of the knights companions of the most noblt 

SI* Id A It t E ft £ ¥. 

order of the garter, and next year was again brought i^to^.^ 
the ministry, in connection with the very ihen by wKonr* 
he had been so long and so warmly opposed. He was^ 
then constituted president of the council, and notwith^^* 
standing the various revolutions of administration, was con-^' 
tin ued in this high post till his decease* When his ma^* 
jesty wentto Hanover, in 1752, earl Granville wa» appointed^ ' 
one of the lords justices of the kingdom ; and he was in*' 
the commissions for opening and concluding the session 6P 
parliament, which began on the 31st of May, 1754, ahd' 
ended on the 5th of June following. The last time itt- 
which he spoke in the house of peers, was in opposition ta ' 
the third reading of the mililia-bill, on the 24th of May,^"^ 
1756, but not with his usual effect. When, in October'" 
1761, Mr. Pitt proposed in council, an immediate decla-^^ 
ration of war with Spain, and urged the measure with hvs^ 
usual enlergy, threatening a resignation, if bis advice should^ 
not be adopted ; lord Granville is said to hlive replied tc^^ 
him in terms both pointed and personal, Mr/ Wood, itt'^ 
the preface to his <^ Essay on the original ' Genitrs and/' 
Writings of Homer,'* informs us, that ^^ being directed to^^ 
wait upon his lordship, a few days before be died, with' ^ 
the .preliminary artides of the treaty of Paris, he 'foumP^ 
him so languid, that be proposed postpoinng his businifi^s^' 
for another timef ; but earl Granville insisted that he sfao'uld^^ 
stay, saying, it could not prolong his life to neglect hii-^ 
duty; and repeating a'passage outof Sarpedon's' speecft ■'' 
In.Homer, he dwelled with particular emphasis on'bue'of i 
the lines which recalled to his mind* fehe distinguishhig paiHP^' 
he had taken in public affairs.'* After a pause he desireU , 
to hear the treaty read; and gave it the approbatioti of i '^ 
'^ dying statesman (his own words) oh the most glbriofii^** 
w^, and most honourable peace, this nation eter 'sa?w*.V^^* 
In.otber respects, lord Granville so much retained' his vi«^^ 
vacity to the close of his life, as to be able to break '6ut*^'^ 
into sallies of wit and humour. He died Jan. ^, 17^8,^'^'^ 
the seventy-third year of his ag^ ^ He was twice marriefdj^ "-'• 
first at Long-Leat, on the 17th of Octoberj 1710; td ' 
Frances, only daughter of sir Robert Worsley^ bart;; aiid-^ 
secondly, on the 14th of April, 1744, to tedy Sophist ^'' 
daughter of Thomas earl of Pomfret. By his former Wfi^^/ 
he had three sons and five daughters^' by the lattei*, onfjP'' 
one daughter . . .5*^3 i^a 

CART E K E T, Jisf 

.^ Xord Gran?UIe*8 character has been drawn as follows^^ 
by the late earl of Chesterfield : ^^ Lord Granville had 
great parts, and a pvost uncomnion share of learning for a' 
man of quality. He was one of the best speakers in the 
house of lords, both in the declamatory and the argunnen-' 
tative way. He had a wonderful, quickness and precision 
in seizing the stress of a question, which no art, no so- 
phistry, could disguise in him. In business be was bold, 
enterprizing, and overbearing. He had been bred up in 
kigbk noonarchical, that is, tyrannical principles of govern-^ 
ment, which bis ardent and impetuous temper made him 
think were the only rational and practicable ones. Re 
would have been a great first minister in France, little in- 
ferior, perhaps, to Richeliea; in this government, which is 
yet free, he would have been a dangerous one, little less 
sOy perbaps, than lord Strafford. He was neither ill-na- 
tured nor vindictive» and had a great tsontempt for money* 
His ideas were all In social life he was an agree- 
able, good-humoured, and instructive companion ; a great 
but, entertaining talker. He degraded himself by the vice- 
of drinking, which, together with a gfeat stock of Greek 
and Latin, he brought away with him from. Oxford, and 
retained and praptis^ied ever afterwards. By his own in« 
dustry, he h^d made himseljf master of all the modern ktt- * 
gua^gesj and had aoauired a great knowledge of the iaw^ 
His. political knowledge of the interest of princes and of 
commerce was 4^xteasive,- and bis notions were juist and 
great. His cbaract^i^ may be -summed up, in nice preci- 
sion, quick decision, and inribounded presumption.'* ^ 

.The late duke of Newcastle Used to say of lord Granville, 
that he was aman wJbo never doubted. From bis lordi^hip^s 
acknowledged literature, it may naturally be supposed that 
he patronized learned men and learned tindertakings« ^ His 
regard for Dr. Swift^ and his attention to the dean's recbm- 
mwdattpos, we have alr^dy mentioned* He assisted and 
encauraged ]hp[r,Xy6,< in his edition of Junius^s Etymolo-' 
gicotiy and the. learned Mrs. Grierson of Dublin, when he 
W4S. lord lieut^nitnt of Ireland. Of Dr. Taylor, the cele-* 
braited Gre^ifLn, iie tvas the .particular patron. The doctor 
owed his priacipat preferments to lord Granville; and has 
testified ];Us gratitude, in the dedication of his Demos- 
the;pe§) by warmly celebrating bis lordship's excellencies, 
i|nd especially bis eloquei^ce, and his eminent skill in th&' 
jmcieut Md modern languages. Our learned peer en-* 


g^ed Dx.tfi0Qk\€ry to uaderlake an edkieb 6( HxUnkv; aiui 
was v^ry, active ia proctiiiDg the doctoptlie use of inanti<^' 
i^cripbjy. aiod otk^r. iieces^aisy atfbi fee* that purpose; Dr^ 
BeoU^y^. when be csuBie tp town, waS) accustomed,, in h» 
\isiu to. lord Carteret, seoEietimes to spend the evetnugs 
V^itb his lordsbif)^ One day old lady* GranyUie repfoaehea 
h^ son wiUi« kjeepiing. the» qoi4»try 'Cltogymaii, who. was witb 
hio^ tjie uight bef^rei* tUl he< w<is imtokicated. Lord Car« 
tjer^t deQJied the. cl|ai^ ; upofi> wbiob the lady reptkdy 
that th^ QlergyQ>affi coukL not»-liave sun^ inl so ridiculott^ a 
qaanoer, uiU^. b^ had be^ ]» liqwir. Th«^ ttfiithr 'wasy 
thot, thiS singing:. tihus niistaken by her-ladysfaip^ was Dt*; 
Bentley?s eade^a^our tO'vioA^truct and entertain- > hb noUe* 
friead, by reciting) Terence* aceerdiog tdiijne trae cantileoar 
of the ancients. 

£arl Gran¥ille> amidst all hid straggles for places and 
power, had. an afiectaxion» of saying ^^ 1 lore my firesside;^^ . 
which . hunoour wits ivtelL exposed by.Mr. HawJtins Browne^' 
in a copy of ver^es^ enmled^ *^ The Fire^side^ a pastoraL 
soliloquy." Lord Carteret^s letter on the< battle at'D^thi- 
gen was much ridiculed at the time, and* the only excuse^ 
for it was his.lqrdsbip's intoxicatioor-^tiot merely with joy^. 
In giving his jqdgioent' concerning nsen of high bfficein- 
th(&st¥ite^ earl Granville sometiines spoketooincautiously 
fo^ a politician. Hduf^ing been asked; who wrote the king*& 
sp^Cfch in. a certain* year^ he said, ^' Do you not see/ the 
btiint pen of the o^d attameyf^ meaning lofd Hardwicke,, 
It watknot always in ibis power to conceal the pan^s of dis-< 
appointed ambition. He made a present of a copy of the 
Pqlyglot Bibl^ which the owner got bound in an elegant 
lUE^Iiner.' When lord Granville- saw the book, in itsn^vir^ 
dres$, he^aid)/^. You have di>ne>witbit as theking'bas dotie" 
witlf me> hen^adeinie fine^ at»d he laid me by." < 

l^.lord GgmoQi's manu^Kipts ate some carious^ traits of ' * 
e^rl GraaviUe's chs^raoter. He wes one of ihose .politicians ' 
whp m^ke reiigipn subservient ^to the state. T&d consider- 
io^gl the kingdom » of Christ -as a separate kingdom .from 
thq«j^.iof this world be< counted .ab$u#d!M On the contrary, 
h^^iTfiintfdped. thai)' Chvisttani^ is( incorporated with' ci^il ' 

* Dr. .^n«op^ however* attrlhutod . jH^wQrlli;* <>f ' tlie<8objeel, ast to %tfl " " 
the defects of this letter to want of ''Here is a letter expressed in tem&a 
practice in writing ^ and iqformsi ^s .n6t ^ood.r.noogl^ for a tallaW^dban^fer 
that w|ien,lo^ GraoYi^iqiiad written, tet hyrnmysii^ Boiwfl|l^>Liiy^f Tolfloif^ 
it/ he was. gp «oQaqous< Qf its ^ being son. .- . : 


ff^ernmeot is saod with lime^ each erf which by itself 

Wilkes no motton Where he iodagined that the pnblie 

iQterest might receive prejudice by Christianity, he was 

if^gaiost its b/eing taught He hoped, therefore^ never t6 

see pur n^roes in America become Christians, because he 

believed that ibis would render them less laborious slaves. 

On ^ the same principle, he was against any attempts to 

convert the. American savages. In learning Christianity, 

they would fall into the use of letters, and a skill in the 

arts bein^ the consequence^ they would become more for-* 

mid^bie U> the plantations. Pursuing a similar train of 

reapQoing, lord. Granville wished to God that the pope 

mighjt never tujrn protestant, or the Italians cease to be 

papists, for then we should sell them no fish. He was ghid 

that the clergy sent abroad to our plantations were immoral 

an4 ignoxaat wisetcbes, because they could have no influ* 

ence over the inhabitantis, as better and wiser men would 

have, and who would use that influence for the purpose 

pf iaspiring t^ planters with a spirit of independence on 

their mother country. He was hostile to the scheme of 

sending bishops to America, These^ he thought, would 

labour to bring tb^ several sects to one religion ; whereas 

the security of that people's dependence on Englaud he 

conceived to arise from their mutual divisions. He was an 

eneiay likewise to the improvement of. our colonies in 

learning. This he said would take off their youth from 

wholly attending to trade, fill them with speculative notions 

of government and liberty, and prevent the education of 

the. sons of rich planters in England, where they contract 

a Ipve to this kingdom, and when grown old, come back 

and settle, to the great increase Of our wealth. Even Itt 

home he was against charity-schools, and was not for hav* 

ing the vulgar taught to read, that th^y might think of 

nothing but thcf plow, and their other low avocations. 

However unsound some of these opinions may appear^ 

most readers may recollect that they did not die with his 

lordship, ^ 

CARTEROMACHUS (SciPio), whose proper name 
wias Fai^T96U£RaA, an eminent Italian scholar, was born of 
a geod family at Pistoia in Tuscany, Feb. 4, 1467. He 
was 9X first educated at a coUege in Pistoia sidled ** la Sa- 

ViBios- Brit— S«ia*s Works; tee ladcx^^-^OKe't Life of Walpele,.— Cliee- 


pienza de' Forteguerri/' from a cardinal of that name who 
founded it for the benefit of twelve students, three of whom 
should be of the family of Forteguerra. He studied after- 
wards at Rome aud Florence^ where Politian was his Greek 
preceptor. .In 1500, the senate of Venice appointed him 
to teach Greek in that city, and his reputation for know- 
ledge of that language was most extensive. He was after- 
wards invited to Rome by pope Julius II. who appointed 
bim. preceptor to his nephew, the cardinal Gaieotto ; and 
Leo X. is said to have chosen him in the same caepacity for 
his cousin Julius de Medici; but whatever benefits might 
have accrued from this or other instances of Leo's favour, 
were prevented by Carteromachus^s death, Oct. 16, 151^. 
He is indebted for his literary reputation rather to the- nu- 
merous commendations of hi^ contempotraries and friends 
than to his own writings, many of which are said to have 
been dispersed at his deatli, and usurped hy others into 
whose haud$ they had fallen. Among those which remain 
is his ^^ Oratio de laudibus literarum Graecaram," Venice, 
1504, 4to, Basil, 1517, and prefixed to Stephens's ^^The» 
qs^urus LingnsB Gr^ecae.'^ Several epigrams of his also are 
extant in preek and Latin in the publications of the times. 
During his residence at Venice, he frequently acted as 
corrector .of tbe- Aldine press, and had a considerable hand 
i» the edition pf Ptolomy's Geography printed at Rome in 
^^07, folio. » . • , . 


j.,qART WRIGHT (Thomas), a puritan divine of great 
l)i^aing> and eminence, was born in Hertfordshire, about 
tj|e year 1535. Having been kept at a grammar-school till 
he was fit for the university, be was sent to Cambridge 
where he was admitted into St. John's college in 15SO* 
tfe applied himself to his studies with uncommon assiduity; 
and being possessed of excellent natural parts, he made 
g^r^at proficif^ncy in learnings in acquiring which, it is said, 
t^at be allowed himself no more than five hours sleep in 
the night, and that he adhered to this custom to the end of 
hi^ life. Upon the death of Edward VI. when he had been 
alpiout three years at the university, he quitted it, and be- 
came clerk to a counsellor at law.: but this did not prevent 
hi.ip from continuing to prosecute his former studies, in 
which he took more delight than in the profession of th^ 

% Moreri.— ^«o. Diet.— -Gresswell's PoIitiaiu-^Rofcqjs's Leo. — Saxii Onomast. 

C A R T W R I G H T. 82J 

kw. He remained in this situation till tbe beginning 
of the reign of queen Elizabeth ; wben the gentleman un- 
der whom he was placed as a clerk, having met with Dr« 
Pilkington, master of St. John college, Cambridge, he 
made him acquainted with his strong atttohment to litem- 
ture. In consequence of this the doctor desired to have 
some conversation with Mr. Cartwright ; when, being ton* 
vinced of his great abilities and attainments, he offered to 
take him back again to St. John's, to which bisr master 
consented; He accordingly returned to the university; 
and in 1560 was chosen fellow of' that college. About 
three years after be was removed to a fellowship in Trinitj 
college; wbere^ on account of his great merit, he was 
shortly after made one of the eight senior fellows. la 
1564 queen Elizabeth visited the university of Cambridge^ 
and remained there five days, vienring the several colleges^ 
and bearing public speeches and disputations. Mr. Strype 
says) that the ripest and most learned men were selected 
for tbe disputants, and Mr. Cartwright being one of these, 
appears on this occasion to have greatly diiltinguished him- 
self. In 1 567 he commenced bachelor of divinity ; and, 
three years after, was chosen to be lady Margaret^s di*- 
vinity- reader. ' It ' is particularly mentioned, that be read 
upon tbe first and second chapters of the Acts of the 
Apostles, and performed it with such acuteness of wit, and 
such solidity of judgment, as excited the admiration of his 
hearers. He also became so famous as a preacher, that 
when it came to his turn to preach at St. Mary's church, 
the sexton was obliged to take down the windows, on ac-- 
count of the multitudes tbat came to bear him. 
# Mr. Cartwright took occasion, in his lectures, to deli* 
▼er his sentiments on church-discipline; which being un- 
fevourable to: the established hierarchy, public accusations 
were soon exhibited against him : though Mr. Strype says, 
^^ that be bad indeed a great party in the university, and 
some of them men of learning, who stuck close to him, 
exceedingly admiring faim ; though some' of them, better 
informed, fell off afterwards.'* Archbishop Grindal wrote 
a letter to sir William Cecil, chancellor of the university, 
on the 23d of June 1570, requesting him to take some 
speedy course against Mr. Cartwright ; alleging, that in 
his readings he daily made invectives against the external 
policy, and distinction of states^ in the ecclesiastical go- 
vernment ; in consequence of which the youth of the uni« 

Y 2 

934 C A R T W R I G H T. 

▼eraky, who frequented bis tectuves ia gfCftt nmnbcrf » 
*^ were in danger to be ppisoned witb a liove of contention 
and a Uhing of novelty/^ He tberefore reGoarniendedi 
that the chancellor shoidd write to the Tice*chaocellory to 
enjoin silence upon Cartwright and all his adherents, both 
in schcols and pnlpita ; and afterwards^ upon examination! 
and hearing of the matters before bin, and some of the 
bei^ of bmises, to ffednce the offenders to conformity, or 
to expel them ont of the colleges, or the university, as the 
cause sbottld require; and also that the vice-chancellor 
should not suffer Mr. Cartwright to take his degree of 
D. D. « at the approaching Gommencement, for which he 
bad applied. Dr. Whitgift also zealously opposed Cart* 
wrigbt, and . wrote another letter to the chancellor upon 
the occasion, communicating to him not only what Cart* 
wrigbt had ^ openly laagbt,^^ but also <' what be had ut'^ 
tered to him ia private conference." 

Mr. Cartwright vindicated bis conduct in a letter to sir 
William Cecil, dated the 9th of July; in wbkb be de^ 
clared bis extreme aversion to every thing that wsa sedi« 
tlons and contentious, and affirmed that be had taught 
nothing but what naturally flowed from tbe text concerning 
which he had treated. «. He obsecved, ^at when an occa* 
sion offered itself of speaking concerning the habits, he 
bad waved it : though be acknowledged that he bad 
taught, that the ministry of ^e church of England had 
declined. from the ministiy of the ancient and aprntfiolical 
church, and that he wished it to be restored to greater 
purity% But these sentiments, be siu4» be had delivered 
calmly and sedately, and in such a manner as could give 
offence to none but the ignorant or the malignant, and 
those who were eager to catch at something to calumniate 
bim. He asserted, that .he had the utmost reason to be- 
lieve that be should have obtained the testimony of thm 
iiniversity in favour .of bis inncxrence, bad not the viw* 
chancellor denied Um a congr^^tion. ijie solicited tim 
{irotection of the efaanoellor, so far aa his cause waa just.; 
and transmitted to bim a testimonial of bis iimoceaee, 
signed by several learned members of the university, and 
in which bis abilities, learnings and integrity^ w^re spoken 
of in very high terms^ After this be was cited to appear 
before Dr. Mey, the vice-chancellor of the universitir^ and 
some* of the heads of houses, and examined upon simdiry 
articleaof doetrinct said to be delifwed bybim in hiaj^ubUie 

C A R T W R I G H T. 325 

Inures, and which were affirmed to be contrary to the reli* 

fion received and allowed by public authority ia the realm of 
ingland ; and it was <^emanded of himi whether he would 
fttand to those opinions and doctrines, or whether be would 
renounce them. Ivir. Cartwright desired that he might be 
permitted to commit to writing what his judgment was 
upon the points in controversy ; which being assented to, 
he drew up six propositions to the following purport, and 
which he subscribed with his own hand : — ** I. The names 
and functions of •archbishops and archdeacons ought to be 
abolished. II. The offices of the lawful ministers of the 
•thurcb, viz; bishops and deacons, ought to be reduced to 
the apostolical institution : bishops to preach the word of 
God and pray, and deacons to be employed in tiaking care 
of the poor. III. The government of the church ought 
not to be entrusted to bishops chancellors, or the officials 
of archdeacons ; but every church should be governed by 
Its own minister and presbyters. IV. Ministers ought not 
to be at large, but every one should have the charge of a 
cert)ain flock. V. No man should scriicit, or stand as a 
candidate for the Ministry. VL Bishops should ^ot be 
created by civil authority, but ought to be openly and fairly 
chosen by the church/' — Propositions also which were said 
to be dangerous and seditious were collected out of 
Mr. Cartwright*s lectures, and sent to court by Dr. Whlt- 
gift, to incense the qiieen and chancellor against him ; andl 
he was foii)idden- by the rice-chancellor and heads of the 
university to read -any more lectures till they shotrid receive 
soifie satisfaction that he would not continue to propagate 
the same opinions. He was also prevedted from taking 
ills doctor's degree by the authority of the vice-chancellor t 
which appears to have given great umbrage fo*many in the 
university, and to have occasioned a considerable disturb- 
ance. In 1S71 Dn Whitgift became vice-chancellor of the 
university ; and by his influence more rigorous statutes 
Irere procured for its government ; afid Mr. Cartwright was 
deprived of his place of Margaret-professor. But he still 
continued senior fellow of Tripity-college ; though the fbl- 
lowing year he was also deprived of his fellowship ; it being 
alleged that he had forfeited it by net entering into priest's 
orders in due time, in conformity to the statute^. Being 
thus driven from the university, and out of all employment, 
lie travelled beyond sea, where he became acquainted with 
ibe most celebrated divines ki the several protestaut uni* 

S26 C A R T W R I G H T. 

▼ersities of Europe, with many of whom he established a 
correspondence. They appear to have entertained a very 
high esteem for him ; and the celebrated Beza, in a letter 
to one of his English correspondents, expressed himself 
thus concerning him : — " Here is now with us your coun- 
tryman, Thomas Cartwright, than whom I think the sun 
doth not see a more learned man'.** While he was abroad, 
he wias chosen minister to the English merchants at Ant- 
werp, and afterwards at Middleburgh, where he continued 
two years, with little or no profit to himself; though his 
labours as a preacher are said to have been extremely ac- 
ceptable and successful. But the importunity bf his friends 
in England at length prevailed on him to return again to 
his native country. 

Very severe measures had now been adopted for several 
years against the puritans ; on whose behalf a piece was 
published, intituled, *< An admonition to the parliament ;** 
to which were annexed, A letter from JSeza to the earl of 
Leicester, and another from Gualter to bishop Parkhurst, 
recommending a reformation of church discipline. This 
work contained what was called the << platform of a 
church ;** the manner of electing ministers ; their several 
duties; and arguments to prove their equality in govern- 
ment. It also attacked the hierarchy, and the proceedings 
of the bishops, with much severity of language. The ad- 
monition was concluded with a petition to the two houses, 
that a discipline more consonant to the word of God, and 
agreeing with the foreign reformed churches, might be esta- 
blished by law. Mr. Field and Mr. Wilcox, authors of the 
admonition, and who attempted to present it to parliament, 
were committed to Newgate on the second of October 
1 572* Notwithstanding which, Mr. Cartwright, after his 
return to England,*' wrote ^^ a second admonition to the 
parliament,** with an humble petition to the two houses, 
for relief against the subscription required by the ecclesias- 
tical commissioners. The same year Dr. Whitgift published 
an answer to the admonition: to which Mr. Cartwright 
published a reply in 1573; and about this time a procla- 
mation was issued for apprehending him. In 1574 Dr. 
Whitgift published, in folio, *^ A defence of the answer to 
the admonition, against the reply of T. C.** In 1575 
Mr. Cartwright published a second reply to Dr. Whitgift ; 
fknd in 1577 appeared, ^^ the rest of the second reply of 
Th0ma3 Cartwright, against master Doctor Whicgift*s an* 

C A R T W n I G H T. 327 


swer, touching the church discipline.'* This seems to have 
been printed in Scotland ; and it is certain, that before its 
publication Mr. Cartwright had found it necessary to leave 
the kingdom, whilst his opponent was raised to the bishopric 
of Worcester. Mr. Cartwright continued abroad about 
five years, during which time h^ officiated as a minister to 
some of the English factories. About the year 1580 
James VI. king of Scotland, having a high opinion of hi* 
learning and abilities, sent to him, and ofFered him a pro- 
fessorship in the university of St. Andrew's; but this he 
thought proper to decline. Upon his return to England, 
officerswere sent to apprehend him,asapromotfer of sedition, 
and he was thrown into prison. He probably obtained his li- 
berty through the interest of the lord treasurer Burleigh, and 
the earl of Leicester, by both of whom he was favoured : and 
the latter conferred upon him the mastership of the hospital 
which he had founded in Warwick. In 1583 he was ear- 
nestly persuaded, by several learned protestant divines, to 
write against the Rhemish translation of the New Testament. 
He was likewise encouraged in this design by the earl of 
Leicester and sir Francis Walsincrham : and the latter sent 
him a hundred pounds towards the expences of the work. 
He accordingly engaged in it ; but after some time received 
9 mandate frpm archbishop Whitgift, prohibiting him frOm 
prosecuting the work any farther. Though he was much 
discouraged by this, he nearly completed the performance; 
but it was not published till many years after his death in 
1618, fol. under the title *^ A Confutation of the Rhemish 
Translation, Glosses, and Annotations on the New Tes- 
tament." It is said, that queen Elizabeth sent to Beza, 
requesting him to undertake a work of this kind ; but he 
declined it, declaring that Cartwright was much more ca- 
pable of the task than himself. Notwithstanding the high 
estimation in which he was held, and his many admirers, 
in the year 1585 he was again committed to prison by 
Dr. Aylmer, bishop of London ; and that prelate gave some 
offence to the queen by making use of her majesty's name 
on the occasion. When he obtained his libertv is not 
mentioned: but we find that in 1590, when he was at 
Warwick, he received a citation to appear in the star- 
chamber, together with Edmund Snape, and some other 
puritan ministers, being charged with setting up a new 
discipline, -and a new form of worship, and subscribing 
their names to stand to it. This was interpreted an oppo-^ 


aiUoh and <lisobedfence to tbe eslftUtshed laws. Mn Gmtbt 
wrigbt was also called upon to take the oath ex officio ; biife 
this he refused, and was comaiitted to tbe Fl€^t. lo Magr 
1591 be was sent for by bishop Aylaaer to appear befoM 
him, and some others of tbe ecclesiastical comiiitisioBerit 
at that prelate's house. He had no previous notice gireni 
him, to prevent any concourse of his adherents upon the 
occasion. The bishop threw out some raproaches, agaiiiia 
him, and again required him to take the oath ex ixfido. 
The attorney general did tbe same, and represented to hini 
'^ how dangerous a thing it was that men should, upon the 
conceits of their own heads, and yet under cokNir of con« 
science, refuse the things that had been i«ceived far lawv 
for a long time/' Mr. Cartwright assigned sundry reasena 
for refusing to take the oath ; and afterwards desired to be 
permitted to vindicate himself from spone refieetions that 
had been thrown out against him by the bishop aiid tte 
attorney general. But to this bishop Ayloier wonld not 
consent, alleging, *^ that he bad no Idaare to bear his 
answer," but that he might defend himself from the puUie 
charges that he had brought against him, by e private ietter 
to his lordship. With this Mr. Cartwright Was obliged to 
be contented, and was immediately after again committBd 
to the Fleet. In August 1591 he wrote a letter to lady 
Russell stating some of the grievances under wUefahe 
laboured, and soliciting her interest with lord Burleigh to 
procure him better treatment. The same vear king Jamei 
wrote a letter to queen Elizabeth, requesting her m^esty 
to shew favour to Mr. Cartwright and his breibreti, on mc*^ 
count of their great learning and £a.ithful labours itt tfao 
gospel. But he did not obtain his liberty till uboet tife 
middle of the year 1592, wh^i he was reatoxedto hie 
hospital at Warwick, and. was again permitted to preadi : 
but his health appears to have been much impaiied by Ua 
long confinement and close applioaUon to stady. He dieKt 
on the 27th of December 1603, in the 6Sth year of htaage^ 
having preached a sermon on mortality but two days befi^ 
He was buried in the hospital at Warwick*. He was ptooBy 
learned, and laborious ; an acute disputant, and aft edmiiei 
preacher; of a disinterested disposition, gjeneroos and 
charitable, and particularly liberal to poorsx^olars. It la 
much to be regretted that such a man diould have ineomsdl 
the censure of the superiors either in church -or stste^ but 
innovations like those he pcoposed^ and JMUMred Id 


C A E T W E I G H t. «2« 

•bbliftftey/ could net ''be dolerated in the CMe of a church 
establishment so recently fnnned, and which required every 
eSott of its supporters to maintain it. How far, therefore, 
the reflections which have been cast on the prelates who 
prosecuted htm are jnst^ may be safely left to the con- 
tideration of the reader. There is reason also to think, 
Ihat before his death Cartwright himself thonght differently 
of his past conduct Sir Heni'y Yelverton, in his epistle to 
the reader, prefixed to bishop Moreton^s *^ Episcopacy jus- 
tified,^' says that the last words of Thomas Cartwright, on his 
dfSath-hed, were, that be sorely lamented the unnecessary 
troubles he had caused in the church, by the schisiti, of 
Irhich he bad been the great fomenter; and that he wished 
he was to begin his life again, that he might testify to the 
vorid the dblike he had of bis former ways. In this opi- 
Qien, says sir Henry, he died ; and it appears certain, that 
he abated something -of the warmth of his spirit towards 
tdbe close of his days. When be had obtained his pardon 
•f the queen, which, as sir George Paule asserts, was at 
the instance of archbbbop Whitgift, Cartwright, in his 
letters of ackmiwledgment to that prelate, vouchsafed to 
stile him a ** Right Reverend Father in God, and his Lord 
thte Archbishop's Grace of Canterbury.'' This title of 
Orace he often yirided tx> Whitgift in the course of their 
eornespondence. , Nay, the archbishop was heard to say, 
that if Mr. Cartwright had not so far engaged himself as 
he-did in the beginning, he verily thought that he would, 
ip.his latter time,, have been drawn to conformity: foi: 
when he was freed from his troubles, he often repaired to 
the archbishop, who tjised him kindly, and was contented 
to 'tolemte his preaching at Warwick for several years,- 
upon his promise that he would not impugn the laws, orders,^ 
and government of the church of England,' but persuade 
and procure, as much as he could, both publicly and pri« 
lately, the estimation and peace of the same. With these 
teraaa he complied; notwithstanding which, wheA queen 
Elizabeth understood that he preached again, though in 
the temperate manner which had been prescribed, she^ 
Iroiddnot permit him to do it any longer without subscript 
tion ; and was not a little displeased witti the archbishop, 
for his having cotuiived at his so doing. Sir George Paule 
Ihsther adds, that, by the benevolence and bounty of his 
fioikmert, Mr. Cartwright was said to have died rich. Be- 
sides the pieces abeady meAtioned^ Mn Cartwright was 

330 C A RT W R I G H T. 

author of the following works : 1. '^ Commentaria practios 
in totam bistoriam evangelicam, ex quatuor evangelistis 
harmonice concinnatam," 1630, 4to. An elegant edition 
of this was printed at Amsterdam, by Lewis Elzevir, in 
1647, under the following title : ^' Harmonm eTaogelica 
commentario analytico^ metapbrastico, practico, illustrata/' 
&G. 2» ^ Commentarii succincti & dilucidi in proverbia 
Salomonis/' Amst. 1638, 4to. 3. '< Metapbrasis & ho- 
milise in librum Salomonis qui inscribitur Exclesiastes," 
Amst. 1647, 4to. 4. "A Directory of Church Govern- 
ment," 1644, 4to. 5. << A Body of Divinity,' Lond. 1616, 
4to. * 

CARTWRIGHT (Thomas), bishop of Chester, and 
supposed to be grandson to the preceding, was bom at 
Northampton, Sept. 1, 1634. |lis father was for some 
time master of the endowed school of Brentwood, in Essex, 
and he appears to have been educated in the religious prin- 
ciples which prevailed among the anti-episcopal party. 
He was entered of Magdalen hall, Oxford, but was soon 
removed to Queen's college by the power of the parlia- 
mentary visitors in 1649 ; and after taking orders, became 
chaplain of that college, and ^icar of Walthamstow in 
Essex. In 1659, he was preacher at St. Mar^' Magdalen's, 
Fish-street. After the restoration, he recommended him- 
self so powerfully by professions of loyalty, as to be made 
domestic chaplain to Henry duke of Gloucester, prebend- 
ary of Twyford, in the church of St. Paul ; of Chalford, 
in the church of Wells; a chaplain in ordinary to the 
king, and rector of St. Thomas Apostle, London, and was 
created D. D. although not of standing for it. To these, 
in 1672, was added a prebend of Durham; and in 1677, 
be was made dean of Rippon. He had likewise a. hard 
struggle with Dr. Womack for the bishopric of St. David's ; 
but in the reign of James II. in 1686, he succeeded to 
that of Chester, for boldly asserting in one of his sermons, 
that the king's promises to parliament were not binding. 
The most remarkable event of his life, was his acting as 
one of the commissioners in the memorable attempt which 
his infatuated master made to controul the president and 

^ Biog. Brit, and Index. — ^Clarke's Lives of thirty-two English Diyin«s.-r- 
Zoach's edition of Walton's Lives. — Strype^s Parker, pp. 311, 312, 347, 362, 
419, 463, 47«.— ^rype's Grindal, p. 161.— Strype»8 Whitgifi, p. 19, 47, 50, 63. 
S24, 935, 253, 335, 336, 360, 366, 434, 554.— Strype>s Annals ; see Index*-^ 
Peck's J>e8iderata.«— Fuller's Cb. History and Wokbies. 

C A R T W R I G H T. 331 

fellows of Magdalen college, Oxford, when they rejected 
a popish president intruded upon them by the king. Upon 
the revolution he fled to France, where he officiated as 
minister to the protestant part of tbe king^s household ; 
and upon the death of Dr. S^th Ward, became titular 
bishop of Salisbury. He afterwards accompanied the ab- 
dicated monarch to Ireland, where he died of a dysentery, 
April 15, 1689, and was sumptuously interred in the choir 
of Christ-church, Dublin. The report by Richardson, in 
bis edition of Godwin, of his having died in the commu- 
nion of the church of Rome, seems doubtful ; but on his 
death-bed his expressions were certainly equivocal. His 
^* Speech spoken to tbe society of Magdalen college,^' his 
examination of Dr. Hough, and several occasional sermons, 
enumerated by Wood, are in print. He appears to hare 
been a man too subservient to tbe will of James, to act 
with more prudence or principle than his master, who, it 
is said, looked upon him as neither protestant nor papist, 
and had little or no esteem for him. ^ 

CARTWRIGHT (William), an English poet of tbe 
seventeenth century, was born at Northway near Tewkes- 
bury, in Gloucestershire, Sept. 1611. His father, after 
spending a good estate, was reduced to keep an inn at 
Cirencester; at the free-school of which town his son was 
educated under Mr. William Topp. Being chosen a king's 
scholar, he was removed to Westminster school, under 
Dr. bsbaldiston, and thence elected a student of Christ 
church, Oxford, in 1628. After pursuing his studies, with 
the reputation of an extraordinary scholar and genius, 
he took his master's degree in 1635, and in 1638 went 
into holy orders, becoming ^* a most florid and seraphical 
preacher in the university." One sermon only of his is in 
print, from which we are not able to form a very high 
notion of his eloquence ; but when Mr. Abraham Wright, 
of St. John's, Oxford, compiled that sicarce little book, 
entitled " Five Sermons in five several styles, or ways of 
Preaching," it appears that Dr. Maine and Mr. CartWight 
were of consequence enough to be admitted as specimens 
of university preaching. The others are bishop Andrews', 
bishop Hall's, tbe presbyterian and independent ^* ways 
of preaching." 

? AUi. Ox. tqU II.— Burpst's Own Times.— WilmoVs Life of Hough.— Granger, 

MB C A R T W R I <T H T. 

In 1642| bishop Duppa, with whom he lived in the 
strictest intimacy, bestowed on him the place of succentor 
of the church of Salisbury. In the same year he was one 
of the council of war or delegacy, appointed by the uni- 
versity of Oxford, for providing for the troops sent by the 
king to protect the colleges. His zeal in this office occa- 
sioned hb being imprisoned by the parliamentary forces 
when tbey arrived at Oxford, but he was bailed soon after. 
In 164S, he was chosen junior proctor of the university, 
and was also reader in metaphysics. ** The exposition of 
.them,^* says Wood, " was never better performed thUn by 
him and his predecessor Thomas Barlow, of Queen*s col- 
lege.'' Lloyd asserts that he studied at the rate of sixteen 
hours a day. From such diligence and talents much migift 
have been expected, but he survived the last- mentioned 
appointments a very short time, dying on December 23, 
1643, in the thirty-second year of his age, of a malignant 
fever, called the camp disease, which then prevailed at 
Oxford. He was honourably interred towards the upper 
end of the south aile of the cathedral of Christ church. 

Few men have ever been so praised and regretted by 
their contemporaries, who have left so little to perpetuate 
their fame. During his sickness, the king und queen, 
who were then at Oxford, made anxious inquiries about 
die progress of his disorder. His majesty wore black on 
the day of his funeral, and being asked the reason, an- 
swered that since the muses had so much mourned for the 
loss of such a son, it had been a shame that he should not 
appear in mourning for the loss of such a subject His 
poems and plays, which were published in 1651, are pre- 
ceded by fifty copies of verses by the wits of the time^,and 
all in a mosl laboured style of panegyric. His other en- 
comiasts inform us that bis person was as handsome as his' 
mind, and that he not only understood Greek and Latin, 
but French and Italian, as perfectly as his mother tongue. 
Dr. Felly bishop of Oxford, said of him, *^ Cartwrigbt is 
the utftiost man can come to ;*^ and Ben Jonson used to 
say, *' My son Cartwrigbt writes all like a man.** 

Although it must be confessed that his works, particu- 
larly his dramas^ afford little justification of this high cha- 
racter, his poems may perhaps deserve a place amopg 
those of his contemporaries. Many of them exhibit ten- 
derness and harmony, a copious, but sometimes fanciful 
imagery, and a familiar easy humour which, connected 

C A R T W R I G H T> $SS 

with hk aoaiable disposition as a man, probably led to 
those encomiums which, without this consideration^ we 
should find it difficult to allow. ^< That/' says Wood, 
'^ which is most remarkable is, that these his high part;a 
and abilities were accompanied with so much siiveetnesa 
and candour, that they naade him equally beloved and ad« 
mired by all persons, especially those of the gowu and 
court ; who esteemed also his life a fair copy of practic 
piety, a rare example of heroic worth, and in whom arts,, 
learning, and language, made up the true complement d 
perfection.*' The same biographer informs us that he 
wrote '^ Poemata Grasca & Latina." ^ 

CARVALHO d'Acosta (Anthony), a native of Lis- 
bon, where he was born ia 1650, addicted himself to the 
study of matbematici^ astronomy, and hydrography, and 
undertook the topographical description of his native coun* 
try. He made the tour of Portugal with great care, &A'» 
lowing the courses of the rivers, climbing %he mountains, 
and examining every thing with his own eyes. This woiic,^ 
by far the best upon the- subject, is in 3 vols, folio, pub* 
linked from 1106 to 1712, under the tiUe of ** Geographia 
l^ortugueza." It contains the history of the principal 
'places, of the ilkistrious persons who were born in them, 
the.geneadogies of the most considerable families, with the 
natural curiosities, &c. of every place he visited. There 
is also by ijhis author a compendium of geography, and. a 
method of studying astronomy. He died in 1715, at the 
age. of 6^, and so poor that the parish was obliged to bury 
him. • 

CARVER (Jonathan), another unfortunate author in. 
our own country, was a native of America. His grand*- 
father, William Joseph Carver, of Wigan in Lancashire^ 
a captain in king William's army, was rewarded for hisr 
services in Ireland with the government of Connecticut in- 
New England, in which province our author was bom in 
1732, and where his father, a justice of the peace, died 
in. 1747. Soon afters being designed foi" the study of phy* 
sic, he was placed with a practitioner -at Elizabeth-town ; 
but this not suiting his enterprising spirit, he purchased, in 
1750, an ensigncy in the Connecticut regiment^ and be* 
haved so well as to obtain the command of a company* 


1 Johnion and Chalmen't English "PdeU, vol. VI.— Biog. Brit.— Ath. Of. 
▼«L ir.*-^WoQd«a Annabi f ot. IL p. 447.*«^tay«'f MS NoUf on Latigbaint. 
•Diet. Hilt 

334 CARVER. 

Nothing more is known of him till 1757^ when beitig id 
general Webb's army, he fortunately escaped the dreadfiil 
massacre at Fort Wiiliam Henry, an instance of Indian 
ferocity and French perfidy which he has pathetically de' 
scribed in his " Travels." In the five succeeding cam- 
paigns- he served also, first as lieutenant and afterwards a» 
captain of provincials, with a high reputation, not only for 
bravery, but also for piety and morals. On the conclu- 
sion of the peace in 1763, captain Carver, with a view 
to make that vast acquisition of territory gained by Great 
Britain advantageous to her, determined to explore the 
most unknown parts of North America, particularly the 
vast continent which extends from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific ocean. His failure in this is now less to be re- 
gretted, as captain Cook has since shewn the imprac-* 
ticability of a north-west passage in those parts. Cap- 
tain Carver, however, penetrated farther north-westward 
than any other European, except father Hennepin in 1680, 
vjz. to the river St. Francis. The utmost extent of his 
travels to the west was towards the head of the river St. 
Pierre, in the country of the Naudowessies •f the plains, 
whose language he learned, and among whom he wintered 
in 1766, and resided seven months.' In 1769 he came 
over to {England, in hopes of a reimbursement from go- 
vernment for the «ums he had expended in their service ; 
but in this he was disappointed, and reduced to great dif« 
ficulties. In 1778, he published ^^ Travels through the 
interior parts of North America in the years 1766, 1767, 
and 1768,'' 8vo, a work considered as peculiarly interest- 
ing. Tn the following year, he published also ^^ A Trea- 
tise on tlie Culture of the Tobacco Plant.'' Both these 
ought unquestionably to have procured him employment as 
a man. of talents, but unfortunately no notice was taken of 
him. About this time he was induced to lend his name 
to a compilation entitled " The New Universal Traveller^'* 
published in weekly numbers, but this afforded a scanty 
supply. Through the winter of 1779, he preserved his 
existence by acting as a clerk in a lottery office until Jan. 
31, 1780, a putrid fever supervening a long*-continued 
dysentery, brought on by mere want, put an end to the 
life of a man whose public services and character deserved 
a better fate. We know not, however, that he perished 
in vain. His case attracted the notice of Dr. Lettsom, 
who, in some excellent letters in the Gentleman's Maga- 
zine, recommended it to the public attention with such 

CARVER. 335 

effect, that while a temporary provision was made. for 
captain Carver's widow and children, by the publication 
of a. new edition of his ^^ Travels/' a salutary impression 
was made on the public mind, to which, strengthened by 
other, instances, we now owe that excellent institution, 
« The Literary Fund." ' , 

CARUSIUS, orCARUSIO (John Baptist), a leatned 
historiographer of Palermo, where he was born in 1673, 
devoted his life to the history and antiquities of Sicily ; 
and first published ^^ Memorie istoriche della Sicilia," 
Palermo, 1716, fol. and afterwards a collection of the Sicilian 

•^ historians, under the title of *^ Bibliotheca Historica Reg- 
ni Siciliae," 1723, 2 vols. fol. Saxius says he died in 
1724; but the editors of the Diet. Hist, in 17 SO, and they 

' add ihat his *^ Bibliotheca" was translated into Italian, 
and published in 1745, 3 vols. fol. ^ 

CARY (Henry), afterwards created viscount Falkland, 
and descended from the family of the Cary's, of Cocking- 
ton, in Devonshire, was the son of sir Edward Cary, of 
Berkbamsted and Aldenham, in the county of Hertford, 
knight, mastor of the Jewel-office to queen Elizabeth and 
king James L by Catherine his wife, daughter of sir Henry 
Kaevet, knight, and widow of Henry lord Paget. He was 
born at Aldenham ; and, when about sixteen years of age, 
was sent to Exeter-college in Oxford, where it does not 
appear he took any degree : but vyhen he quitted the uni^ 
versity, he left, behind a celebrated name. Soon after, he 
was introduced to court; and in 1608, made one of the 
knights of the bath at the ereation of Henry prince of 
Wales. In 1617, he was sworn in comptroller of his ma- 
jesty's houshold, and one of his privy-council: and on 
the l^h of November, 1620, was created viscouht of Falk- 
land, in the county of Fife, in Scotland. King James I. 
knowing his great abilities and experience, constituted 
him lord deputy of Ireland ; into which high office he was 
sworn, September 18, 1622; and continued in it till 1629. 
During his administration, he kept a strict hand over the 
Roman, catholics in that kingilom ; who sent frequent com- 
plaints to the court of England against him, and though 
he' proceeded very honourably and justly, yet by the cla- 
mour of the Irish, and the prevailing power of his Popish 

1 Dr. Lettsom's Account prefixed to the new editiom of the Travels, ia 1731. 
—Gent. Ma^ vol. L. and LL See Indexes. 
* Diet. Hi8t«— -SaxU Oaomaiticon. 

i9i GABY. 

enemies, be was xenovcd in disgrace ; but bis iDnacemxe 

b^ing aftierwikrds vindicaied, this afEroot was in some owe^ 

sure atoned for by tfae aobsequeot favour of tbe king. Ate 

bU return to England, he lived in houour and esteeaai tiH 

1633; wbfsn having tbe mufortune to bredi: one of his 

legs, on a stand in Tbeobald's-park, he died in Septem* 

ber ; and was buried at Aldenbam. He oiarried Elisabeti^ 

sole daughter and heir of svt Lauceiice Tapfield, chief 

baron of the exchequer, with whom he had the manor of 

Great Tew, Burford, and other estates in Oxfercbhiatt^ 

He is said to have written many things, wluch never were. 

published, except, 1. M The History of tb^ most uofer^'V 

tuna^e prince, lung Edward II.'* found among his papect, : 

and printed in 16.80, fol. and 6vo, with a'pireface oif sir. 

Jan^es Harrington; at a time, says Wood, '< when 4he : 

press was open for. all books that coold make any obing^^ 

against the then government,** 2. '* A Letter to James V* ^ 

and an V Epitaph on Elizabeth countess of Huntingdon* 

n^iich is in Wil tord's Memorials. The letter to « th^ . king - 

wa^ in behalf of his sod, the subject of the following arti^^i y 

ct<p; who, lor challen^ng sir Francis Willoughby, had 

been thrown into the Fleet. It was printed in the ^^ Ca« ^ 

baW* In the HarL MS. 1581, there are four original 

letters from lord Falkland to the duke of Buckingham. 

Leland, in his History of Ireland, says, ^bat ^' Lord . 
Falkland ^Beems to have been more distingiiished by hia* ^ 
rectitude than abilities. In a government which roquinsd ■: 
vi^^our and austerity, he was indolent and gentle ; court- . 
ing, rather. than terrifying the factious* He waa hasfassed 
by tb^ intrigues and clamours of the king^s mintsteit, 
whbn^ he could not. always gratify to the full extent'of tbenr. ; 
d^ires ; bis actions were severely maligned at the cowit <d -. 
England ; his administration of conseqiMince ^was cautioua- . 
aujd eml^rrassed. Such a governor was little .qualified t» • 
as^e the numerous and powerful body of recu^qts, relyhsg : 
on their merits, and stimulated by their ecclesiastics to the - 
most imprudent excesses.^' ^ 

CARY <Lvcii;s), eldest son^of the preceding, wafrbom^ 
as is. supppsed, at Burford in Oxfordshire, about 1$10« 
He received, bis academical learning at Trinity college hi . 
Dublin, and St. John's college in Cambridge^ Before he . 
came to be twenty years of age, he was master of an ampl^ ^ 

t Bjog; BriU*-Psrk'f •ditMtt of Lm4 OHM'S itoyia Mid K^ 

C A^ R r. 83T 

fertdo^ which descended to himr by the gift of a grand* 
ladber, without passing through his father and a mother, 
who were then «Ufe. Shortly after that, and before he 
was of age^ be went into the Low Countries, with a resolu- 
tion of proeurtng a command ; but was diverted from it by 
the complete inactivity of that summer. On his return to 
Eagiand', he entered upon a very strict course of study. 
We. are informed by lord Clarendon^ that his house being 
within a little more than ten miles of Oxford, he contracted 
fiHDtliarity and friendship with the most polite and accurate 
men of that university, who found such an immenseness 
of wit, and such a solidity of judgment in him, so infinite 
a. fancy, bound in by most exact reasoning, such a vast 
knowledge, that he was not ignorant in any thing, yet 
such an excessive humility, as if he had known nothing, 
that they frequently resorted, and dwelt with him, as 
in a coliege situated in a purer air; so that his house 
was a university in a less volume, whither they came^ not 
so nuich for repose, as study ; and to' examine and refute 
those grosser propositions which laziness and consent 
made current in vulgar conversation; Before he was 
twenty-three years of age, be ' had read over all the 
Greek and Latin fathers, and was indefatigable in look** 
ing over all books, which with great expence he caused 
to be transmitted to him from atl parts. About the time of 
his fatber^s death, in 1693, he was made one of the gen- 
tlemen of the privy-chamber to Charles L In 1639 he was 
in the expedition against the Scots, and afterwards went a 
volimteer with the earl of Essex; He was chosen, in 
1640, a member of the house of commons for Newport in 
the isle of Wight, in the p^arliament which began at West- 
minster April 13, the same year. The debates being there 
managed with all imaginable gravity and sobriety, he con- 
tracted 8u<^ a reveren(!;e for parliaments, that he thought 
it really impossible they could ever produce mischief or 
inconvenience to the kingdom, or that the kingdom could 
be tolerably happy in the intermission of them. From the 
unhappy and unseasonable dissolution of that parliament^ 
he probably harboured some jealousy and prejudice to the 
court, towards which he was not before immoderately in- 
clined. He was chosen again for the same place in that 
parliament which began the Sd of November following; 
and in, the b^ginping of it declared, himself vrry sharply 
find severely against Uiqsq exorbitances of the c^rt, whtcii 
Vot, VIIL Z 


>39 C A R Y* 

had been most grievous to the state. He was so rigid ^iin 
observer of established laws and roles, that he could not 
endure a breach or deviation from them ; and thought no 
mischief so intolerable, as the presumption of ministers of 
state to break positive rules for reasons of state, -or judges 
to transgress known laws upon the plea of conveniendy 6r 
necessity. This made him so severe -against the earl of 
Strafibrd and the lord Finch, cotitrary to his natural gei^- 
tleness and temper. He likewise concurred ih the ftHt 
bill to take away the votes of bishops in the house of lords. 
This gave occasion to some to believe that' he was Ho 
friend to the church, and the established goverrVment €»f 
it ; it also caused many in the house of commons to ima^ 
gineand hope that he might be brought to a further eortf* 
pliance with their designs. Indeed the great opinion he 
had of the uprightness and integrity of those persons wbb 
appeared most active against the court, kept him longer 
from suspecting any design against the peace of the king^ 
dom; lind though he differed from them eommonty in 
conclusions, he believed their purposes were honest WImih 
better informed what was law, and discerning iu'th^m a 
desire to controul that law by a vote of one or both houses, 
no man more opposed those attempts, and gave the adverse 
party snore trouble, by reason and argumentation. About 
SIX' months after passing the abo^e-mentioned bill for ta? 
king away the bishops* votes, when the same argument 
came again into debate, he changed his opinion, and ga^ 
the house all the opposition he eould, insomuch that he 
was by degrees looked upon as an advocate for the court | 
to which he contributed so little, that he declined those 
addr^se^, and even those invitations which he was obliged 
almost by civility to entertain. He was so jealous tfl th% 
least imagination of his inclining to = preferment, that hi 
aifeeted even a moroseness to the court and to the eour^ 
tiers, attd left nothing undone which might prevent snd 
divert the king's or <)ueen*s favour towards him, but th^ 
deserving it. When the king sent for him once or twitiS 
to ^eak to him, and to give him thanks for his exceUeni 
comportment in those councils which his majesty termed 
doing him service, his answers were more negligent, and 
less'satisfectory, than might be expected ;' as if he cared 
c^nly that his actions should be just» not that they should 
be acceptable : and he cook more pains, and more forced 
his nature to actiom nnagreeable. dad unpleasant to it| 

3e A R Y. «l» 

4htit he m^(ht Qot b^ tboiight to incline to the, Court, 
1 .than most men have done to procure an office there : 
j)ot that be was in truth aver/se from receiving public 
employment, for he bad a great devotioa to the king^s 
l^rson, and bad before used some small endeavour to 
-be recommended to him for a foreign negotiation, and 
Jiad once a desire to be sent ambassador into France; 
but he abhofred an imagination or doubt sbovdd sink into 
;the thoughts of any man, that in the discharge of bis trust 
a&4 duty ia parliament be had any bias to. the court, or 
that the king him^lf should apprehend that he looked for 
a reward for being honest For this reason, when he 
beard it first whispered, that the kiug^ had a- purpose to 
uutke him a privy-counsellor, for which there was in the 
beginnii>g no other ground but because he was known to 
be well qualiiiedy he resolved to decline it, and at Ijast 
i^u&red himself to be over*ruled by the advice and persua^ 
aion of his friends to submit to it. Afterwards, wheo he 
:fomid that the kiog intended to make him secretary of 
jt^M«, he was poHtive to refuse it, declaring to his friends 
.that he was most unfit for it, and that be must either 
^do that which . would be great disquiet to his, own nature, 
•or ieave that undooe which was most necessary to be' done 
^by one that wa(s» honoured with that place; for the most 
just and honest i^en did, everyday, that which he could 
f)ot give himself leave to, do. He was so exact and strict 
j|n. observer of justice and truth, that he believed those ne<- 
^ssaiy condescensions and applications to the weakness of 
f>tbe.r nien, aod. those arts and insinuations which are ne*- 
.cesfiiary for discoveries and prevention of ill, would be in 
la^im. a declension from his own rules of Ufe, though he 
acknowledged them fit,, and ftbsolutely necessary to be 
{Mtactised in those employments* However, he was at last 
{H^evailed upon to submit to the king's commandi and be^ 
jss^me his secretary : but two things, he could never bring 
biipself to whilst he continued in that office (which was to 
hi3 death), for which he was contented to be reproached, as 
for omissions in a most necessary part of his place. The 
pne, employing of spies^ or giving any countenance or en- 
tertainment to tbem; not such emissaries, as with danger 
FQuld venture to view the enemy's camp, and bring intel- ' 
^gence of their nun^er, or quartering, or any particulars 
l^j^isuch an observation can comprehend ; but ijiose who, 
^ Qooimumcation of guilt, or dissimulation of manners^ 

z 2 

^46 ' -C A R Y. 

iwind theinselws into such trusts and secrets, as enable 
them to make discoveries. The other, the liberty of open* 
ing letters, upon a suspicion that they might contain mat- 
tejr of dangerous consequence. For the first, he would say 
such instruments must be void of all ingenuity and com- 
mon honesty, before they could be of use ; and afterwards 
they could never be fit to be credited : and that no single 
preservation could be worth so general a wound and cor- 
ruption of human society, as the cherishing such persons 
would carry with it. The last he thought sqcb a violation of 
the law of nature, that no qualification by office could justify 
him in the trespass; and though he was convinced by the 
necessity and iniquity of the time, that those advantages of 
information were not to be declined, and "were Yiecessarily 
to be practised, he found means to put it off from himself, 
whilst he confessed he needed excuse and pardon for .the 
omission. In all other particulars he* filled his pl^ce with 
great sufHcieucy, being well versed, in languages, and with 
the utmost integrity, being above corruption of any kind*. 

He was one of the lords^ who, June 5, 1642, signed a 
declaration, wherein they, professed they were fully per* 
suaded that his. majesty had no intention to raise war upon 
his parliament* About the same time he subscribed to 
levy twenty horse for his.aiajesty's service. • tJpon which, 
and other accounts, be was excepted- from the parliament's 
favour in the instructions giyen bythe two houses to their 
general the earl of Essex. . Whilst be was with the king 
at Oxford, his majesty wei^t. one day to see the public 
library, where he was shewed among other books a Virgil, 
nobly printed and exquisitely bound. The lord Falkland, 
to divert the king, would have his majesty make a trial pf 
his fortune by the Sortes Virgilianse, an usual kind of divi- 
nation in ages .past, made by opening a Virgil. The king 
opening the book, the passage which happened to comt 
up, was that part of Dido's imprecation against i£neas, iv. 
6 i 3, &c. which is thus translated by Dry den : — 

Oppressed with numbers in the unequal field/ 
His men discouraged^ and himself expelled ; 
Let him for succoijir sue from place to place^ 
\ Torn from his subjects and his so^'s embrace, &c^ 

r King Charles seeming concerned at this accident, t^ie 
lord Falkland, who observed it, would likewise try his own 
fortune in the same manner; hoping he might fall uppn 
^ome passage that could have no relation to his ^ase,, aiAi4 

C A R Y. ^41 

thereby divert the king's thoughts from any impression the 
othier might make upon bim : but the place lord Falkland 
stumbled upon was yet more suited to bis destiny, than the 
* other had been to the king*s ; being the following expressions 
of Evander, upon the untimely death of his son Pallas, 
2En. xi. 152. 

Pallas ! thou hast failed thy plighted word. 
To fight with caution, not to tempt the sword: 

1 warn*d thee, but in vain; for well I knew 
What perils youthful ardOur would pursue -, / 
That Iwiling blood would carry thee too far ; 
Young, as thou wert; in dangeis, raw to war* 

O cunt essay of arms, disastrous doom. 
Prelude of bloody fields, and fights to come ! 

From the beginning of the civil war his natural cheers 
fulness and vivacity grew clouded, and a kind of sadneiss 
anti ^e^ection of spirit stole upon him, which he had never 
been used to : yet being among those who believed that 
one battle would end all differences, and that there would 
be so great a victory on one side, that the other would be 
<KHnpelled to submit to any conditions from the victor 
(which supposition and conclusion generally sunk into the 
ininfds of most men, and prevented the looking af^er many 
advantages that iflight then hai^e been laid hold pf), he re- 
sisted those indispositions, ** et in luctu beilum inter re- 
media erat.*' But after the resolution of the two houses, 
not to admiw any treaty for peace, those indispositions, 
which had before touched him, grew into a perfect habit 
of uncheerfulness ; and he, who had been so exactly easy 
and affable to all men, became on a sudden less commu- 
nicable, sad, pale, and exceedingly affected with the 
spleen. In his clothes and habit, which he had minded 
before always with more neatness and industry and ex- 

' pence than is usual to so great a soul, he was now not only. 
ineurious, but too' negligent ; and in his reception of suit- 
ors, and the necessary or casual addresses to his place, so 
quick and sharp, and severe, that there wanted not some 
men (strangers to his nature and disposition) who believed 
him proud and imperious. When there was any overture 
or hope of peace, he would be more erect and vigorous, 

'imd exceedingly solicitous to press any thing which he 
thought might promote it : and sitting among his friends, 
bfben, after a deep silence and frequent sighs, would, with 

- ft sbrSI and sad accent^ repeat the word Peate, Peace ; 

342 CART. 

and would passionately profess, that the very agony of thi^ 
war^ and the view of the calamities and desolation the king- 
dom did and must endure, took his sleep from him, and 
would shortly break his heart. This made some think, or 
pretend to think, that he was so much enamoured of peacci 
that he would have been glad the king should have bought 
it at any price ; which was a most unreasonable calumny : 
yet it made some impression on him, or at least be used it 
for an* excuse of the daringness of his spirit; for at the 
siege of Gloucester, when his friend passionately repre* 
bended him for exposing his person unnecessarily to dan« 
ger (for he delighted to visit the trenches and nearest ap- 
proaches, and to discover what the enemy did) as being so 
much beside the duty of his place, that it might be under- 
stood rather to be against it, he would say merrily, ** That 
fats office could not take away the privilege of bis age ; 
and that a secretary in war might be present at the greatest 
secret of danger:" but withal alleged seriously, <^ That it 
concerned him to be more active in enterprises of hazard 
than other men, that all might see that his impatience for 
peace proceeded not from pusillanimity, or fear to adven- 
ture his own person.*' In the morning before the first 
battle of Newbury ^, as always upon action, he was very 
cheerful ; and putting himself into the first rank of the lord 
Byron's regiment, advanced upon the enemy, who had 
lined the hedges on both sides with musqueteers; from 
whence he was shot with a piusquet in the tower patt of 
the belly, and in the instant falling from his horse, his 
body was not found till the next morning. Thus fell that 
kicpmparable young man, Sept. 20, 1643, in the ^4tb 
year of bis age, having so much dispatched the true busi- 
ness of life, that the eldest rarely attain to that immensi^ 
knowledge, and the youngest enter not into the world witli 
more innocency. 

• His contemporaries, particularly lord Clarendon, fVonfi 
whom, apd in whose words, most of the preceding account 
is given, assure us, he was a man of prodigious partir, both 
natural and acquired, of a wit so sharp, and a nature so 
sincere, that nothing could be more lovely ; of great in- 

" . 

• Whilelo( k sayi, that in the mom- friends to go into the fight, m hsvhig 

ing before tlie battle, be called for a no call to it, and being no miUiai^ 

elean thirt, and being asked the reason officer, he said, '*He was weaiy ^f 

of it, answered, <* That if be were slain the times, an^ foresaw much mitfety 

in battle, they should not find his body to bts own country* and^did btliiB«a h|| 

in foul linen.'* Being dissaaded by his should be out of it ere night,*' 

C A R Y- S43 

genuitjr and honour, of the most exemplary manners/ and 
singular good nature, and of the most unblemished in- 
tegrity ; of that inimitable sweetness and delight in conver- 
sation, of so flowing and obliging a humanity and goodness 
to mankind, and of that primitive simplicity and iiTtegrity 
of life, as was scarce ever equalled. His familiarity and 
friendship, for the most part, was with men of the most 
eminent and sublime parts, and of untouched reputation 
in point of integrity. He was a great cherisfaer of wit and 
fancy, and good parts, in any man ; and, if he found them 
clouded with poverty or want, a most liberal and bountiful 
patron towards them, even above his fortune. As he was 
of a "most incomparable gentleness, application, and even 
submission, to good and worthy, and entire men, so he 
wa^ naturally (which could not but be more evident in his 
place of secretary of state, which subjected him to anotfaet 
conversation nkA intermixture than his own election would 
have done) adversus malos injucundus, unpleasant to bad 
men ; and was so ill a dissembler of his dislike and disin- 
clination to ill men, that it was not possible for such not to 
discern it. There was once in the bouse of commons such 
a c^edared acceptation of the good service an eminent 
member had done to- them, and, as they said, to the whole 
kingdom, that it was moved, he being present, ^< That the' 
speaker might, in the name of the whole house, give him 
thanks; and then, that every member might, as a testis 
mony of his oarticular acknowledgement, stir or move his 
bat towards him :*' the which (though not ordered) wfaen 
very many did, the lord Falkland, who believed the service 
itself not to be of that moment, and that an honourable 
and generous person could not have stooped to it fbr any 
recompense, instead of moving his hat, stretched both bis 
arms out, and. clasped his hands together upon the crown 
of his bat, and held it close down to his head, -that all men 
migbt see how odioas that -flattery was ta him, and the 
very approbation of the person, though at that time most 
popular.i He wasiconstant aiid pertins^cious in whatsoever 
he ^solved to 'do, and not to be wearied by any ptfitis that 
were n^eto^ry to that rend. And therefore having once 
resolved not to see London, which be loved ab^ve all 
places, till he had perfectly: learned the Greek tongue, he 
wetit to his own house in the country, and piKisued it ivith 
that inde&tfj^ble indttstty/ that it will iiotbe beliervediif 
hoM^iboit «<ua0 be wiaa^aaiter of it,^ and <i|^unitely reitd 

&44 C A R Y. 

all the Greek Ustoriam. He had a ccauraga 6f the • moit 
clear and keen temper, and so 'far from fear, that be 
secimed not fritfaout some appetite of danger ; and tfaerek* 
fore» upon any occasion of action, be always engaged bis 
person in those troops which he thought, by the forwtf d*- 
ness of the commanders, to be most like to be' farthest eQ<^ 
gaged ; and in all such encounters be bad about him afi 
<estraordinary cheerfulness, without ali all affecting the ex* 
jfeeution that usually attended them ; in which be took no 
delight^ but took pains to prevent it, where it was not by 
resistance made necessary. At £dge-hiH, when the eneosy 
was routed, he was like to have incurred great peril, by 
interposing to save those who had thrown away their aima, 
and gainst wbom^ it may be, others were more fierce for 
their having thrown them away : so that a man might 
think he came into the field, chiefly out of curiosttv to see 
the face of danger, and charity to preventlfae shedding of 
blood. Yet in bis natural inclinatton, he acknowledged 
be was addicted to the profession of a soldier. Many at^ 
tempts were made upon him, by the iusiigation of bis mo- 
ther (who was a lady of another persuasion in religion, and 
i)f.a most masculine understanding, allayed with the pas« 
•ion anc^ infirmities of her own sex) to pervert him in^bis 
piety to the church of England, andto rieconcile him to 
that of Rome ; which they prosecuted with the more con- 
fidence, because he declined no opportunity or occasion of 
conference with those of that religion, wb^er priests or 
laics; diligently studied the coutrorersies, add, as was 
observed before, exactly read all, or the choicest of the 
Greek and Latin fathers ; and having amemory so stupen- 
dous, that be remembered, on aU occasions, whatsoever 
he read. He was so great an enemy to that passion and 
nncharitableness which he saw produced' by difference. of 
ppinion in matters of religion, that in all those di^putaiioas 
with priests and others of tbe Romaii cburdb, he affected 
to. manifest all possible civility to. tbeir peraooa, andjeatima- 
tion of tbeir parts: bjat this charity towardi tbeaa was 
much lessened^ and iny correspondence with ibem €|uke 
declined, when by sinister arts they bad corruptedbis two 
g^Qunger brothers, being botjs children, and stolen them 
from his boxne'/and traoapoi'tfd them bc^^ood eeas, alid 
perverted hissisiters: upon wbsob oeoaeiott he* Wrote ^ two 
large discourses jagainst the pcinoipalpQBitioBa< of that re- 
ligion^ with tb^i Jiharpueia of mtaiadfutt weight ^&xmmmp 

CART. 945 

iibil: th^jcfivroh^ sftjn lord Glarencbn^ undepirived of great 
l^web in the coneeahnent of tbem, and that they are not 
j^blished to the ivorU. As to bis person be' was little^ and 
. <if Ho great ^r^ngtb : his hair was blackish, and somewhat 
ilaggy ; and his eye bktck and lively. His body was bu« 
nbdJn the cbnrch of Great Tew. His usual saying was, 
f^I pity unlearned gentlemen in a rainy day." 

- Lord'Orford, in his ^^ Royal and Noble Authors/' is th($ 
only writer of any credit that has ventured to attack tb^ 
character of lord Falkland, and that with as mach confi- 
denoe as if he had not only witnessed his actions, but had 
Itnown bis'iBOtives. The opinion of lord Orlbrd, however, 
cannot be expected to wisigb much against that of Claren^ 
don>.and almost every writer who lived in those times. 
'Lord FaUdand's failing appears to have been timidity and 
in esolutiiiin ; he loved both bis country and his king : he 
:probably saw the errors of both, and hovered between flud- 
tnatifig piinciptes in an age when no principle was settled, 
^and^when his honesty mad^^ him onserviceable to his friends, 

and ifhechipe of his enemies. 

> .Lord Falkland wrote, 1. ^' A Speech on ill Counsellors 
about the king." 2. *^ Speech against the Lord Keeper 
.Finob and the Judges." S. ^^ A Speech against the. Bishops, 

.Feb. y, 1640." 4. *^ A draught of a speech concerning 

- EpiscofKacy," found among his .papers, printed at Oxford 
i644« . 5. '* A Discomrse on the Infaiiilnlit?^ of the Ctiurch 

/of 'Rome,V J645, written in an easy and familiar style, 
. .without the leai^ affectation of learning. Swift, in his 
^'^ Letter to a young gentleman lately entered into holy 

«wdei3s," informs^ us, that lord Falkland, in some of his 
/^citings,, when he doubted whethera word were perfectly 

isteUigible^ used tor codosnlt one of , his .lady's chamber* 
.. jnaida^ and by her judgment was;guided whether to receive 
.}or ngect it. 6. ^^A View of some exceptions made against 

ahe rpreceding diseonrse," 1646. This objeebor was one 
-jQe(rH!gefHoUand,. a popidi priestr '7. ^^ A Letter to F.M% 
^anna 1636,^' printed at the end of Charles Gatak^^s (his 
Mshaplain's) .<f /Answer to five captions questions^ propounded 

ky.a factor for the" Papacy," &c. i673, 4to. 8. " A Let- 

tm to Dr«£eale, master of St. John's College, Cambridge.'' 
'"from' bishop >>Bartow'8 Remains^ p. 32% we learn that he 
; jassisted Ci^^lUngworth in his ^^ Religion of .Protestants*;" 

- jQnd he svfote some . verses: on the. death of Ben. Jouaon, 
^^nUished.rin' th^. collection caUed ^ J(»isonus Virbias.'* 

Ui$ .6 A R Y. 

Some other mrses #re meiilioned by Mn Paik^ Imt thdjr 
cannot be allowed much praise. 

SpoLeihiog }^t remains lo be Aaid of lady Falkland, who 
was the daught;er of sir Richard MorisoDi of Tooley Park, 
m Leicestershire, knt . When her husband was killed, 
,she sought, relief in the consolations of religion. After the 
tumults of her grief liad subsided, and her mind was re^ 
•stored to its former tranquillity, she began to experience 
4bat happiness to which all are strangers but the truly reii^ 
gious. She. was. constant in the public. and priviite exer- 
cises of devotion,; spent much of her time in family, prayer^ 
,in flinging psakos, au4' catechising her children and domes^ 
tics. She freqi^ntly visited her poor neighbcmrs, espe- 
'^ially in their sickness, and would sometimes condescend 
to read reUgious books to.tbem^ while they were employed 
in spinning. She distributed a great many pious tracts*. 
Lord Falkland left her .all that he was possessed of by will;; 
aiKl committed his three sons, the only children he bad, 
to her care. She died Feb. 1646, in her thirty-fifth year. 
In 1648 was published, ^^ The holy Life and :6eath of the ' 
lady Lettice, viscountess Falkland, &c." By John Dun^ 
con, 12 ma Of this a. third edition appeared in 1652; 
and it has since been reprinted in Gibbons's ^^ Memoirs of 
Pious Women." 

Henry Liicius, eldest ^xi of lord. Falkland, and ithird of 
the title, is said to have inherited the virtues of his father.; 
having rendered himself eminent at court, in the s^fiat^ 
and in the oounty of Oxford, of which he was lord lieute-r. 
liant. Being brought early into the bouse of commons,, and 
a grave senator objecting to his yout^b, ^^ and to bis .not; 
litokjug as if 'he bfid sowed his wild.oat^;'* he replied with 
great quickness, ^Mf I have not^ I may sow them in the*, 
liouse, where ^re geese enow to pick them up." He was 
c,ut(^in the prime of hisyeaxs. One play was written by. 
bim, entitled, f< The Marriage Nigbt.V Mr« Whipple 
iityles it a comedy ; but Langbaine, the ^^ Poetical Regis* 
tler,^' and the ^^ Companion to the. Play hQUse,V* represent. 
it asu.l^gedy ^. and yet, at the same .time,, the: authors of 
-the two last pMbiications; say, that it contains a great deal 
'of true wit and: satire. 

Anthony Cary^ ;tbe fourth lord Falkland, was the aAithor. 
of a prologue, ^'intended for the. <^ Old Batchelor;V but. 
.which seems to have bad too little delicacy even for thai 

C A E Y. i47 


pfijf and that age. He wrote likewise, a jprologue to Ot^ 
way*s " 8oldier*s Fortune/* * 

' C A RY ( Robert), a learned Chtonologer in tfaeseventeen th 
century, and great nephew of iir George Cary, knt. lord 
deputy of Ireland in queen Elizabeth's reign, was bom at 
Cockinton, in the county of Devon, about the year 1615; 
being the second son of Georg^ Cary, esq. and Elizabeth, 
daughter of sir Edward tSeymouf, of Berry-castle, bart. 
When he was well-grounded in school-learning, he went 
to Oxford, and was admitted sojourner of Exeter college, 
on the 4th of October 1631, aged sixteen. Having con- 
tinued there about three years, he was, in October 1634, 
chosen scholar of Corpus Christi college in the satne uni- 
versity. The next year, on December the 3d, he wai 
admitted bachelor of arts ; and the 23d of February 1 6 3B- 9^, 
proceeded master of arts : and it is probable, that he weA 
also chosen fellow of his college, though Mr. Wood pro- 
fesses he did not know. On Nov. 4, 1644, he was cheated 
doctor of laws, by virtue of mandatory letters frbm 
the chanc^ellor, William marquis of Hertford, who was his 
kinsman. Some time after, he travel!^ into France, the 
Low Countries, and other foreign parts. At bis return; 
be was presented by the marqdis of Hertford, to the recr 
tory of Portlemoutb, near Kingsbridge in Devonshire, a 
living of -very good value. There he settled, and lived in 
good repute: and being distinguished by his birth, degrees, 
and learning, the presbyterian ministers of those times 
made him moderator of £hat part of the second division of 
the cotinty of Deton, which was appointed to meet at 
Kingsbridge J yet he was never zealous in their interest : for, 
litpOn the restoration of Charles II. be was one of the first 
that congratulated that king upon his return. For this, 
he wasf soon after preferred to the archdeaconry of Exeter, 
whicIVhe was installed into August 18, )662. But he wa^ 
in a little while, namely, in 1664, affrighted and ejected 
out of it by some great men then in power: who taking 
advantage of some infirmities, or perhaps imprudences of 
bis, resolved to throw him odt, i^ drder to raise a favourite- 
upon his ruin. Being thus deprived of hii^ archdeaconry; 
he retired to his rectory at Portlemoutb, ' where he spent 
the remainder of his days in k private, cheerful, and con* 
tented condition; in good repute' with* his neighbours}' 
* • • ' .. . 

' » Biog. Brit.— Piurk's Orfbrd, toI.V.— Granger.— Ath. Ox. vol, I. 

M% C A R Y. 

.and. at. much above content as be was below envy* Re 
died at the parsouage-bouseof Portleoiouth, and was buried 
10 uis own church tnerei on the 19th of September, 168S^ 
without any hineral monument. He was a man very p^- 
feet in curious and critical learning, particularly in chro* 
nology.; of which he gave a full testimony, in the excei* 
Irnt book be published, entitled *< Palaelogia Chronica, a 
chronological account of ancient time, in three parts, 1. 
didactical. 9. Apodeictical. 3. Canonical Lpod. 1677, 
^ folio. He was also in his younger years well skilled in 
jpoetry^ as well Latin as English ; though be published no- 
thing in this kind but those hymns of our church, that are 
appointed u> b* read after the lessons, together with the 
jcreed, &c. These being translated by him into Latin verse, 
were printed on the fiat sides of two sheets in folio. In 
person he was of a middle stature, saiiguine complexion, 
and in his elder years somewhat corpnleou In bis carnage 
be was a geotteman of good address, free and generous, 
^)4 courteous and obliging* ^ 

CARYL (John),, probably a native of Sussex,, was of the 
Roman catholic, persuasion, being secretary to queen Mary, 
the wife of James II. and one who followed the fortunes of 
his abdicating master; who rewarded him first with knight- 
hoodj and then with tbe honorary titles Of earl Caryl aiid 
baron Dartford. How long he continued in that service is 
not known: but he was in England in the reign of queen 
Ann§, .and was the intimate friend of Hope, to whom he 
recommended tbe subject of tbe '^ Rape of tbe Lock,^' and 
who at its publication addressed it to him. FrOm some of his 
letters in the last edition of Pope^s Works, he appears to 
baye been living in 1717; but be was not the intimate 
friend of. Pope's unfortiuiate lady, as asserted in the last 
edition of this Dictionary. It is plain from one of hrs let* 
ters, dat^d July 1717, thathebad no knowledge of her, and 
asks Pppe ^^ who was . the unfortunate lady you address a 
copy of verses to V* tp which Pope does not appear to have 
returned any answer. 

. Mr. Caryl was the author of two plays : 1 . ^' Tbe English 
jPripcess ; ,or, the death of Richard 1 11.^' 1667, 4to. 2. 
** Sir Salomgn, or, tbe cautions coxcomb,** 1671, 4to. And 
in. 1700 he published ^^Tbe Psalms of David, translated 
from tbe Vulgate,** l2mo. In Tonson*s edition of Ovid*; 

I Bicig. Brit^— >AtlK Ox. ToU II. 

a A* R T L. =3« 

^isUe% that ofrBriseis' to AchilleBris said^td h^iSf sir John 
Caryl; and in Nichols's select collection of miscellany 
poemsy inol. H. p. i, the fint eclogue of Virgil is translated 
by the same ingenious poet.^ 

GARYL (JosfiPfl), author <rf the well-known ^*<7om* 
mentary on Job/' and an eminent nonconfortnist diving, 
.was bom in London in 1602. He was 3 moderate inde- 
pendent, lind Wood, mentions him as a noted disputaift. 
He was some time a commoner at Exeter college in Off- 
ford) and preached several years with applause before 'tfie 
l\on. society of Lincoln' s-»inn. In 1633 be was appointed 
lone of the triers for the approbation of ministers, and was 
^sent by the parliament to attend Charlls L at Holmby- 
house : be was also one of the commissioners in the treaty 
of the Isle of Wight. He and Dr. Owen were by order of 
parliament sent in 1650, to attend on Cromwell in Scot- 
land, and to officiate as ministers. Soon «after his eject- 
ment in 1662, he'gat))ered a; t»ipgregation in the neigh- 
bourhood of St. Magnus, by London- bridge^ to which lie 
pleached as the times would permit, .until his death, Feb. 
7, 1673. He was a man of parts, learning, and of inde- 
;£atigabie industry. He has left behind him a' considerable 
number of sermons and pious tracts,, but his principal work 
;is his '^ Commentary on Job,^' first printed in 12 vols. 4ta, 
^and afterwards in two large folios. Of late years it has 
risen very considerably m price^ which we can remember 
to have been once that of waste-psCper. The late Dr. 
Lyndford Caryl, master of Jesus eoUege, Csmbridge, was 
great grand-^nephew to this Mr. Caryl.* 

CASA (John be la), an eminent Italian writer; was 
.born at Florence in 1503, and educated at Bologna, and at 
^Florence under Ubaldino Bandknelli. In 1538 he became 
,clerk of the apostolic chamber, and was in his youth dis- 
^tiijigubhed for the elegance of his writings, and the liceh- 
^tiousness of his monds. In 1544 he was promoted to the 
i^qbhishopric of Benevw^f and seat as pope's nuncio to 
Venice, and it is thought would have been made a cardinal, 
^Mit for fi^me indecent writings ^which he had published in 
bis ypiith: but there mu9t have^been some x^ther reason 
«tl)an this^for bis "not obtaining that honour, as. these wri- 
•tinj^shad b^en no obstiructioi» to his.adYancenient to the 

^'NiclisliB's Poems, ToL 11. p. 1. and 1 1 1, p. 205. — Bowlet'i P«pe« lee ladnx.-— 
Ruffbead't Life of Pope;, p. 80, ,4to edit. . , . ( 

* CalAm7.^Neal'i Pbrita'ni.-^Ath. Ox. r6l U.-^ranger. 


<^S0 C A S A* 

ftrchbisfaopric. He wm eagaged^ '>hiawettr^ in severtrlpfr* 
litical negociationsy ulidl he became involved iii the d^ 
grace of the cardinal Al^cander Farnese^ and fetimd to 
Venice. Upon the accession of pope Pau) IV.> who bad aa 
esteem for hioi) be retoraedto Romey. where he amused 
bimself .with Ikerarj porsaits, and where be died in iSS4 
or .15S7* He was considered as one of .the most -elegaivt 
writers of his time, both in Latin and Italian; jof the fori 
filer we have sufficient proof in his ^ JLatiiia Momaienta^^ 
Elorence, 1564, 4t09 which include his elegant lived cf 
Benibo and Contarini^ and bis translatioaa from Tfauijy* 
^tdes. His most celebrated work ia Italian prose is the 
** Galateoy** or an of living in the world, which is a systeui 
of politeness, and has been translated into most European 
languages. In 1774, it was pubtished in an English trans^ 
lation, 1 2iBO. Theie are complete editioos of CasaV wo^ks^ 
Veniee, 17S2, 3 vols, and 5 vols, and Naples,'6 vols« 4to. 
Some of his Italian poews Me aufficiently licentious, bat 
the autbeoticity of other works ^ that description attriw 
bated to him has been questioned, particulariy by Mardiandi 
and by other authorities specified by Saxius.^ 

C A SAN ATA (Jkeome), a learned cardind> was bora at 
l^aples, June 13, 1620, and at first, in compliance «dtb 
kia father's wishes, studied the law ; but afterwarda 
bis father was induced, at die request of cardinal PampAali^ 
to aibw him to go into the chmrcfa. Tbts cardinal, as soon; 
as he became pope, by the name of innocent X. made- 
Casanata one of his chamberlains of honour^ mid bestowed ' 
on him several governments. In 165S hewas senttx) Malta^ 
as . inquisitor by pope Alexander YIL and after residiog' 
there four years and a half,* wm recalled to Rome, and em^- 
ployed in several congregations* He was promoted to be' 
cardinal by Clement X; in 1673, and was again employed 
in pubHa affnirs of importance, during all which he re>- 
tained a love of letters, accutnulated an immense librury^- 
and coixesponded with many of the Kterati of Europe^ whom 
he encouraged in the publication of their works. In I6M,^ 
pope Innocent XIL chose him librurimi to the Vatican. Aa 
it waa his ambition to prontote literature, he employed the 
deputy librarian, the abb6 Zacagni, to publish some curious 
works that were in manuscript. Of these one vc^me in 

> Moreri.— «Fi«lieri Tiieatnun.«-BlouBt't Censonu— >Marchand. — ^Ssxii On«* 


quatio was priotedi and tnore would have followed if Ca* 
satiata bad not been prevented by death in March .i700« 
He left his library to thecburch and Daininic^h eonvent 
iAf St. Maria sopta Minerva, with a legacy of 80,000 du- 
;€at9, destined partly for purchasing books, and partly for 
salaries to ten learned manks^ of whom twp were to act as 
librarians, two to expound the doctrine of St. Thomas, and 
the 9ix others to defend the doctrines, of the church. This 
"establishment appears to have continued until within these 
few years^ as in 1776, tlie two librarians published ^^ Bib^ 
liotheose . Casanatensis Catalogus librorum typis impresso* 
fum," Rome, 3 vols, folia This catalogue, which was 
piN4>ably continued (altbough we have heard of only these 
ibree volumes}^ reaches to letter G. Most of the books in 
this extensive library were published in the sixteenth and 
l^keventeenth centuries, but there are neither English nor 
German works among them. The Italian books, however, 
are very numerous; and the catalogue, on account of the 
great immber of anecdotes and notices interspersed, may 
fie. considered as an important acquisition to bibliography.^ 
CASANOVA (Mark ANtHONY), a Latin poet of the 
sixteenth century, was a native of Rome, *and gained a re-^ 
pMtation in the epigrammatic species of poetry^ for which 
be bad anatunil bent. He imitated Martial, particularly 
in Juis lively style, and was master of the art of pointing his 
terminations^ whiek he exercised with the greatest ease< 
}fi the verses bercomposed for tbe illustrious characters of 
HutientRome he.prqposed Gatulhisfor his model; but he 
is fat' from attaining to that purity and delicacy which 
chanm us'in the Latin pect;: and though he- sometimes 
comes up to him in elegance, yet his diction is more strong 
than mellow, .His poems are to be found in the '^ Delicise 
PQetarum/Italoruos.'' . Having exercised hi^ wit at the ex- 
pence of pope Clement VII. ix> {dease the Colonna family, 
Jiteiwas imfHrisoned-and condemned to death, but received 
a,^piardQiii^ . WfaeoiRomewsstakea hy the Imperialists in 
l,^^7,.helwas stripped of all, reduced to beggaryy aqd died 
io jthat yesr, either of famine ot the plague. ' 

; GASAS (BARTHOiiOHY D£ LAS), a Spaniard, and theil* 
lustrioiis bishop of Ohiapaj was born at Seville in 1474;' 
and, at the age of niaeteen, attended his father^ who went 
with Christoj^er Columbus to the Indies in 141^3. Upon. 

. - V ; V , < .  ' . ' .  ' . .   .   .  


^ Mortri. > Ibid.«*-Frtlieri Thcatrum. 

352 . C A S A S. 

his return hel)ecame an ecclesial^tic, and a curate iti'the 
Uie of Cuba ; but quitted his cure and his country ui> order 
to devote himself to the service of the Indians, who were 
then enslaved to the most ridiculous superstitions, as well 
as the most barbarous ^Tanny. The Spanish governors 
had long since made Christianity detested by their unheard- 
of cruelties, and the Indians trembled at the very name of 
Christian. I'his humane and pious missionary resolved to 
cross the seas, and to lay their cries and their miseries at 
the feet of Charles V. The affair was discussed in council ; 
and the representations of Casas so sensibly affected the 
emperor, that he made ordinances, as severe to the per- 
secutors as favourable to the persecuted. But these ordi- 
nances were never executed: the Spanish governors, or 
rather tyrants, continued to plunder and murder;, and 
they bad a doctor, one Sepulveda, who undertook even to 
justify these outrages by human and divine laws, and by 
the examples of the Israelites who conquered the people 
of Canaan. This horrible book was printed at Rome, but 
proscribed in Spain ; and Casas, now become bishop of 
Chiapa, refuted this apology for tyranny and murder. His 
treatise, entitled^ . *^ The Destruption of the Indians,^' and 
translated into most European languages, is full of details 
which shock humanity. Soto, the emperor^s confessor, 
Vafr appointed arbiter of the difference between Casas, a 
bishop worthy of the first ages of the church, and Sepul- 
vedm a doctor and advocate for principles which would 
not have been adopted by an heathen: and the result t)f 
all this was laid before Charles V. who, however, had too 
mjmy af&irs upon his hands to pay a due attention to it; 
and the governors continued to tyrannize as usual* Casas 
employed above fifty years in America, labouring with 
incessant : zeal, that the Indians might be treated with 
loudness, equity, and humanity : bu^ instead of succeed- 
ing, he drew lipou himself endless persecutions from th# 
Spaniards ; and, though he escaped with bis life, migbir 
prpperly enough be called a martyr to the liberty of the 
Indians. After refusing several bishoprics in America, he 
was constrained to accept tliat of Chiapa in I54i.«* 
sided there till 1551, when the Jnfirm state of his h«aLtk 
obliged him to return to his native country; and he died 
atlVladrid in 1566, aged ninety^two. Besides his <' De- 
struction of the Indians,*^ and other pieces on the same 
subject, there is a very curious Latin work of his ujmmi 

C ASA, S. 353 

this question : '< M^etber kings or princes can in con- 
science, by any right, or by virtue of any title, alienate 
citizens and subjects from their natural allegiance, and 
subject them to a new and foreiign jurisdiction ?" All bis 
writings shew a solid judgment, and profound learning and 
piety. » 

CASATI (Paul), a learned Jesuit, of a distinguished 
family in Placentia, was born there in 1617, and became . 
profi^ssor of mathematics and theology at Rome. He was 
one of the two ecclesiastics who contributed to convert 
Christina, queen of Sweden, to the popish faith.' She had 
desired that two Jesuits might be sent to confer with her 
on the subject. In 1652 he returned to Italy, and, as he 
had considerable political talents, was appointed superior 
to several houses belonging to the society of Jesuits : and 
he presided over the university of Parma for thirty years, 
and acted as confessor to two successive duchesses of 
Parma. Amidst all these occupations he had leisure for 
his mathematical studies and publications.. He died at 
P^rma, Dec. 22, 1707. His principal works are, I. " Va- 
cuuni proscriptum," Genoa, 1649. 2. "Terra machinis 
mbca,*' Rome, 16B8, 4to. 3. " Mecbanicorum libri octo,*' 
1684, 4to. 4. << De igne dissertationes,'' 1686 and |6d5. 
5. " De angelis disputatio theologica," Placentia, 1703. 
6." HydrostaticsB dissertationes,'* Parma, 1695. 7, " Op- 
tiesB dispdtationes," Parma^ 1705. What is somewhat ex- 
trliordiiiary is, that he composed this treatise pn optics at 
the age of eighty-eight, when he was already blind. "^ His 
works on physics abound with goodJ experiments and just 
ndtidns. • 

CASAUBON (Isaac), il very learned britib, wasT)om at 
G^eva, February 18, 1559, being the spn of Arnold Ca- 
saubdti, ia mitiister of the reformed (shurch, wl^o had taken 
refuge in Geneva, by his' Wife Jani^i Rosseaii. He was 
educated at first by his 'father, ahd^hikde so quidk a pi*b« 
gi^s in his studies, that at th^ age bfhirie he could speak 
amf ^tlte Latin with grea^ ^as'e 9fi^ correctness. But his 
father being obliged, fotthr^e year^ to^ether^ to be Absent 
fr6m home^ on account of busiiiess, his education was 
neglected, and at twelve y^ars of age he was forced' to 
be^n his studies again by himself, biit as he could not by 
thn method make ariy considerable progress, be was sent 

1 M^rerl— Ddpin,*— Robertton't ifttt pf American ^ Moreru— NiMroOi toL I. 

Vols VIII , A A 


in 1576 to Geneva, to complete bis studies under the pixi* 
fessors there, and by indefatigable application, quicklj 
recovered the time he had lost. He learned the Gre^Js 
tongue of Francis Portus, the Cretan, and soon became .so 
great a master of that language, tha)t this famous man 
thought him worthy to be his successor in the professor^s 
chair in 1582, wbein he was but three and twenty years of 
age. In 158i6y Feb. I, he had the misfortune to lose his 
iather, who died at Dil, aged sixty- three. The 28 th of 
April following he married Florence, daughter of Henry 
Stephens the celebrated printer, by whom be had twenty 
children. For fourteen years he continued professor pf 
the Greek tongue at Geneva ; and in that time studied 
philosophy and the civil law under Julius Pacius. He also 
learned Hebrew, and some other of the Oriental languages, 
but not enough to be able to make use of tbem afterwards. 
In the mean time he began to be weary of Geneva ; either 
because he could not agree with his father-in-law, Henry 
Stephens^ who is said to have been morose and peevish ; 
or that his salary was not sufficient for his maintenance ; 
or because he was of a rambling and unsettled dispositioo. 
He resolved therefore, after a great deal of uucertainiv, tO' 
accept the place of professor of the Greek tongue and po« 
lite literature, which was offered him at Montpelier, with 
a more considerable salary than he had at Geneva. To 
Montpelier be removed about the end of 1596,. and. began 
his lectures in the February following. About the sadQe 
time, the city of Nismes invited him to come and restorie 
their university, but he excused himself, and some say he 
had an invitation from the university of Franker. . At his 
first coming to Montpelier, he was much esteemed and 
followed, and seemed to be pleased with his station. But 
this pleasure did not last long ; for what had been promised 
Jiim was nsot performed^ abatements were made in Jiis 
salary, which also was not regularly paid, and upon the 
whok, he met there with so niuch uneasiness that- he Was 
upon the point of returning to Geneva, when a journey. he 
took to Lyons in 1598, gave him an opportunity of taking 
•another, that proved extremely advautageous. to him. H|iv« 
ing been recommended by some gentlemen of Montpi^ter 
to M. de Vicq, a considerable man at Lyons^ this gentle* 
man took him into his house, and carried him, along vnth 
him to Paris, where be caused him to be introduced to^^ the 
first-president de Harlay, the president de Thou, Mr. 

C A S A U B O N. SSi 

Gillot, and Nicolas le Fevre^ by whom he was very civilly 
^received*. He was also presented to king Henry I v. 
who being informed of his merit, requested him to leave 
Montpelier for a professor's place at Paris. Casaobon 
havine remained for some time in suspense which course 
to take, went back to Montpelier, and resumed his lec- 
tures. Not long after, he received a letter from the king^ 
dated January 3, 1599, by which he was invited to Paris 
in order to be professor of polite literature, and he set out 
the 26th of February following. When he came to Lyons^ 
^M. de Vicq advised him to stay there till the king's coming, 
who was expected in that place. In the mean while, some 
domestic affairs obliged him to go to Geneva, where he 
complains that justice was not done him with regard to the 
estate of his father-in-law. Upon his return to Lyons, 
having waited a long while in vain for the king's arrival, he 
took a second journey to Geneva, and then went to Paris ; 
though he foresaw, as M . de Vicq and Scaliger had told 
hint!, he should not meet there with all the satisfkction he 
at first imagined. The king gave him, indeed, a gracious 
reception ; but the jealousy of some of the other professors, 
and his being a protestant, procured him a great deal o£ 
trouble and vexation, and were the cause of bis losing 
the professorship, of which he had the promise. Some 
time after, he was appointed one of the judges on the 
' protestants' side, at the conference between James Davy 
' du Perron, bishop of Evreux, afterwards cardinal, and 
Philip du Plessis-Mornay f. As Casaubon was not favour- 
abtef to the latter, who, some think, did not acquit himself 
welt in that conference, it was reported that he would 
soon change his religion ; but the event showed that this 

^ . ... 

* When he was firist ihewn the Sor- of Hi lasting but one. The other judge 

. bonne, one of the doctors told him» op the protestants' side, was Mr. Ca» 

that it was above four hundred years naye, who, oonirinaed) as he pretended, 

since disputhigs were heJd in that ptaee; bj Uie argumenta that were then used^ 

. « and pray," asked Casaubon, ** what became a convert to popery. He used 

has been cleared up ?" Being invited his utmost endeavours to persuade Ca« 
to a thesis in that college, the dis- ' saubon to follow his example ; but, not 

imUwts argued in such barbarous lan« being able to prevail, he grew very 

guage, that he said he had never in cool towards htm, and ceased to have 

Eis life heard so much Latin witlibut the sameregaind and friendship for him» 

^ ivtidenitandiog it. as he had** tiU then, expressed. Aft 

. • .' . f Th\9 cooierenee was held at Fon- for Casauhon, he clears himself, ie^ 

tainebleau. May 4, 1600. It wa's at several of his letters, of the imputa- 

' l^rst designed that it should continae tations thrown upon htm, of h^ fa« 

M^aeveratiiays, but the indisposition of veuriog popery* 

. :Jtfr. dtt Pleisii'Moroay wai the cause 

' AA 2 ' 

356 C A S A U B O N. 

report was groundless. When Casaubon came back to 
Paris, he found it very difficult to get his pension paid, and 
the charges of removing from Lyons to Paris, because M. 
de Rosny was not bis friend ; and it was only by an express 
order from the king that he obtained the payment even of 
riiree hundred crowns. The 30th of May 1600, he re- 
turned to Lyons, to hasten the impression of his " Athe* 
naeus," which was printing there ; but he had the misfor- 
tune of incurring the displeasure of his great friend M. de 
Vicq, who had all along entertained him and his whole 
family in his own house when they were ia that city, be- 
cause he refused to accompany him into Switzerland. The 
reason of this refusal was, his being afraid of losing in the 
mean time the place of library-kjeeper to the king, of 
which he had a promise, and that was likely soon to be- 
come vacant, on account of the librarian's illness. He 
returned to Paris with his wife and family the September 
following, and was well received by the king, and by many 
persons of distinction. There he tead private lectures, 
published several works of the ancients, and learned Ara- 
bic ; in which he made so great a progress, that he un- 
dettook to compile a dictionaVy, and translated some books 
of that language into Latin. In 1601 he was obliged, as 
be tells us himself, to write against his will to James VI. 
king of Scotland, afterwards king of England, but does 
not mention the occsision of it. That prince answeried him 
with gr^at civility, which obliged our author to write to 
bim a second time. In the mean time, the many affronts 
and uneasinesses he received from time to time at Paris, 
made him think of leaving that city, and retiring to some 
quieter place, but king Henry IV. in order to fix him, 
made an augmentation of two hundred crowns to his pen* 
sion : and granted him the reversion of the place of his 
library-keeper. He took a journey to Dauphin^ in May 
1603, and from thence to Geneva about his private affairs; 
returning to Paris on the 12th of July. Towards the end 
of the same year he came into possession of the place of 
king's library-keeper, vacant by the death of Gosselin. 
His friends of the Roman catholic persuasion made now 
frequent attempts to induce him to forsake the protestant 
religion. Cardinal du Perron, in particular, had several 
disputes with him, after one of which a report was spread 
that he had then promised the cardinal he would turn R07 
man catholic : so that, in order to stifle that rumour, the 

CAS A U BO N. 35T 

ministers of Cfaarentony who were alarmed at it, obliged 
him to write a letter to the cardinal to cantradiet what was 
so confidently reported, and took oare to have it printed* 
About this time the magistrates of Nismes gave bim a se^ 
cond invitation to their city, offering him a house, and a 
salary of six hundred crowns of gold a year,, but he durst 
not accept of it for fear of offending the king. In 1609 
be had, by that princess order, who was desirous of gaining 
him over to the catholic religion, a conference with cart 
dinal du Perron, but it had no effect upon him. 

Casaubou is to be ranked amongst those learned men 
who, in the beginning of the last century, were very solir 
citous to have an union formed between the popish and 
protestaut religions. This is expressly asserted by Bu- 
rigny, in his life of Grotius. According to that biogra^ 
pher, Casaubon, who wished to see all Christians united in 
>one faith, ardently desit-ed a re-union of the protestants 
with the Roman catholics, and wonld have set abou^ it, 
bad he lived longer in France. He greatly respected the 
opinionsi of the ancient church, and was persuaded that its^ 
sentiments were more sound than those of the ministers of 
Charenton. Grotius and he had imparted their sentinient?^ 
to each other before the voyage to England, which we ar^ 
to mention, and Arminius had a project of the same kind> 
which he communicated to Casaubon, by whom it was apr 
proved. In the year 1610 two things happ^ened that aff 
flicted Casaubou extremely; one was the murder of king 
Henry IV. which deprived him of all hopes of keeping his 
place ; the other, his eldest son's embracing papery. • This 
made him resolve to come over into England, where be 
had often been invited by king James*I. ; and having obt 
tained leaTe of absence from .the queen-regent of France, 
he arrived ia England October 1610, along with sir He^ry 
WottoD,. ambassador-extraordinary from king James I. and 
was received with the utmost civility, by most persons, of 
learning and distinction, although he complains of b^ing 
ill used by the rabble in the streets.. He waited ypoii 
the king, who took great pleasure in discoursing with ;hiai^ 
and even did bim the honour of admitting him several tipftef 
to eat at his own table. His majesty likewise mptde him 4 
present of a hundred and fifty pouind^, to enable bim to 
visit the universities of Oxford and Cambridge. On .the 
Christmas day after he arrived in England, he receiv^4 
thp cpmmiuuoii in the king^s chapel, though he did no| 

858 C A S A l> B O N*. 

understand the language. In his diary be says, that he bkd 
carefully considered the office for the sacrament the day 
before, and preferred it and the manner of receiving to that 
of other churches. The 3d of January, 1611, he Was na- 
turalized, and the 1 9th of the same, month, the king 
granted him a pension of three hundred pounds' ; as also 
two prebends, one at Canterbury, and the other at West- 
minster. He likewise wrote to the queen regent of France, 
to desire Casaubon might stay longer in England than she 
had at first allowed him. But Casaubon did not long enjoy 
these great advantages, as a painful distemper in the blad- 
der proved fatal July 1, 1614, in the 55th year of his 
age. He was buried in Westminster-abbey, where a mo- 
nument was erected to his memory, with a Latin epitaph 
in a high style of panegyric. Of his twenty children, John, 
the eldest, turned Roman catholic, as has been mentioned 
above. Another, named Atigustin, became a capuchin 
at Calais, where he was poisoned, with eleven others of 
the same order. Mr. Dupin relates, upon the authority 
of Mr. Cotelier, that before he took the vow of capuchin, 
he went to ask his father's blessing, which the father readily 
granted him; adding, ^' My son, I do not condemn thee; 
nor do thou condemn me ; we shall both appear before the 
tribunal of Jesus Christ.'^ What became of the rest of his 
children (except Meric, mentioned in the next article), 
is not known. In 1612, he had a s6nborn in England^ 
to which the king and the archbishop of Canterbury were 
godfathers, and sir George Cary's lady, godmother.— This 
great man received the highest encomiums from persons 
of learning in his time, which be amply deserved by his 
extensive knowledge, modesty, sincerity, and probity. 

His w1*iting$ are : 1 . ^Mn Diogenem Laertium Notas 
Isaaci Hortiboni,** Morgiis, 1583, 8vo. He was but 
twenty-five years old when he made these notes, and in- 
tended to have enlarged them afterwards, but was hin- 
dered. He dedicated them to his father, who commended 
him, but told him at the same time, ** He should like bet- 
ter one note of his, upon the holy Scriptures, than all the 
pains he could bestow upon profane authors.** These 
notes of Casaubon were inserted in the editions of Diogenes 
La^rtius, printed by H. Stephens* in 1504 and 1598, in 
Svo, and in lill the editions published since. The name of 
Hortibonus, which Casaubon took, is of the same import 
as Casaubon, i. e. a good garden 3 Cksau, in the language 

C A S A U B O N. ^9 

!0f Dauphindy signifyinft^ a gardetf, and htti good. S. 
** Lectiones Theocriticoe," in Crispinus*8 edition of Theo- 
critus, Genev. li^84y 12ino, reprinted several times since. 
'4. " Strabonis GeograpbioB Libri XVII. Graece & Latine, 
ex Guil. Xylandri Interpretatione,'* Genevae, 1587, fpl. 
Casaubon*i| notes were reprinted, with additions, in the 
Paris edition of Strabo in 1620, and have been inserted 
in ail other editions since. 4. ** Novum Testamentum 
GrdBcum,** Geneves, 1537, 16 to, with notes which were 
ceprinted afterwards, at the end of Whitaker's edition of 
the New Testament, Lond. and inserted in the " Critici 
Sacri.'* V. *^ Animadversiones in Dionysium Halicarnas- 
sensem,'* in the edition of Dipnysius Halicarnassensis, 
published by our author with ^milius Portus's Latin ver* 
sioii, Genev, 1588, foL These were written in haste, and 
are of no great value* 6. ^* Polysni Stratagematum,'* 
Libri VIIL'' Lugduni, 1589, 16to. Casaubon was the 
first who published, the Greek text of this author. The 
Latin version, joined to it, was done by Justus Vulteius, 
and 6rst published in 1550. 7. ^^ Diceearchi Geographica 
^uepdam, sive de Statu Graeciss; ejusdem descriptio 
Grseciee versibus Grsecis jambicis^ ad Theophrastum ; cum 
Isaaei Casauboni & Henrici Stephani notis," Genevas, 
1589, 8vo. 8. <^ Aristotelis Opera Greece, cum variorum 
Interpretatione Latins, & variis Lectionibus & Castiga- 
tionibus Isaaei Casauboni," Lugduni, 1590, fol.; Genevae^ 
1 605, fpL These notes are only marginal^ and were com* 
posed at leisure hours. 9. <^ C. Plinii Caec. Sec. Epist. 
Lib. IX. Ejusdem &Trajani imp. Epist. amodbaeas. Ejus- 
dem PI. & Pacati, Mamertini, Nazarii Panegyrici. Item 
Claudiani Panegyrici^ Adjunctae sunt Isaaei Casaubpni 
Notae in Epist." Genevas, 1591, 12mo; ibid. J599, 1605, 
1610, and 1611, l2mo. These notes are but very short. 
10. ^< Theopbrasti Characteres Ethici Graece & Latine,'* 
Lugduni, 1592, 12mo, and 1612, 12mo. This latter edi* 
lion is the most exact of the two, being revised by the 
anthpr. Casaubon's edition ,of Tbeophrastus is still highly- 
esteemed, and was one of those works which procured him 
most reputation. Joseph Scaliger highly extols it. 11. 
^^ Li Apuieii Apologia,*' Typis Q>mmelini 1593, 4to. In 
tMs edition be shewed himself as able a critic in the 
Latin, as he bad done before in the Greek tongue. It is 
dedicated to Joseph Scaliger. 12. ^^C. Suetonii Tran- 
quilU Op^ra^" Genevan, 1595, 4tQ, and Paris, 1610, an 

sea C'A s A UB o n^ 

enlarged edition. ' 13. *' Publii Syri Mimi^ sive tfentefltii^ 
seiectoe, Latine, Graece versas, & Notis illustrai® per Jos. 
^caligerum ; oum prefatione Isaaci Casauboni,^' Lugd* 
JBatav. 1596, 8vo.. 14. *^ AtbeosBi DeipnosophiBtarum^ 
l4ihriXV. Graece & Latine, Interprete JacoboDalechaoipioy; 
oum isaaci Casaubooi Aniaiadversionum Libris XV." Ge^ 
neva^ If^dT, 2 vols. fol. ; ibid. 1612, 2 vols. fol. Cadau«- 
bon^9 notes take up the second volume, and are cO'i- 
^ou« and learo&d^ aod constitute the most valuable part 
of this edition. 1 S. " HistorisB Augusts Scriptores," Paris^ 
1603, 4to, reprinted at Paris in 1620, with. Salmasius'a 
Commentaries on the same authors, fol. ^nd at Leyden^ 
in 1670, 2 vols. 8vo. 16. ^ Diatriba ad Dionis Chrysos- 
tomi Orationes," published in the edition of that author 
by Frederick Morel, at Paris, 1604, fol. 17. ** Persii 
Satyrgs ex recensione & cum Commentar.'' Paris, 1605, 
8vq; Lond. 1647, 8vo. These :notes upon Persius are 
Lectures he had formerly read at Geneva. They were 
enlarged in the. edition of 1647. SeaUger used to say of 
them, ^^ That the sauce was better ibau ' the fish." 18,. 
V De Satyrica Grflscbrum Poesi, & Romanorum Satyra 
Libri duo," Paris, 1605, 8vo^ In this work Casaub^a 
affirms, that the satke of the Latins was very different front 
t;hat of the Greeks, which Daniel Heinsivs contradicts in 
his two books, /V De Satyra Horatiana," Lugd. Batava. 
162^ f 12mo» But. the learned Ezekiel Spanheim^ after 
h^iVing ejcamioed the arguments of these two learned men, 
declares, for Casaubon. Cvenius has inserted this tract: 
of Casaubon, in his ^^ Musosum Philologicum & Histori-* 
i^um,'^ Ludg. Batair, 1699, 8vo; and also die following^ 
pi^ce, which was published by our author at the end of- 
bia two books,. "De Satyrica Poesi^" &c. 19, *< Cyelopa 
Euripidis Latinitate douata a Q; Septimio Fiorente." 20« 
** ,Gregorii Nysseni Epistola ad £ustatbiam, Ambrostam, & 
B^ilissam> Gr. & Lat." Paris^ 1601, 8vo; Hanoi^i9s> 1607^ 
8vo. This letter was first published by Casaubon. 21. ^' De* 
Libertate Ecclesiastica Liber," 1607, 8vo; coitiposed by.i 
the autbpr during the disputes between pope Paul V. and the 
republic of Venice ; and t^ontained a vindication of the rights^ : 
of sovereigns against the int^roachiben ts of the court of Rome. 
As. those difierences were adjusted while the book wa^.- 
printing, king Henry IV. caused it to be suppressed ; butf 
Casaubon having sent the sheets, as they came out of the- *^ 
prf^ssi to some of his friends, some copies were pre$erve«L 

^ J 


IgUelcbior Goldast ii^sierted ^t fragment m his '^^ Colled^ 
taaea ile Monarcbia S. Imperii," tom^ I. p. 674*, and Al« 
meloveen reprinted it in his edition of our author^s letteifs.' 
It. was also published by Dr. Hickes in 1711. 22. ^^ In*^ 
scriptio vetus dedicationem fundi continens, ab Herode 
tege facta, cum notis.", This small piece, published inf 
1607, has been inserted by T. Crenius in his <^ MuscBum 
Philoiogicum." Casaubon^s notes are short, but leiMrned ;r 
however, be appears to have been mistaken in ascribing^ 
the inscription on which they were made to Herod king' 
of Judaea, instead of Herodes the Athenian. 23. ^< Po<« 
lybii Opera- Gr. & Lat. Accedit £neas Traoticus >d0 
toieranda obsidione, Gr. & Lat.*' Paris, 1 609, fol. & Ha^ 
novisB, 1609, fol. The Latin version of these two au*-^ 
thors was done by Casaubon, who intended to write a 
comcimentary upon them, but- went no farther than tfaa 
first book of Polybius, being hindered by death. Thuanhs,^ 
and f ronto Ducasus the Jesuit, were so pleased with- that 
L«tHi. version, that they believed it was not easy to deters. 
mine whether Casaubon had translated Polybius, or Poly*- 
hiiis Casaubon. At the head of this edition there is a dedi- 
cai^ion to king Henry IV. a species of writing in whidh, as 
well as in prefaces, he is allowed to excel. In the formet*^- 
b^ praises without low servility, and in a ndanner remote^ 
from flattery ; in the latter, he lays open the design and 
exeeiience&of the books he publishes, without ostentatioti, 
and with an air of modesty. 24. ^^ Josephi Scadigevi 0|)^(iS<i> 
culavaria;'* Paris, 1610, 4to; and Francofbrti, 1612, 8vo/ 
with a >prefiace of his own. 25. ^' Ad Frontonem Ducsram' 
Epistola, de Apologia, Jesuitarum nomine, Parisiis edita,**^ 
Loodini, 1611, 4to« Casaubo<n, after his coming to Eiig^' 
laod, being obliged 'to write against thepapists^ in^ c^er 
to. please his patron king James I. began with this lettef, 
da^ed July 2, 1611^ which is. the 730th in Almeloveen^s 
cqHeetion^ aod for which king James made him a consider^ 
able- present. It is a confutation of ^^ la Ref»onse Apolo^ 
getique k rAmi-coton, par Francois Bonald.'' Au Pont, 
Ij^li,. Siro* 26. ^^Epistplaad Georgium Michaeltoi^ Lin-» 
geishemiiim de quodam libello Sciopii,"' 16 It, 4to. This 
letter is* dated Aug. 9,. 1612, and is th€$ <82^h of Alrne*^ 
Ipireen^s collection. 27. ^^ Epistc^a ad Oardi»alem Perr^« 
ni^iii," Londini, 161-2, 4to. This letter, which is the 1 
RS8«h inr AliBeloveen^s.collection, and is written with moM' 
4fiWaan^ i^ not »i much Casaubon's own composkiim, «aj 

96S C A S A U B O N. 

an exact account of the sentiments of king James L wboc3( 
and tbe cbiirch of England's secretary he was, as be telb 
its^ with regard to some points of religion. Accordingly, 
i^ was inserted in the edition of that king's works, pub- 
lished in 1619, by Dr. Montague, bishop of Winchester* 
Cardinal du Perron undertook to give an answer to it, 
.vhich vfBs left unfinished at his death. Ithas been like- 
trtse animadverted upon by Valentine Smalcius, tbe So- 
eioian, in his ** Ad Isaacum Parsenesis,-* 
Bacovifls, 1614, 4to, published under the name of Antoti. 
Reuchlin. 2S. ^^ De Rebus sacris & Ecclesiasticis £xer« 
i^itatiames xvi. Ad Cardinalis Baronii Prolegomena in 
Annates, & primam eorum partem, de Domini nostri Jem 
Chxisti Nativitate, Vita, Passione, Assun^tione,"' Londini, 
.1614, foL; Francofurti,' 1615, 4to^ Genevs, 16115,. & 
1^63^ 4to. Soon after Casaubon's arrival in England, 
Peter du Mouiio wrote to Dr. James Montagu, then bisbc^ 
.of Sath -and 'Wells, to inform him- > that. Casaubon had a 
gveat ioolinatioo to popery;: that theoe were, only a feiv 
ankles,-, which kept him among the protestauts; 'and ^that 
if be returned to France, he would change his religion,, as 
he had promised. Therefore, he desired him to endeavoar to 
l^eep him in England, and to engage him in writing against 
the Annals of Barouius, since he knew ** ihat be had ma- 
terials ready for that purpose.'' Accordingly, king James 
•.employed him in that work, which was finished in eighteen 
Bionlhs* lime. Niceron thinks that Oasauhan was not equal 
^ tp this work, because he had not ,$ufficientlyi studied idi- - 
. vinity, chronology, and history, and was not convsersant 
1 enough in the faihers, and is charged with havings com- 
.mitted more errors than Barenius in- a less compass. Be«' 
'Stdes, as.he comes no lower than the<year 34 after Chriat, 
he is^atd to have pulled: down only the pinnacles of Ba- 
rouius^s .gnsat building. It appears from letter 1059tb Of 
<Ottr author, that Dr. JtUchard Montague, afterwards bishop 
of Norwich, had undertaken to write against fiaronins. at 
. tJMr.sanie time with himself; and be threatens to oomplain 
jci binito tbe king, who had engaged him in thaA weak. 
^ S)9» '^ Ad Polybii Histori«rum Librum primum Commen- 
tarius/' Paris, 1617, Svo. See.abov^, No. 23. 30. 
<^. Isaaci i .Casauboni Epistohe," Hage Comin. 1638, 4t9, 
Jpublisbed by John Frederick Gronovius. A second edi|to», 
enlarged and arranged in chronological order,' was pub-' 
lifih^d'alterwards by John George Gr^^iuftat Magdi&hurghjt * 

C A S A U B O N, Ut 

and Helmstadti 1636y 4to ; but the best, which includes hit 
Me^ is entitled ^* Is. Casauboni Epistolse/' &c. Ourante 
Theodoro Jansc^n ab Almeloveen^^' Roterodami, 1709, foh 
The letters ip this volume are 1059 in number, placed 
according to the order of the time in which they were 
written; and 51 without dates. Niceron finds in them 
neither elegant style, nor fine thoughts ; and censures, as 
very disagreeable, the mixture of Greek words and er-> 
'pressions that are dispersed tfaroug|iout ; affirming besidesi 
chat they contain no particulars tending to the advance- 
ment of learning, or that are of any gireat importance. In 
the ** Sorberiana'' it is said that there is in them the hi»« 
lory of a man cf probity and leavning ; but nothing other- 
wise very remarkable,* excepting the parity of the language,- 
and the marks of a frank and siiicere mind. Argbnne, 
however, in his ** Melanges d^Hiatoire,'- assures ui that 
they are all perfectly beautiful ; and makes no sorople to 
corjipare them to those of Grotius and Scaliger with regard to 
learning ; and to assert that they exceed them for the easi- 
ue6s and purity of tlie style, which is entirely epistolary, 
and not at all affected. 3 1 . ^< Casauboniana,*' Hamburgt, 
1710, Svo. There is nothing very material ia this col- 

CASAUBON (M£Ric), son of the preceding^ wa»bom 
at Geneva, August 14, 1599, and had the fiatne of Meric 
from Meric de Vicq, a great friend and benefactor to his 
father. His first education he received at Sedan, but 
coming to England with bis father, in the year 161.0, be 
was instructed by a private master till 1614, when he was 
sent to Christ Church, Oxford ; and being put there under 
a most careful tutor, Dr. Edwiard Meetkirk (afterwards 
Begins Hebrew professor), was soon after elected- a student 
of that house. He took the degree of bachelor of arts, 
May S, 1618, and that of master, June 14, 1621, being 
even then eminent for his extensive learning; aad the 
same year, though he was but twa and twenty,' he pub* 
iisbed a book in defence of his father, against the cahnu* 
niea of certain Roman catholics, entitled ^' Pietas contra 
maledicos, &c.'' Lond. 1621, ^o. This book made him. 
known to king James I. who ever after entertained a 
good opinion of him; and also brought him into reputa-. 
tian abroad, especially in France, whither. he was iavited 

. -' . • . t 

^ HiQg. Bnt.«»GeB, Dict^-Smu QoMpatt.— JUouaVt C^nniFiu . 


with olFers of promotion/ when his godfather, Meric de 
Vicq, was keeper of the great seal of that kingdom. Three 
years after, he published another vindication of his father^ 
written by the command of king James I. and entitled, 
*^ Vkidicatio Patris, kc/* 1624, 4to. About that time 
he was collated by Dr. Lancelot Andrews, bishop of Win- 
obester, to the rectory of Biedoh in Somersetshire; and 
June 1628, took the degree of -bachelor of divinity. He 
had now formed the design of continuing his father's /^ Ex« 
ercitations against Baronius's Annals," but was diverted 
by some accident. At length, when he came to maturity 
of years for such a work, and had acquainted sirchbishop 
Laud, bis great friend and patron, with hi^ design, who 
was very rmdy to place him conveniently in Oxford or 
^Hindon, according to his desire, that he might be furnished 
with books necessary for such a purpose, the rebellion 
broke out in England. Having now no fixed habitation, he 
vrOB fojTced torseU-a good part of his books; and, after 
about twenty* yeai's? suttering^, became so infirm, that he 
cpuld not expect to live many years, and was obliged to 
relinquish- his design. Before tliis, however, in June 
16^8, < iM was HKade prebendary of Canterbury, through 
the interest of bishop Laud ; and when that prefate was 
promoted to: the airchbishopric of Canterbui'y, he collated 
him, in Oct. 1634, to the vicarage of Minster, in the Isle 
ofiThenet; and in the same month, he was inducted into 
the vicarage of:Mon«cktoii, in that island. In August i636, 
he was created doctor in divinity, by order of king 
Charles I. who^was entertained at the same time, with bis 
qoeen, by the university of Oxford. About the'year 1 644, 
during the heat <rf the civil w^rs, he was deprived of his 
preferments, abused, fified, and imprisoned. In 1649, 
one Mr. Greaves, df Gray'sinn, an intimate acquaintance 
Qfhis, brought him a message from Oliver Cromwell, then 
Ueutenant-geneml ofthe parliament forces, desiring him to 
oome to. Whitehall, on purpose to confer with him about 
matters of moment ; but his wife being lately dead, and 
Bot^ as he «aid, buried, he desired to be excused. Greaves 
cagoie again ^afterwards, atid DH: Casaubon Being somewhat 
aianmed, desired him to tell him the meaning of the mat** 
ter;but Greaves refusing, went away the second time. 
At length he^ retnrued again, and told him, that the lieu* 
tenant- general intended his good and advancement ;• and 
his. partieuko* errand was, that he would make use of hisi 


C A S A U B N. 9S5 

pm to write the history of the late wat ; d^iring* withal, 
that DOthing but matters of fact should be impartially set 
down. The doctor answered, that he desired his humble 
service and hearty thanks should be returned for the great 
honour done unto him ; but that he was nncapable in seve- 
ral respects for such an employment, end could not to 
impartially engage in it, as to avoid auch reflections as 
would be ungrateful, if not injurious, to his lordship. 
Notwithstanding this answer, Cromwell seemed so sensible 
of his worth, that he acknowledged a great respect for him ; 
and, as a testimony of it, ordered, that upon the first de- 
mand there should be delivered to him three or four hun- 
dred pounds, by a bookseller in London, whose name wtts 
Cromwell, whenever his occasions should require, without 
acknowledging, at the receipt of it, who was his benefactor. 
But this offer he rejected, although almost in want. At 
the same time, it was proposed by Mr. Greaves, who be- 
longed to the library at St. James's, that if our author 
would gratify him in the foregoing request, Cromwell 
would restore to him all bis father's books, which were then 
in the royal library, having been purchased by king James; 
and withal give him a patent for three hundred pounds a 
year, to be paid to the family as long as the youngest sou 
of Dr. Casaubon should live, but this also was refused. 
Not long after, it was intimated to him, by the ambassador 
of Christiana, queen of Sweden, that i:he queen wished 
him to come over, and take upon him the government of 
one, or inspection of all her universities ; and, as an en- 
couragement, she proposed not only an honourable salary 
for himself, but offered to settle three hundred pounds a 
year upon bis eldest son during life : but this also he 
waved, being fully determined to spend the remainder of 
his days in England. At the restoration of king Charles IL 
he recovered his preferments ; namely, his prebend df 
Canterbury in July 1660, and his vicarages of Monckton 
and Minster the same year : but, two years after, he ex- 
changed this last for the rectory of Ickham, near Canter- 
bury, to which he was admitted Oct. 4, 1662. He had a 
'design, in the latter part of his days, of writifrg his own 
life; and would often confess, that the thought himself 
obliged to do it, out of gratitude to the Divine Providence, 
which had preserved and delivered him from more hazard^ 
ous occurrences than ever any man (as he. thought) besides 
himself had encountered with ; particularly in his escaffe 


366 C A S A U B ON. 

{rom a fire in the night-time, which happened in the houite 
where he lived, at Geneva, while he was a boy : in his re- 
covery from a sickness at Christ Church, in Oxford, when 
he was given over for dead^ by a chemical preparation ad« 
ministered to hitn by a young physician : in his wonderful 
preservation from drowning, when overset in a boat on the 
Thames near London, the two watermen being drowned, 
and himself buoyed up by his priest*s coat : and in his 
bearing several abuses, fines, imprisonments, &c. laid 
npon him by the republicans in the time of his sequestra- 
tion : but this he did not execute. He died July 14, 1671, 
in the seventy-second year of his age, and was buried in the* 
south part of the first south cross aile of Canterbury cathe- 
draL Over his grave was soon after erected a handsome 
monument with an inscription. He left by will a great 
number of manuscripts to the university of Oxford. His 
character is thus represented. He was a general scholar, 
but not of particular excellence, unless in criticism, in 
which probably he was assisted by his father^s notes and 
papers. According to the custom of the times he lived \^y 
be displays his extensive reading by an extraprdinai^ mix- 
ture of Greek and Latin quotations and phrases. He was 
wont to ascribe to Descartes's philosophy, the little incli- 
nation people had in his tin)e for polite learning. Sir WiU 
liam Temple very highly praises his work, hereafter men* 
tioned, on '^ Enthusiasm ;^' and unquestionably it contains 
many curious and learned remarks ; buthisbeingamaintainer * 
of the reality of witches and apparitions, shews that he was 
not more free from one species of enthusiasm than most of 
his contemporaries. In his private character he was enii- 
nent for his piety, charity to the poor, and his courteous 
- and affable disposition towards scholars. He had several 
children, but none made any figure in the learned world; 
one, named John, was a surgeon at Canterbury ^. 

His works, besides bis two vindications already meib- 
tioned, are, 1. ^^ Optati Libri vii. de Schi^mate Dona- 
tistarum, cum Notis & £mendationibt|s,*VLond. 16S2, 
2. A translation from Greek into English of <* M. Aure- 
Uus Antoninus's Meditations concerning himself^ with 
notes,** Lond. 16S4, and 1635^ 4to; again with additiona 
and corrections, Lond. 1 664, Svo. 3. *' A Treatise of 
Use and Custom,'* Lond. 1638^ 8va 4. '^ The Use ef 

 A wrHer in a late TohmM of the QeAt Mag' (^t» UXVIII. pw |9^i 
liaiiasdfltc«titfi^NBthMf«mil|v .« ^ 

.G A S A U B O N. 367 

daily public Prayers in three positions,^' Load. 1641, 4t». 
5. *^ Marci Antonini Imperatoris de Seipso & ^td Seipsum 
libri xii. Guil. Xylander Augustanus Gra&ce & Latiod, pri- 
mus edidit: nunc yard, Xylandri versionem lopis pluriuiis 
einendavit^ & novam fecit: in Antonini libros Notas & 
Emeildationes adjecit Mericus Casaubonusi Is. F. lu eos* 
dem Xylandri Annotationes/* Lond. 164S| ^o, a neat 
and accurate edition. 6. *^ The original of Temporal 
Evils ; the opinions of the most ancient Heathens^ concern* 
ing it examined by the Sacred Scriptures/ and referred 
unto theniy as unto the source and fountain, from 'whence 
they spring/' Lond. 1645, 4to. 7. *^ A discourse con*- 
cerning Christ his Incarnation and Exinanition. With an 
introduction concerning the principles of Christianity and 
Divinity," Lond. 1646, 4to. 8. ." De verboruoi usu, & 
accurataB eorum cognitionis utilitate Diatriba," Lond. 1647, 
^8vo. 9. A, more complete edition of his fathqr^s notes 
upon Persius, than that of 1605. /^ Persii Satyras cum 
potis Isaaci Casaubon," Lond, 1647, 8vo. -1.0. ^^Dequa- 
tuor Linguis Commentatioiiis, Pars I. Quse de Lingua 
Hebraica & de Lingua Saxonica. Accesserunt Gulielmi 
Somneri ad verba vetera Germanica Lip^ana Notary** 
Lond. 1 650, Svo. He had not an opportunity of finishipg 
the two other languages, Greek and Latin. 11. ^* Teren- 
tius, cum notis Thomue Farnabii in quatuor- priores Com<|&* 
dias, & Merici Casauboni in Phormionem & Hecyram^*' 
Lond. 1651, 12mo. Farnaby dying before he had ^iinish^d 
his notes upon Terence, the bookseller engaged Casauboo 
to write notes upon the two last comedies, . the Pbormio 
and the Hecyra. , 12. ^* Some Annotations on tbe Psalms 
and Proverbs.*' He tells us^ that these obseivatiojfis 
.were extorted from him^ by th^ importunity. jof.printcirSp 
when b^ was not very well furnished either with bopkspr 
leisure ;, but, worst of al), of will, .wheu nothing could be 
expected to be acx^eptahle add welcome,, but wb^ r^ished 
of ^chism and. rebellion. Tb<^se Annqtatiops we^e Inserj^d 
.^in one of the (atter. editions of th^ •* Assepibly^'^uq^a- 
tioas oi;i the !Bible.V . 13. /Mn HieirqcUs .commeatfri^m de 
Provi4enua &,!^atQ, ^pt^ & eip^ndajtiones,*' Lon^. lp!^5, 
.8yO| >nd 1673, 8yo. Tp tbisl be only adjded a few grjun- 
. matipal and Qritfcal notes, at /the, epd. 14, /f^il^,1rreatise 
■, concerning . Enthusiasm, as it is an effect of I^ati)r^r; bu|: is 
mistaken by many for either divine inspiration, or diaboli- 
i cal possciteib V Uind. 1655, 8v^;, 1 15, <*l>e hiip^ra^'^o- 

36S C A S A U B O N. 

sneri editioDie Lugduno-Batavica Hackiana, cum Latins 
versione, & Didymi Scholiis; sed & Eustathio, & iocis 
aliquot insignioribus ad Odysseam pertiaentibus. Item 
super loco Homerico dubisB apud aiitiquos interpretationis, 
4}uo Dei in homiaum tarn mentes quam fortuna^ imperium 
aisseritur, binse dissertationes," Lond. 1659, 8vo, reprinted 
in Almeloveeo's edition of Casaubon's Letters. 1 6. ** Epic- 
teti Enchiridion, Grssce & Latine, cum notis Merici Ca« 
sauboni ; & Cebetis Tabula, cum notis ejusdem,^' Lond. 
1659, 8vo. The Latin translation in this edition is thjat of 
Jerom Wolfius. 17. An English translation of, and notes 
on, ^^ Lucius Florus's History of the Romans,'* Lond. 

1659, 8vo. 18. *^ A true and faithful relation of what 
passed for many years between Dr. John Dee and some 
Spirits,^' &c. And put in the beginning a long preface, 
to confirm the truth of what is said in that relation pon- 
cerning Spirits, Lond. 1659, foL 19. He was author of, 
** A Vindication of the Lord's Prayer as a formal prayer, 
and by Christ's institution to be used by Christians as a 
prayer. Against the antichristian practice and opinion of 
some men. Wherein also their private and ungrounded 
zea] is discovered, who are so strict for the observation of, 
tbq Lord's-day, and make so light of the Lord's-prayer^" 
Xond. 1660. The first occasion of this treatise, as the 
author tells us in the preface, was a strange report that in 
St. Mary's church in Oxford, Dr. John Owen; dean of 
Christ-church, who had the chief government of that uni* 
versity from 1652 to 1657, put on his hat when the Lord's 
prayer was repeating by. the preacher. This Dr. Owen 
denied afterwards. 20. ^' A King and his Subjects unhap* 
pily fallen out, and happily reconciled, in a sermon 
preached at Canterbury," on Hosea iii. ver. 4, .5," Lond. 

1660, 4to. 21. '^ The Question to whom it belonged an- 
ciently to preach i And whether all priesu might or did ? 
Discussed out of antiquity. Occasioned by the late direc- 
tions concerning preachers," Lond. 1665, 4to. These 
•directions were set forth by the king, October 14, 1662, 
to restrain the abuses and extravagances of preachers. 
22. *^ Notse & emendationes in Diogenem Laertium de 
Vitist &c. Philosophorum ;" added to those of his fether, 
in the editions of Laertius printed at London 1664^ foL 
^nd Aoisterdam in 1692, 4to. 23. ^^ Of the necessity of 
Reformation in and before Luther's time, ai^ what visibly 
Jiath most hindered the progress of it Occasioned by some 

C A S A U B O N. 369 

late virulent books written by papists, but especially by 
tbat^ entitled, Labyrintbus Cantiariensis," Lond. 1664, 4to. 
This is chiefly an answer to " Labyrinthus Cantuariensis,'* 
printed at Paris in 1658; which pretends to confute 
** Archbishop Laud's relatiop of a conference with Fisher 
the Jesuit." 24. " An answer concerning tlie new way of 
lafallibitity lately devised to uphold the Jloman cause ; the 
ancient fathers and councils laid aside, against J. S. (the 
author of Sure-footing) his Letter lately published,'* Lond. 
1665, 8vo. This letter of J. S. (i. e. John Sarjeant, the 
author of Sure^footing, &c. so learnedly confuted by arch- 
bishop Tiliotson) was a sort of an answer to some passages 
in Dr. Casauben's book " Of the necessity of Reforma- 
tion," &c, and was printed at the end of Sarjeant's Sure-' 
footing in Christianity. 25. ** A Letter of Meric Casau- 
bon, D. D, &c. to Peter du Moulin, I). D. &c. concerning 
natural experimental philosophy, and some books lately 
set out about it," Cambridge, 1669, 4to. 26. "Of Cre- 
dulity and Incredulity in things natural, civil, and divine ; 
wherein, among other things, the sa^ducism of these 
times in denying spirits, witches^ and supernatural ope- 
rations, by pregnant instances and evidences is fully 
confuted; Epicurus his cause discussed, and the jug- 
gling and false dealing lately used to bring him and 
atheism info credit, clearly discovered; the use and ne- 
cessity of ancient learning against the innovating humour 
all along proved and asserted," Lond. 1668, 8vo, two parts. 
The third part was printed at London, 1670, 8vo, under 
the title " Of Credulity and Incredulity in things divine 
and spiritual : wherein (among other things) a true and 
faithful account is given of the Platonic philosophy, as it 
hath reference to Christianity : as also the business of 
witches and witchcraft, against a late writer, fully argued 
and disputed." The laie writer^ attacked only in the two 
last sheets of this book, was Mr. John Wagstaff, who pubr^ 
lished "The question of Witchcraft debated ; or a discourse 
against their opinion, that affirm witches," Lond. 1669, 
8vd. But these two parts of Dr. Casaubon'§ book remain- 
ing unsold, he printed a new title to them, running thus, 
** A treatise proving Spirits, Witches, and supernatural 
operations by pregnant instances and evidences, &c.'* 
Lortcfon, 1672. 27. " Notae in Polybium," printed for the 
jSrst time-in Gronovius's edition, Amsterdam, 1670, 8vo* 
28. " Epistolas, Dedicationes, Praefationes, Prolegomena, 
Vol. VIIL Bb 

370 C A S A U BT O N. 

if, Tractatus quidam rariores. Curante Theodoro Jansdn 
^b Almeloyeen ;^' primed «t the end of Isaac Casauhon's 
Letters, Roterodami, 1709: 29. ^^ De Jure concionaiidi 
apud antiquos.^' This seems to be the same as the treatise 
mentioned above No. 22, or perhaps it was a Latin transla- 
tion of it. * * 

CASCHIy the suraacne of Kemaleddin Abulganem Ah^ 
dalrazzak b^n Yepnaleddin, a famous do4?tor> classed by 
Yafii among the mus&ulman saints, is the author of several 
works, and among th^m one eotitted ^* Esthelahah al So- 
siah)" of the practices and mode of speaking of the sopbis, 
or monks of the mussulmans, of whom he was one of tbe 
chief^t That which bears the title of ^^ Menazel al sairin,^'' 
the lodgings for travellers, is another spiritual book of the 
si^me author. ** Tavilat al Koran al hakim/' commentaries 
Qn the Korau, are likewise by him, and were in the French 
king's library, number 641. The Rabi al Abrar relates, 
th^t this doctor, who was the oracle of his time, > preaching 
one djay at Medina, a contemplative person retired t* a 
corner ol tbe mosque for the purpose of meditation, with-- 
out paying any aUentton to the discourse of CaschL One 
of the audience asking him why he did not hearken like tbe 
rest, this spiritual man replied : ^^ When the master speaks, 
it is not reasonable to Usten to what the servant says.*' 
Th^ two following lines of Persian poetry are quoted from 
Caschi : 

The sufierings that come ih>m God^ ought not to be called afflic- 
tions : 

n^sed is the aipiction, and hs^jr is he who siiffbrs it> when it 
proceeds from on high. 

The allusioa of the words bela and bala is extremely 
beautiful in the Persian original. Caschi is also the sur- 
name of Yahia ben Ahmed, who lived in the tenth centuiijr 
of the hegira, of whom we have scholia or marginal notes, 
entitled ^' Haschiab," on the book of Samarcaiidi, named 
Adab al baiiatb. * 

CASCHIRT, or CASCHERI, is the surname of Imam 
Abu} Hassan, who wrote the lives of the mussulmaii saints. 
Yafei makes mention of this book in the work he composed 
on the same subject : he is likewise author of the book en- 
titled " Lathaii^" which is highly esteemed for its inge- 
nious fictions and its spiritual allegorie:^ On the words 
that Mohammed puts into die mDuth of Pharaoh, in the 

1 Gen. Diet— Biog. Brit. « D'Herbelot. 

C A S C H I R I. S7r 


chapter of the K<nran entitled Nazeat : ^ I am thy mastet 
and thy God/* he says that the devil^ having heard them^ 
complained, that for having only tempted Adam mth the 
desire of a knowledge equal to that oi God, he was plunged 
into hts present unhappy condition ; and that Pharaoh, who 
wanted to pass himself for God, had only incurred the 
same punishment. This Imam is in universal esteem as 
one of the greatest divines of Mohammedanism ; it is he 
who expladns the right way, spoken of in the first chapter 
•of die Koran in these terms : ^^ That ttian walks in the 
right way who never stops till he is arrived at the end of 
his journey, which is the union with God." He likewise 
makes this reflection on the chapter in the same book, en- 
titled An^m, where it is said that we must avoid both 
inward and outward sins: the reason^ he says, is presently 
subjoined in these words : " God has loaded you with be- 
nefits both within and without : therefore, adds he, the^ 
benefits ought to be not only the motive to the keeping of 
the commandments and the avoiding of sin, but they 
shoald teach us also that the best means of obtaining the 
pardon of our transgressions is to be continually thanking 
God for his favours." Thi$ Imam has made an abridg^- 
inent of the book of Takieddin, entitled " Sahih." There 
is another Caschiri, whose proper name is Mossalem ben 
iiegkige al Nischaburi, a native of Nischabur, a city of 
Khurassan, who died in the year of the hegira 261.^ 

CASE (John), M. D. a physician and philosopher of 
Oxford, was born at Woodstock in that county, and edu- 
cated in New college, Oxford, where, as well as in Christ 
Church, he was some time chorister. In 1564 he was 
elected scholar of St. John*s college, proceeded M. A. was 
jnade fellow of the house, ahd was accounted one of the 
most acute disputants of his time. He forsook his fellty^- 
diip, as supposed, on account of his inclination to the 
Homan catfaoHc religion, but appears to have concealefd 
this, as we find him in 1589 made prebendary of North 
Aulton, in the church of Salisbury. In the mean time he 
was reckoned so able an instructor, that he was permitted* 
to keep a sort of private academy in St. Mary Magdalen^s 

* This permission must not be ua-* educatioD, which' was allowed in a few 

derstood as alluding to his catholic instances at this time, and Case and 

principles, which probably wen: not other teachers were intended to be pro- 

generaliy known, hot as being a devia^ moted to headships whea they became 

tiou from the more regular mode of vacant. 

I D'Herbelot. 
B B 2 

372 CASE. 


parish, where he held declamations, disputations, and ex* 
ercises, as in the other colleges and balls, and bis auditors 
were numerous, particularly of young men of popish prin*^ 
oiples ; and several men of eminence came from his school. 
His printed works were also held in considerable estima- 
tion. His learning was various, but he inclined qiost to 
medicine, and was admitted to his doctor's degree in that; 
6i,calty in 1589. In 1574 he married Elizabeth, the wi- 
dow of one Dpbson, keeper of the Bocardo prison. By 
bis lectures, and by bis medical practice he acquired a 
considerable fortune, much of which he bestowed on pious 
uses. He was a man, says Wood, ^^ of an innocent, meek, 
religious, and studioifs life, of a facete and affable conver- 
sation; a lover of scholars, beloved by them again, and 
bad in high veneration." Pits gives nearly the same cha- 
racter. . Dodd only laments that he liurt his conscience by 
occasional conformity to the reformed religion, and says 
that he never made a candid confession of bis faith till he 
lay in his last sickness^ when he was assisted by a priest of 
the Roman catholic c^omm union. He died at his house in 
Oxford, Jan. 23, 1600, and was interred in the chapel of 
St. John's college, where a monument was afterwards 
erected to his memory^ He was one of the benefactors to 
this college. 

He wrote, 1. " Summa veterum interpreturo in uuiver- 
sam dialecticam Aristotelis," London, 1584, 4to; Oxon. 
1592, 1598, 4to. 2. " Speculum moraliijm questionum in 
universam ethicam Aristotelis," Oxon. 1585, 4to ; Francf. 
1616, 8vo. 3. " Sphssra civitatis, sive de politica," Oxon. 
1588, 4to; Francf. 1616, 8vo. The former edition was 
printed by Barnes, and having been pirated on the conti- 
nent, Barnes obtained an order that every bachelor of arts, 
when he dettrminedy should provide himself with a genuine 
copy. 4. '* Apologia musices, tam vocalis, quam instru* 
mentalis, et mixta?," Oxon. 1568, 8vo. Wood mentions a 
book entitled "The Praise of Music, &c." 1586, .8vo, 
which an ingenious writer in the Bibliographer (vol.H.) is 
inclined to attribute to Dr. Case, and Dr. Farmer was of 
^the'same ppinioii. The most conclusive proof must depend 
on a comparison of the Latin with the English work, nei- 
ther of which is at present within our reach. 5. *' The- 
saurus oeconomiae, seu commentarius ip oeconoraia Aristote- 
lis," Oxon. 1597; Hanov. 1598, 8vo. 6. " Appendix The- 
sium oeconomicariim," ibid. 7. " Reflex us speculi mora- 
lis, seu comment, in m^gna moralia Arist" Oxon.' 1696. 

CASE. 375 

8. " Lapis Philosophicus, seu comment in octo libros phi- 
sicorum Arist." Oxoii. 1599, 4to. 9. " AnciUa philoso- 
phise, seu Epit. in 8 lib. Arist." Oxon. 1599, 4to. ' 

CASE (John), M. D. among Granger's heroes, was a 
noted astrologer in the time of queen Anne, and succeeded 
Lilly, who left him possessed of his apparatus, particu- 
larly his darkened chamber, and pictures, with which he 
pretended to shew his customers their absent friends. Case 
used to exhibit these to his intimates, in the hours of con- 
viviality, laughing at the folly and credulity of the people. 
Over his door was written, 

" Within this place 
Lives Dr. Case." 

By which distich the author of the Tatler says, he probably 
got more than Dryden did by all his works. Haller also 
mentions a doctor John Case who published in 1694, 
** Compendium Anatormicum, nova methodo instructum,'* 
12mo, in which the writer strenuously defends the opi- 
nion of De Graaf, that quadrupeds, and all other animals, as 
well as birds, proceed ab ovo. ^ But we doubt whether our 
astrologer had learning enough for a work of this descrip*- 
tion, or ever published more than a hand-bill. Those who 
have the curiosity to peruse some of these effusions may 
indulge it in our authorities, ^ 

CASE (Thomas), an eminent nonconformist divine, the 
son of George Case, vicar of Boxley in Kent, was born 
there in 1598 or 1599, and became student of Christ chftirch, 
Oxford, up6n the recommendation of Toby Mathew, arch- 
bishop of York, in 1616. After taking his degrees in arts, 
he went into the church, and preached for some time in 
Oxfordshire and Kent, and held the living of Erpingham in 
Norfolk, from which he was ejected for nonconformity. In 
1641, he joined in principle and practice with the parUa- 
xnent, and about that time was minister of St. Mary Mag- 
dalen, Milk-street, London, in the room of a sequestered 
loyalist. One of the party journals of the time informs us 
that in administering the sacrament, he used to say, instead 
of "Ye that do truly and earnestly repent, &c." '* Ye that 
have freely and liberally contributed to the parliament, 
&c« ;" but this was probably the squib of the day. Case, 
with all his republican zeal, was a man of real piety ; but 

^ Wood's Atb. and Annals and Hist, of the UniTersity, — Dodd's Church Hist, 
vol. II:— Bn>li<lgrapher, vol. II. 
• Tatter, with notes, ▼•!. IV.— Qfmnser.— Swift's Works, vol, V. p. 33. 

374 CASE. 

the former certainly betrayed bim into extreme violence ill 
bis discourses, which is poorly excused by his biographer 
telling us of his having been ejected from bis living by 
bishop Wren. When in London he was the institutor of 
the Morning Exercise, which was kept up in the city many 
years after, and produced some of the ablest sermons of 
the nouconJFormist clergy. From the living of Milk-street 
he was turned out, for refusing the engagement *, and was 
afterwards lecturer at Aldermanbury and St. Giles's Crip- 

J legate. He was imprisoned six months in the Tower, 
or being implicated in Love's plot, liut Love only was 
made a sacrifice, and Mr. Case and his fellow-prisoners 
Mr. Jenkyn, Mr. Watson, &c. jwere released and restored 
to their livings. He was afterwards rector of St. Giles's in 
the Fields. In 1660, he was one of the ministers deputed 
to wait on the king at the Hague ; and in 1661, one of the 
commissioners at the fruitless Savoy conference. He ap- 
pears to have retained his living in Milk-street after the 
. restoration, as it was from that he was finally ejected. He 
died May 30, 1682, and was buried in Christ church, New- 
gate-street. Dr. JacoD[^b, who preached his funeral ser- 
mon, gives him an excellent and probably a just character : 
and it is certain that he lived to repent of the intemperance 
of his harangues at the commencement of the rebellion. 
This led him to subscribe the two papers declaring against 
the proceedings of the parliament in 1648, and the bring- 
ing king Charles to a trial. His works consist chiefiy of 
sermons preached on public occasions, before the parlia- 
ment and at funerals, enumerated by Calamy. * 

CASEL (John), a German divine, was originally of the 
Netherlands, but born at Gottingen in the duchy of Bruns- 
wick, May 18, 1533, of a family that had been ruined ia 
the wars for religion. His father, who had embraced the 
principles of the reformers, taught and preached in Eng- 
land, Scotland, and Spain. The son studied at various aca- 
demies, and had, among his other masters, Melancthon and 
Camerarius. In 1563 he was invited to the chair of philo- 
sophy and eloquence at Rostock, and in a tour to Italy 
received the degree of doctor of laws in the university of 

* This was an oath, substituted for those who took it " to be true and 
those of allegianee and supremacy, faithful to the government established, 
after the death of Charles I. binding without king, or house of peers.'* 

1 Calamy.— Ath. Ox. vol. II.— Walker's Sofferin^s of the Clergy. 

C A S E L. 375 

Tisa. He was afterwards professor of philosophy at Helm- 
stadt, where be died April 9, 1613. He carried on a cor- 
respondence with most of the learned men of his time. He 
was particularly coaversant in the Greek fathers. Along 
with Dr. Duncan Liddel and Cornelius Martin, he opposed 
the opinion of Daniel Hoffman, and some others, who 
maintained that philosophy was irreconcileable with theo- 
l^SVt ^"^ ^b^t there are many things true in the latter 
which are false in the former. He wrote a great many 
works in ?erse and prose, and in Greek and Latin, princi- 
pally annotations on Cebes' Table, Epictetus, Xenophon*s 
Cyropsedia, Demetrius Pbalereus, Xenophon's Memora- 
bilia, &c. and a collection of letters, Francfort, 1687, 8vo. 
Many of his letters also occur in the writings of his con- 
temporaries. His life is in ^^ VitBe eruditissimorum in re 
litteraria virorum,'* Leipsic, 1713, 8vo. * 

CASES (Peter James), a painter, was born at Paris in 
1676, where he also died in the month of June 1754. He 
had for masters in his art Houasse, aud afterwards Bou 
Boullogne. He obtained the grand prize of painting in 
1699, and was received member of the academy in 1704. 
Cases may be considered as one of the first painters of the 
French school. His drawing is correct, and in the grand 
style, his compositions bear marks of genius ; he excels 
in draperies, and possesses a knowledge of the chiaroscuro 
to a very high degree. His strokes are mellow, and his 
peacil brilliant. There is much freshness in his tints. This 
famous artist worked with great industry ; but his per- 
formances are not all of equal beauty. Towards the latter 
end of his life